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<body class="manpage">
<div id="header">
<h1>
git-diff-index(1) Manual Page
</h1>
<h2>NAME</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<p>git-diff-index -
Compare a tree to the working tree or index
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div id="content">
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_synopsis">SYNOPSIS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="verseblock">
<pre class="content"><em>git diff-index</em> [-m] [--cached] [&lt;common diff options&gt;] &lt;tree-ish&gt; [&lt;path&gt;&#8230;]</pre>
<div class="attribution">
</div></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_description">DESCRIPTION</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Compares the content and mode of the blobs found in a tree object
with the corresponding tracked files in the working tree, or with the
corresponding paths in the index. When &lt;path&gt; arguments are present,
compares only paths matching those patterns. Otherwise all tracked
files are compared.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_options">OPTIONS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-p
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-u
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate patch (see section on generating patches).
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-s
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-patch
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like <code>git show</code> that
show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of <code>--patch</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-U&lt;n&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--unified=&lt;n&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate diffs with &lt;n&gt; lines of context instead of
the usual three.
Implies <code>-p</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--raw
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate the diff in raw format.
This is the default.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch-with-raw
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Synonym for <code>-p --raw</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--indent-heuristic
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make patches
easier to read. This is the default.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-indent-heuristic
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disable the indent heuristic.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--minimal
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
diff is produced.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patience
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--histogram
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--anchored=&lt;text&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This option may be specified more than once.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If a line exists in both the source and destination, exists only once,
and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts to prevent it from
appearing as a deletion or addition in the output. It uses the "patience
diff" algorithm internally.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>default</code>, <code>myers</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>minimal</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
produced.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>patience</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>histogram</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
low-occurrence common elements".
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For instance, if you configured the <code>diff.algorithm</code> variable to a
non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
have to use <code>--diff-algorithm=default</code> option.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--stat[=&lt;width&gt;[,&lt;name-width&gt;[,&lt;count&gt;]]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
part. Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns
if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by
<code>&lt;width&gt;</code>. The width of the filename part can be limited by
giving another width <code>&lt;name-width&gt;</code> after a comma. The width
of the graph part can be limited by using
<code>--stat-graph-width=&lt;width&gt;</code> (affects all commands generating
a stat graph) or by setting <code>diff.statGraphWidth=&lt;width&gt;</code>
(does not affect <code>git format-patch</code>).
By giving a third parameter <code>&lt;count&gt;</code>, you can limit the
output to the first <code>&lt;count&gt;</code> lines, followed by <code>...</code> if
there are more.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>These parameters can also be set individually with <code>--stat-width=&lt;width&gt;</code>,
<code>--stat-name-width=&lt;name-width&gt;</code> and <code>--stat-count=&lt;count&gt;</code>.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--compact-summary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output a condensed summary of extended header information such
as file creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l"
if it&#8217;s a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding
or removing executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The
information is put between the filename part and the graph
part. Implies <code>--stat</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--numstat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Similar to <code>--stat</code>, but shows number of added and
deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
binary files, outputs two <code>-</code> instead of saying
<code>0 0</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--shortstat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output only the last line of the <code>--stat</code> format containing total
number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
lines.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--dirstat[=&lt;param1,param2,&#8230;&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
sub-directory. The behavior of <code>--dirstat</code> can be customized by
passing it a comma separated list of parameters.
The defaults are controlled by the <code>diff.dirstat</code> configuration
variable (see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).
The following parameters are available:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>changes</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been
removed from the source, or added to the destination. This ignores
the amount of pure code movements within a file. In other words,
rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much as other changes.
This is the default behavior when no parameter is given.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>lines</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff
analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For binary
files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive <code>--dirstat</code>
behavior than the <code>changes</code> behavior, but it does count rearranged
lines within a file as much as other changes. The resulting output
is consistent with what you get from the other <code>--*stat</code> options.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>files</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files changed.
Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat analysis. This is
the computationally cheapest <code>--dirstat</code> behavior, since it does
not have to look at the file contents at all.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>cumulative</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as well.
Note that when using <code>cumulative</code>, the sum of the percentages
reported may exceed 100%. The default (non-cumulative) behavior can
be specified with the <code>noncumulative</code> parameter.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;limit&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default).
Directories contributing less than this percentage of the changes
are not shown in the output.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed files,
and accumulating child directory counts in the parent directories:
<code>--dirstat=files,10,cumulative</code>.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--summary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output a condensed summary of extended header information
such as creations, renames and mode changes.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch-with-stat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Synonym for <code>-p --stat</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-z
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When <code>--raw</code>, <code>--numstat</code>, <code>--name-only</code> or <code>--name-status</code> has been
given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
explained for the configuration variable <code>core.quotePath</code> (see
<a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--name-only
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only names of changed files.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--name-status
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only names and status of changed files. See the description
of the <code>--diff-filter</code> option on what the status letters mean.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--submodule[=&lt;format&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
<code>--submodule=short</code> the <em>short</em> format is used. This format just
shows the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the range.
When <code>--submodule</code> or <code>--submodule=log</code> is specified, the <em>log</em>
format is used. This format lists the commits in the range like
<a href="git-submodule.html">git-submodule(1)</a> <code>summary</code> does. When <code>--submodule=diff</code>
is specified, the <em>diff</em> format is used. This format shows an
inline diff of the changes in the submodule contents between the
commit range. Defaults to <code>diff.submodule</code> or the <em>short</em> format
if the config option is unset.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color[=&lt;when&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show colored diff.
<code>--color</code> (i.e. without <em>=&lt;when&gt;</em>) is the same as <code>--color=always</code>.
<em>&lt;when&gt;</em> can be one of <code>always</code>, <code>never</code>, or <code>auto</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-color
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Turn off colored diff.
It is the same as <code>--color=never</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color-moved[=&lt;mode&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Moved lines of code are colored differently.
The &lt;mode&gt; defaults to <em>no</em> if the option is not given
and to <em>zebra</em> if the option with no mode is given.
The mode must be one of:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
no
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Moved lines are not highlighted.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
default
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Is a synonym for <code>zebra</code>. This may change to a more sensible mode
in the future.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
plain
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Any line that is added in one location and was removed
in another location will be colored with <em>color.diff.newMoved</em>.
Similarly <em>color.diff.oldMoved</em> will be used for removed lines
that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine
if a block of code was moved without permutation.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
blocks
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters
are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
painted using either the <em>color.diff.{old,new}Moved</em> color.
Adjacent blocks cannot be told apart.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
zebra
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Blocks of moved text are detected as in <em>blocks</em> mode. The blocks
are painted using either the <em>color.diff.{old,new}Moved</em> color or
<em>color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative</em>. The change between
the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
dimmed-zebra
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Similar to <em>zebra</em>, but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
<code>dimmed_zebra</code> is a deprecated synonym.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color-moved-ws=&lt;modes&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This configures how white spaces are ignored when performing the
move detection for <code>--color-moved</code>.
These modes can be given as a comma separated list:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
ignore-space-at-eol
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
ignore-space-change
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
ignore-all-space
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
allow-indentation-change
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Initially ignore any white spaces in the move detection, then
group the moved code blocks only into a block if the change in
whitespace is the same per line. This is incompatible with the
other modes.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--word-diff[=&lt;mode&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show a word diff, using the &lt;mode&gt; to delimit changed words.
