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.TH SPROF 1 2019-03-06 "Linux" "Linux User Manual"
.SH NAME
sprof \- read and display shared object profiling data
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
.BR sprof " [\fIoption\fP]... \fIshared-object-path\fP \
[\fIprofile-data-path\fP]"
.fi
.SH DESCRIPTION
The
.B sprof
command displays a profiling summary for the
shared object (shared library) specified as its first command-line argument.
The profiling summary is created using previously generated
profiling data in the (optional) second command-line argument.
If the profiling data pathname is omitted, then
.B sprof
will attempt to deduce it using the soname of the shared object,
looking for a file with the name
.I <soname>.profile
in the current directory.
.SH OPTIONS
The following command-line options specify the profile output
to be produced:
.TP
.BR \-c ", " \-\-call\-pairs
Print a list of pairs of call paths for the interfaces exported
by the shared object,
along with the number of times each path is used.
.TP
.BR \-p ", " \-\-flat\-profile
Generate a flat profile of all of the functions in the monitored object,
with counts and ticks.
.TP
.BR \-q ", " \-\-graph
Generate a call graph.
.PP
If none of the above options is specified,
then the default behavior is to display a flat profile and a call graph.
.PP
The following additional command-line options are available:
.TP
.BR \-? ", " \-\-help
Display a summary of command-line options and arguments and exit.
.TP
.B \-\-usage
Display a short usage message and exit.
.TP
.BR \-V ", " \-\-version
Display the program version and exit.
.SH CONFORMING TO
The
.B sprof
command is a GNU extension, not present in POSIX.1.
.SH EXAMPLE
The following example demonstrates the use of
.BR sprof .
The example consists of a main program that calls two functions
in a shared object.
First, the code of the main program:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBcat prog.c\fP
#include <stdlib.h>
void x1(void);
void x2(void);
int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
x1();
x2();
exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}
.EE
.in
.PP
The functions
.IR x1 ()
and
.IR x2 ()
are defined in the following source file that is used to
construct the shared object:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBcat libdemo.c\fP
#include <unistd.h>
void
consumeCpu1(int lim)
{
int j;
for (j = 0; j < lim; j++)
getppid();
}
void
x1(void) {
int j;
for (j = 0; j < 100; j++)
consumeCpu1(200000);
}
void
consumeCpu2(int lim)
{
int j;
for (j = 0; j < lim; j++)
getppid();
}
void
x2(void)
{
int j;
for (j = 0; j < 1000; j++)
consumeCpu2(10000);
}
.EE
.in
.PP
Now we construct the shared object with the real name
.IR libdemo.so.1.0.1 ,
and the soname
.IR libdemo.so.1 :
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBcc \-g \-fPIC \-shared \-Wl,\-soname,libdemo.so.1 \e\fP
\fB\-o libdemo.so.1.0.1 libdemo.c\fP
.EE
.in
.PP
Then we construct symbolic links for the library soname and
the library linker name:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBln \-sf libdemo.so.1.0.1 libdemo.so.1\fP
$ \fBln \-sf libdemo.so.1 libdemo.so\fP
.EE
.in
.PP
Next, we compile the main program, linking it against the shared object,
and then list the dynamic dependencies of the program:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBcc \-g \-o prog prog.c \-L. \-ldemo\fP
$ \fBldd prog\fP
linux\-vdso.so.1 => (0x00007fff86d66000)
libdemo.so.1 => not found
libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007fd4dc138000)
/lib64/ld\-linux\-x86\-64.so.2 (0x00007fd4dc51f000)
.EE
.in
.PP
In order to get profiling information for the shared object,
we define the environment variable
.B LD_PROFILE
with the soname of the library:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBexport LD_PROFILE=libdemo.so.1\fP
.EE
.in
.PP
We then define the environment variable
.B LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT
with the pathname of the directory where profile output should be written,
and create that directory if it does not exist already:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBexport LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT=$(pwd)/prof_data\fP
$ \fBmkdir \-p $LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT\fP
.EE
.in
.PP
.B LD_PROFILE
causes profiling output to be
.I appended
to the output file if it already exists,
so we ensure that there is no preexisting profiling data:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBrm \-f $LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT/$LD_PROFILE.profile\fP
.EE
.in
.PP
We then run the program to produce the profiling output,
which is written to a file in the directory specified in
.BR LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT :
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBLD_LIBRARY_PATH=. ./prog\fP
$ \fBls prof_data\fP
libdemo.so.1.profile
.EE
.in
.PP
We then use the
.B sprof \-p
option to generate a flat profile with counts and ticks:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBsprof \-p libdemo.so.1 $LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT/libdemo.so.1.profile\fP
Flat profile:
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
% cumulative self self total
time seconds seconds calls us/call us/call name
60.00 0.06 0.06 100 600.00 consumeCpu1
40.00 0.10 0.04 1000 40.00 consumeCpu2
0.00 0.10 0.00 1 0.00 x1
0.00 0.10 0.00 1 0.00 x2
.EE
.in
.PP
The
.B sprof \-q
option generates a call graph:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBsprof \-q libdemo.so.1 $LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT/libdemo.so.1.profile\fP
index % time self children called name
0.00 0.00 100/100 x1 [1]
[0] 100.0 0.00 0.00 100 consumeCpu1 [0]
\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-
0.00 0.00 1/1 <UNKNOWN>
[1] 0.0 0.00 0.00 1 x1 [1]
0.00 0.00 100/100 consumeCpu1 [0]
\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-
0.00 0.00 1000/1000 x2 [3]
[2] 0.0 0.00 0.00 1000 consumeCpu2 [2]
\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-
0.00 0.00 1/1 <UNKNOWN>
[3] 0.0 0.00 0.00 1 x2 [3]
0.00 0.00 1000/1000 consumeCpu2 [2]
\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-
.EE
.in
.PP
Above and below, the "<UNKNOWN>" strings represent identifiers that
are outside of the profiled object (in this example, these are instances of
.IR main() ).
.PP
The
.B sprof \-c
option generates a list of call pairs and the number of their occurrences:
.PP
.in +4n
.EX
$ \fBsprof \-c libdemo.so.1 $LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT/libdemo.so.1.profile\fP
<UNKNOWN> x1 1
x1 consumeCpu1 100
<UNKNOWN> x2 1
x2 consumeCpu2 1000
.EE
.in
.SH SEE ALSO
.BR gprof (1),
.BR ldd (1),
.BR ld.so (8)