By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see
<code>--word-diff-regex</code> below. The &lt;mode&gt; defaults to <em>plain</em>, and
must be one of:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
color
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies <code>--color</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
plain
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show words as <code>[-removed-]</code> and <code>{+added+}</code>. Makes no
attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in the input,
so the output may be ambiguous.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
porcelain
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use a special line-based format intended for script
consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
usual unified diff format, starting with a <code>+</code>/<code>-</code>/` `
character at the beginning of the line and extending to the
end of the line. Newlines in the input are represented by a
tilde <code>~</code> on a line of its own.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
none
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disable word diff again.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--word-diff-regex=&lt;regex&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use &lt;regex&gt; to decide what a word is, instead of considering
runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies
<code>--word-diff</code> unless it was already enabled.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Every non-overlapping match of the
&lt;regex&gt; is considered a word. Anything between these matches is
considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
differences. You may want to append <code>|[^[:space:]]</code> to your regular
expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters.
A match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the
newline.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For example, <code>--word-diff-regex=.</code> will treat each character as a word
and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
<a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a> or <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>. Giving it explicitly
overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
override configuration settings.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color-words[=&lt;regex&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Equivalent to <code>--word-diff=color</code> plus (if a regex was
specified) <code>--word-diff-regex=&lt;regex&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-renames
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
file gives the default to do so.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--check
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors.
What are considered whitespace errors is controlled by <code>core.whitespace</code>
configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces (including
lines that consist solely of whitespaces) and a space character
that is immediately followed by a tab character inside the
initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
with --exit-code.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ws-error-highlight=&lt;kind&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Highlight whitespace errors in the <code>context</code>, <code>old</code> or <code>new</code>
lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by comma,
<code>none</code> resets previous values, <code>default</code> reset the list to
<code>new</code> and <code>all</code> is a shorthand for <code>old,new,context</code>. When
this option is not given, and the configuration variable
<code>diff.wsErrorHighlight</code> is not set, only whitespace errors in
<code>new</code> lines are highlighted. The whitespace errors are colored
with <code>color.diff.whitespace</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--full-index
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index"
line when generating patch format output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--binary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
In addition to <code>--full-index</code>, output a binary diff that
can be applied with <code>git-apply</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--abbrev[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
lines, show only a partial prefix. This is
independent of the <code>--full-index</code> option above, which controls
the diff-patch output format. Non default number of
digits can be specified with <code>--abbrev=&lt;n&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-B[&lt;n&gt;][/&lt;m&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--break-rewrites[=[&lt;n&gt;][/&lt;m&gt;]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
create. This serves two purposes:
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file
not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with a very
few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
everything new, and the number <code>m</code> controls this aspect of the -B
option (defaults to 60%). <code>-B/70%</code> specifies that less than 30% of the
original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the
source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that disappeared
as the source of a rename), and the number <code>n</code> controls this aspect of
the -B option (defaults to 50%). <code>-B20%</code> specifies that a change with
addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the file&#8217;s size are
eligible for being picked up as a possible source of a rename to
another file.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-M[&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-renames[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Detect renames.
If <code>n</code> is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
file&#8217;s size). For example, <code>-M90%</code> means Git should consider a
delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file
hasn&#8217;t changed. Without a <code>%</code> sign, the number is to be read as
a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., <code>-M5</code> becomes
0.5, and is thus the same as <code>-M50%</code>. Similarly, <code>-M05</code> is
the same as <code>-M5%</code>. To limit detection to exact renames, use
<code>-M100%</code>. The default similarity index is 50%.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-C[&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-copies[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Detect copies as well as renames. See also <code>--find-copies-harder</code>.
If <code>n</code> is specified, it has the same meaning as for <code>-M&lt;n&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-copies-harder
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
For performance reasons, by default, <code>-C</code> option finds copies only
if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
changeset. This flag makes the command
inspect unmodified files as candidates for the source of
copy. This is a very expensive operation for large
projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one
<code>-C</code> option has the same effect.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-D
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--irreversible-delete
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
the diff between the preimage and <code>/dev/null</code>. The resulting patch
is not meant to be applied with <code>patch</code> or <code>git apply</code>; this is
solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lacks
enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually,
hence the name of the option.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When used together with <code>-B</code>, omit also the preimage in the deletion part
of a delete/create pair.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-l&lt;num&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The <code>-M</code> and <code>-C</code> options require O(n^2) processing time where n
is the number of potential rename/copy targets. This
option prevents rename/copy detection from running if
the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified
number.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)&#8230;[*]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Select only files that are Added (<code>A</code>), Copied (<code>C</code>),
Deleted (<code>D</code>), Modified (<code>M</code>), Renamed (<code>R</code>), have their
type (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, &#8230;) changed (<code>T</code>),
are Unmerged (<code>U</code>), are
Unknown (<code>X</code>), or have had their pairing Broken (<code>B</code>).
Any combination of the filter characters (including none) can be used.
When <code>*</code> (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all
paths are selected if there is any file that matches
other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
<code>--diff-filter=ad</code> excludes added and deleted paths.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance, diffs
from the index to the working tree can never have Added entries
(because the set of paths included in the diff is limited by what is in
the index). Similarly, copied and renamed entries cannot appear if
detection for those types is disabled.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-S&lt;string&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
Intended for the scripter&#8217;s use.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>It is useful when you&#8217;re looking for an exact block of code (like a
struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
block in the preimage back into <code>-S</code>, and keep going until you get the
very first version of the block.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-G&lt;regex&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
lines that match &lt;regex&gt;.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>To illustrate the difference between <code>-S&lt;regex&gt; --pickaxe-regex</code> and
<code>-G&lt;regex&gt;</code>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
file:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>+ return !regexec(regexp, two-&gt;ptr, 1, &amp;regmatch, 0);
...
- hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &amp;regmatch, 0);</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>While <code>git log -G"regexec\(regexp"</code> will show this commit, <code>git log
-S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex</code> will not (because the number of
occurrences of that string did not change).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>See the <em>pickaxe</em> entry in <a href="gitdiffcore.html">gitdiffcore(7)</a> for more
information.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-object=&lt;object-id&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
the specified object. Similar to <code>-S</code>, just the argument is different
in that it doesn&#8217;t search for a specific string but for a specific
object id.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies the <code>-t</code> option in
<code>git-log</code> to also find trees.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pickaxe-all
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When <code>-S</code> or <code>-G</code> finds a change, show all the changes in that
changeset, not just the files that contain the change
in &lt;string&gt;.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pickaxe-regex
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Treat the &lt;string&gt; given to <code>-S</code> as an extended POSIX regular
expression to match.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-O&lt;orderfile&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Control the order in which files appear in the output.
This overrides the <code>diff.orderFile</code> configuration variable
(see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>). To cancel <code>diff.orderFile</code>,
use <code>-O/dev/null</code>.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns in
&lt;orderfile&gt;.
All files with pathnames that match the first pattern are output
first, all files with pathnames that match the second pattern (but not
the first) are output next, and so on.
All files with pathnames that do not match any pattern are output
last, as if there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end of the
file.
If multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern
but no earlier patterns), their output order relative to each other is
the normal order.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>&lt;orderfile&gt; is parsed as follows:</p></div>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as separators for
readability.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Lines starting with a hash ("<code>#</code>") are ignored, so they can be used
for comments. Add a backslash ("<code>\</code>") to the beginning of the
pattern if it starts with a hash.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Each other line contains a single pattern.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "<code>foo*bar</code>"
matches "<code>fooasdfbar</code>" and "<code>foo/bar/baz/asdf</code>" but not "<code>foobarx</code>".</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-R
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
on-disk file to tree contents.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--relative[=&lt;path&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
to by giving a &lt;path&gt; as an argument.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-a
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--text
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Treat all files as text.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-cr-at-eol
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-space-at-eol
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-b
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-space-change
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-w
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-all-space
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
line has none.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-blank-lines
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--inter-hunk-context=&lt;lines&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
Defaults to <code>diff.interHunkContext</code> or 0 if the config option
is unset.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-W
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--function-context
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show whole surrounding functions of changes.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--exit-code
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and
0 means no differences.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--quiet
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disable all output of the program. Implies <code>--exit-code</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ext-diff
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
external diff driver with <a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a>, you need
to use this option with <a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a> and friends.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-ext-diff
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disallow external diff drivers.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--textconv
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-textconv
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run
when comparing binary files. See <a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a> for
details. Because textconv filters are typically a one-way
conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human
consumption, but cannot be applied. For this reason, textconv
filters are enabled by default only for <a href="git-diff.html">git-diff(1)</a> and
<a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a>, but not for <a href="git-format-patch.html">git-format-patch(1)</a> or
diff plumbing commands.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-submodules[=&lt;when&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. &lt;when&gt; can be
either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either contains
untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit recorded
in the superproject and can be used to override any settings of the
<em>ignore</em> option in <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a> or <a href="gitmodules.html">gitmodules(5)</a>. When
"untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when they only
contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for modified
content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work tree of submodules,
only changes to the commits stored in the superproject are shown (this was
the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to submodules.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--src-prefix=&lt;prefix&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--dst-prefix=&lt;prefix&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-prefix
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not show any source or destination prefix.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--line-prefix=&lt;prefix&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ita-invisible-in-index
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing
empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached".
This option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff"
and non-existent in "git diff --cached". This option could be
reverted with <code>--ita-visible-in-index</code>. Both options are
experimental and could be removed in future.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
<a href="gitdiffcore.html">gitdiffcore(7)</a>.</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;tree-ish&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The id of a tree object to diff against.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--cached
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
do not consider the on-disk file at all
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-m
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
By default, files recorded in the index but not checked
out are reported as deleted. This flag makes
<em>git diff-index</em> say that all non-checked-out files are up
to date.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_raw_output_format">Raw output format</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>The raw output format from "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree",
"git-diff-files" and "git diff --raw" are very similar.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>These commands all compare two sets of things; what is
compared differs:</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
git-diff-index &lt;tree-ish&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
compares the &lt;tree-ish&gt; and the files on the filesystem.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
git-diff-index --cached &lt;tree-ish&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
compares the &lt;tree-ish&gt; and the index.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
git-diff-tree [-r] &lt;tree-ish-1&gt; &lt;tree-ish-2&gt; [&lt;pattern&gt;&#8230;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
compares the trees named by the two arguments.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
git-diff-files [&lt;pattern&gt;&#8230;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
compares the index and the files on the filesystem.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The "git-diff-tree" command begins its output by printing the hash of
what is being compared. After that, all the commands print one output
line per changed file.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>An output line is formatted this way:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>in-place edit :100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
copy-edit :100644 100644 abcd123... 1234567... C68 file1 file2
rename-edit :100644 100644 abcd123... 1234567... R86 file1 file3
create :000000 100644 0000000... 1234567... A file4
delete :100644 000000 1234567... 0000000... D file5
unmerged :000000 000000 0000000... 0000000... U file6</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>That is, from the left to the right:</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
a colon.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
mode for "src"; 000000 if creation or unmerged.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
mode for "dst"; 000000 if deletion or unmerged.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
sha1 for "src"; 0{40} if creation or unmerged.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
sha1 for "dst"; 0{40} if creation, unmerged or "look at work tree".
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
status, followed by optional "score" number.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a tab or a NUL when <code>-z</code> option is used.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
path for "src"
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a tab or a NUL when <code>-z</code> option is used; only exists for C or R.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
path for "dst"; only exists for C or R.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
an LF or a NUL when <code>-z</code> option is used, to terminate the record.
</p>
</li>
</ol></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Possible status letters are:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
A: addition of a file
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
C: copy of a file into a new one
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
D: deletion of a file
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
M: modification of the contents or mode of a file
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
R: renaming of a file
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
T: change in the type of the file
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
U: file is unmerged (you must complete the merge before it can
be committed)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
X: "unknown" change type (most probably a bug, please report it)
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Status letters C and R are always followed by a score (denoting the
percentage of similarity between the source and target of the move or
copy). Status letter M may be followed by a score (denoting the
percentage of dissimilarity) for file rewrites.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>&lt;sha1&gt; is shown as all 0&#8217;s if a file is new on the filesystem
and it is out of sync with the index.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Example:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>:100644 100644 5be4a4...... 000000...... M file.c</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Without the <code>-z</code> option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are
quoted as explained for the configuration variable <code>core.quotePath</code>
(see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>). Using <code>-z</code> the filename is output
verbatim and the line is terminated by a NUL byte.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_diff_format_for_merges">diff format for merges</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>"git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff --raw"
can take <code>-c</code> or <code>--cc</code> option
to generate diff output also for merge commits. The output differs
from the format described above in the following way:</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
there is a colon for each parent
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
there are more "src" modes and "src" sha1
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
status is concatenated status characters for each parent
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
no optional "score" number
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
single path, only for "dst"
</p>
</li>
</ol></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Example:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>::100644 100644 100644 fabadb8... cc95eb0... 4866510... MM describe.c</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that <em>combined diff</em> lists only files which were modified from
all parents.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_generating_patches_with_p">Generating patches with -p</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
with a <code>-p</code> option, "git diff" without the <code>--raw</code> option, or
"git log" with the "-p" option, they
do not produce the output described above; instead they produce a
patch file. You can customize the creation of such patches via the
<code>GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF</code> and the <code>GIT_DIFF_OPTS</code> environment variables.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
diff format:</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --git a/file1 b/file2</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <code>a/</code> and <code>b/</code> filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion,
<code>/dev/null</code> is <em>not</em> used in place of the <code>a/</code> or <code>b/</code> filenames.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When rename/copy is involved, <code>file1</code> and <code>file2</code> show the
name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name of
the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
It is followed by one or more extended header lines:
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>old mode &lt;mode&gt;
new mode &lt;mode&gt;
deleted file mode &lt;mode&gt;
new file mode &lt;mode&gt;
copy from &lt;path&gt;
copy to &lt;path&gt;
rename from &lt;path&gt;
rename to &lt;path&gt;
similarity index &lt;number&gt;
dissimilarity index &lt;number&gt;
index &lt;hash&gt;..&lt;hash&gt; &lt;mode&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file type
and file permission bits.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Path names in extended headers do not include the <code>a/</code> and <code>b/</code> prefixes.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and
the dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It
is a rounded down integer, followed by a percent sign. The
similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal
files, while 100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old
file made it into the new one.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the change.
The &lt;mode&gt; is included if the file mode does not change; otherwise,
separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for
the configuration variable <code>core.quotePath</code> (see
<a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
All the <code>file1</code> files in the output refer to files before the
commit, and all the <code>file2</code> files refer to files after the commit.
It is incorrect to apply each change to each file sequentially. For
example, this patch will swap a and b:
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --git a/a b/b
rename from a
rename to b
diff --git a/b b/a
rename from b
rename to a</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
</ol></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_combined_diff_format">combined diff format</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Any diff-generating command can take the <code>-c</code> or <code>--cc</code> option to
produce a <em>combined diff</em> when showing a merge. This is the default
format when showing merges with <a href="git-diff.html">git-diff(1)</a> or
<a href="git-show.html">git-show(1)</a>. Note also that you can give the <code>-m</code> option to any
of these commands to force generation of diffs with individual parents
of a merge.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A <em>combined diff</em> format looks like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --combined describe.c
index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
--- a/describe.c
+++ b/describe.c
@@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
return (a_date &gt; b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
}
- static void describe(char *arg)
-static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
{
+ unsigned char sha1[20];
+ struct commit *cmit;
struct commit_list *list;
static int initialized = 0;
struct commit_name *n;
+ if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) &lt; 0)
+ usage(describe_usage);
+ cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
+ if (!cmit)
+ usage(describe_usage);
+
if (!initialized) {
initialized = 1;
for_each_ref(get_name);</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
this (when <code>-c</code> option is used):
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --combined file</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>or like this (when <code>--cc</code> option is used):</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>diff --cc file</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
It is followed by one or more extended header lines
(this example shows a merge with two parents):
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>index &lt;hash&gt;,&lt;hash&gt;..&lt;hash&gt;
mode &lt;mode&gt;,&lt;mode&gt;..&lt;mode&gt;
new file mode &lt;mode&gt;
deleted file mode &lt;mode&gt;,&lt;mode&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <code>mode &lt;mode&gt;,&lt;mode&gt;..&lt;mode&gt;</code> line appears only if at least one of
the &lt;mode&gt; is different from the rest. Extended headers with
information about detected contents movement (renames and
copying detection) are designed to work with diff of two
&lt;tree-ish&gt; and are not used by combined diff format.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>--- a/file
+++ b/file</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Similar to two-line header for traditional <em>unified</em> diff
format, <code>/dev/null</code> is used to signal created or deleted
files.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
accidentally feeding it to <code>patch -p1</code>. Combined diff format
was created for review of merge commit changes, and was not
meant for apply. The change is similar to the change in the
extended <em>index</em> header:
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>@@@ &lt;from-file-range&gt; &lt;from-file-range&gt; &lt;to-file-range&gt; @@@</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>There are (number of parents + 1) <code>@</code> characters in the chunk
header for combined diff format.</p></div>
</li>
</ol></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Unlike the traditional <em>unified</em> diff format, which shows two
files A and B with a single column that has <code>-</code> (minus&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;appears in A but removed in B), <code>+</code> (plus&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;missing in A but
added to B), or <code>" "</code> (space&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;unchanged) prefix, this format
compares two or more files file1, file2,&#8230; with one file X, and
shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for each of
fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X&#8217;s line is
different from it.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A <code>-</code> character in the column N means that the line appears in
fileN but it does not appear in the result. A <code>+</code> character
in the column N means that the line appears in the result,
and fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
added, from the point of view of that parent).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In the above example output, the function signature was changed
from both files (hence two <code>-</code> removals from both file1 and
file2, plus <code>++</code> to mean one line that was added does not appear
in either file1 or file2). Also eight other lines are the same
from file1 but do not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with <code>+</code>).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When shown by <code>git diff-tree -c</code>, it compares the parents of a
merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the
parents). When shown by <code>git diff-files -c</code>, it compares the
two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file
(i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3 aka
"their version").</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_other_diff_formats">other diff formats</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <code>--summary</code> option describes newly added, deleted, renamed and
copied files. The <code>--stat</code> option adds diffstat(1) graph to the
output. These options can be combined with other options, such as
<code>-p</code>, and are meant for human consumption.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When showing a change that involves a rename or a copy, <code>--stat</code> output
formats the pathnames compactly by combining common prefix and suffix of
the pathnames. For example, a change that moves <code>arch/i386/Makefile</code> to
<code>arch/x86/Makefile</code> while modifying 4 lines will be shown like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>arch/{i386 =&gt; x86}/Makefile | 4 +--</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <code>--numstat</code> option gives the diffstat(1) information but is designed
for easier machine consumption. An entry in <code>--numstat</code> output looks
like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>1 2 README
3 1 arch/{i386 =&gt; x86}/Makefile</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>That is, from left to right:</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
the number of added lines;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a tab;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
the number of deleted lines;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a tab;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
pathname (possibly with rename/copy information);
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a newline.
</p>
</li>
</ol></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When <code>-z</code> output option is in effect, the output is formatted this way:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>1 2 README NUL
3 1 NUL arch/i386/Makefile NUL arch/x86/Makefile NUL</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>That is:</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
the number of added lines;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a tab;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
the number of deleted lines;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a tab;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
pathname in preimage;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
pathname in postimage (only exists if renamed/copied);
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a NUL.
</p>
</li>
</ol></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The extra <code>NUL</code> before the preimage path in renamed case is to allow
scripts that read the output to tell if the current record being read is
a single-path record or a rename/copy record without reading ahead.
After reading added and deleted lines, reading up to <code>NUL</code> would yield
the pathname, but if that is <code>NUL</code>, the record will show two paths.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_operating_modes">OPERATING MODES</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>You can choose whether you want to trust the index file entirely
(using the <code>--cached</code> flag) or ask the diff logic to show any files
that don&#8217;t match the stat state as being "tentatively changed". Both
of these operations are very useful indeed.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_cached_mode">CACHED MODE</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>If <code>--cached</code> is specified, it allows you to ask:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>show me the differences between HEAD and the current index
contents (the ones I'd write using 'git write-tree')</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For example, let&#8217;s say that you have worked on your working directory, updated
some files in the index and are ready to commit. You want to see exactly
<strong>what</strong> you are going to commit, without having to write a new tree
object and compare it that way, and to do that, you just do</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>git diff-index --cached HEAD</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Example: let&#8217;s say I had renamed <code>commit.c</code> to <code>git-commit.c</code>, and I had
done an <code>update-index</code> to make that effective in the index file.
<code>git diff-files</code> wouldn&#8217;t show anything at all, since the index file
matches my working directory. But doing a <em>git diff-index</em> does:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>torvalds@ppc970:~/git&gt; git diff-index --cached HEAD
-100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 commit.c
+100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 git-commit.c</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>You can see easily that the above is a rename.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In fact, <code>git diff-index --cached</code> <strong>should</strong> always be entirely equivalent to
actually doing a <em>git write-tree</em> and comparing that. Except this one is much
nicer for the case where you just want to check where you are.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>So doing a <code>git diff-index --cached</code> is basically very useful when you are
asking yourself "what have I already marked for being committed, and
what&#8217;s the difference to a previous tree".</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_non_cached_mode">NON-CACHED MODE</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially
the more useful of the two in that what it does can&#8217;t be emulated with
a <em>git write-tree</em> + <em>git diff-tree</em>. Thus that&#8217;s the default mode.
The non-cached version asks the question:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>show me the differences between HEAD and the currently checked out
tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up to date</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>which is obviously a very useful question too, since that tells you what
you <strong>could</strong> commit. Again, the output matches the <em>git diff-tree -r</em>
output to a tee, but with a twist.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The twist is that if some file doesn&#8217;t match the index, we don&#8217;t have
a backing store thing for it, and we use the magic "all-zero" sha1 to
show that. So let&#8217;s say that you have edited <code>kernel/sched.c</code>, but
have not actually done a <em>git update-index</em> on it yet - there is no
"object" associated with the new state, and you get:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>torvalds@ppc970:~/v2.6/linux&gt; git diff-index --abbrev HEAD
:100644 100664 7476bb... 000000... kernel/sched.c</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>i.e., it shows that the tree has changed, and that <code>kernel/sched.c</code> is
not up to date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
get the real diff, you need to look at the object in the working directory
directly rather than do an object-to-object diff.</p></div>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">As with other commands of this type, <em>git diff-index</em> does not
actually look at the contents of the file at all. So maybe
<code>kernel/sched.c</code> hasn&#8217;t actually changed, and it&#8217;s just that you
touched it. In either case, it&#8217;s a note that you need to
<em>git update-index</em> it to make the index be in sync.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">You can have a mixture of files show up as "has been updated"
and "is still dirty in the working directory" together. You can always
tell which file is in which state, since the "has been updated" ones
show a valid sha1, and the "not in sync with the index" ones will
always have the special all-zero sha1.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_git">GIT</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Part of the <a href="git.html">git(1)</a> suite</p></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div id="footnotes"><hr /></div>
<div id="footer">
<div id="footer-text">
Last updated
2018-05-23 16:06:29 JST
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