blob: dd07918dcc63315c524b95f7f56674332d4185a5 [file] [log] [blame]
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<body class="manpage">
<div id="header">
<h1>
git-log(1) Manual Page
</h1>
<h2>NAME</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<p>git-log -
Show commit logs
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div id="content">
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_synopsis">SYNOPSIS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="verseblock">
<pre class="content"><em>git log</em> [&lt;options&gt;] [&lt;revision range&gt;] [[--] &lt;path&gt;&#8230;]</pre>
<div class="attribution">
</div></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_description">DESCRIPTION</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Shows the commit logs.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The command takes options applicable to the <code>git rev-list</code>
command to control what is shown and how, and options applicable to
the <code>git diff-*</code> commands to control how the changes
each commit introduces are shown.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_options">OPTIONS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--follow
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames
(works only for a single file).
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-decorate
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--decorate[=short|full|auto|no]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If <em>short</em> is
specified, the ref name prefixes <em>refs/heads/</em>, <em>refs/tags/</em> and
<em>refs/remotes/</em> will not be printed. If <em>full</em> is specified, the
full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. If <em>auto</em> is
specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names
are shown as if <em>short</em> were given, otherwise no ref names are
shown. The default option is <em>short</em>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--decorate-refs=&lt;pattern&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--decorate-refs-exclude=&lt;pattern&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
If no <code>--decorate-refs</code> is given, pretend as if all refs were
included. For each candidate, do not use it for decoration if it
matches any patterns given to <code>--decorate-refs-exclude</code> or if it
doesn&#8217;t match any of the patterns given to <code>--decorate-refs</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--source
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
commit was reached.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--use-mailmap
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email
addresses to canonical real names and email addresses. See
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--full-diff
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Without this flag, <code>git log -p &lt;path&gt;...</code> shows commits that
touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified
paths. With this, the full diff is shown for commits that touch
the specified paths; this means that "&lt;path&gt;&#8230;" limits only
commits, and doesn&#8217;t limit diff for those commits.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g. those
produced by <code>--stat</code>, etc.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--log-size
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Include a line &#8220;log size &lt;number&gt;&#8221; in the output for each commit,
where &lt;number&gt; is the length of that commit&#8217;s message in bytes.
Intended to speed up tools that read log messages from <code>git log</code>
output by allowing them to allocate space in advance.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-L &lt;start&gt;,&lt;end&gt;:&lt;file&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-L :&lt;funcname&gt;:&lt;file&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Trace the evolution of the line range given by "&lt;start&gt;,&lt;end&gt;"
(or the function name regex &lt;funcname&gt;) within the &lt;file&gt;. You may
not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only
give zero or one positive revision arguments.
You can specify this option more than once.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>&lt;start&gt; and &lt;end&gt; can take one of these forms:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
number
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If &lt;start&gt; or &lt;end&gt; is a number, it specifies an
absolute line number (lines count from 1).</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
/regex/
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This form will use the first line matching the given
POSIX regex. If &lt;start&gt; is a regex, it will search from the end of
the previous <code>-L</code> range, if any, otherwise from the start of file.
If &lt;start&gt; is &#8220;^/regex/&#8221;, it will search from the start of file.
If &lt;end&gt; is a regex, it will search
starting at the line given by &lt;start&gt;.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
+offset or -offset
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This is only valid for &lt;end&gt; and will specify a number
of lines before or after the line given by &lt;start&gt;.</p></div>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If &#8220;:&lt;funcname&gt;&#8221; is given in place of &lt;start&gt; and &lt;end&gt;, it is a
regular expression that denotes the range from the first funcname line
that matches &lt;funcname&gt;, up to the next funcname line. &#8220;:&lt;funcname&gt;&#8221;
searches from the end of the previous <code>-L</code> range, if any, otherwise
from the start of file. &#8220;^:&lt;funcname&gt;&#8221; searches from the start of
file.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;revision range&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
&lt;revision range&gt; is specified, it defaults to <code>HEAD</code> (i.e. the
whole history leading to the current commit). <code>origin..HEAD</code>
specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit
(i.e. <code>HEAD</code>), but not from <code>origin</code>. For a complete list of
ways to spell &lt;revision range&gt;, see the <em>Specifying Ranges</em>
section of <a href="gitrevisions.html">gitrevisions(7)</a>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
[--] &lt;path&gt;&#8230;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files
that match the specified paths came to be. See <em>History
Simplification</em> below for details and other simplification
modes.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Paths may need to be prefixed with <code>--</code> to separate them from
options or the revision range, when confusion arises.</p></div>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="_commit_limiting">Commit Limiting</h3>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
special notations explained in the description, additional commit
limiting may be applied.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
<code>--since=&lt;date1&gt;</code> limits to commits newer than <code>&lt;date1&gt;</code>, and using it
with <code>--grep=&lt;pattern&gt;</code> further limits to commits whose log message
has a line that matches <code>&lt;pattern&gt;</code>), unless otherwise noted.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that these are applied before commit
ordering and formatting options, such as <code>--reverse</code>.</p></div>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-&lt;number&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-n &lt;number&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--max-count=&lt;number&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Limit the number of commits to output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--skip=&lt;number&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Skip <em>number</em> commits before starting to show the commit output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--since=&lt;date&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--after=&lt;date&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show commits more recent than a specific date.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--until=&lt;date&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--before=&lt;date&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show commits older than a specific date.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--author=&lt;pattern&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--committer=&lt;pattern&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
expression). With more than one <code>--author=&lt;pattern&gt;</code>,
commits whose author matches any of the given patterns are
chosen (similarly for multiple <code>--committer=&lt;pattern&gt;</code>).
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--grep-reflog=&lt;pattern&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
more than one <code>--grep-reflog</code>, commits whose reflog message
matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an
error to use this option unless <code>--walk-reflogs</code> is in use.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--grep=&lt;pattern&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With
more than one <code>--grep=&lt;pattern&gt;</code>, commits whose message
matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see
<code>--all-match</code>).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When <code>--show-notes</code> is in effect, the message from the notes is
matched as if it were part of the log message.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--all-match
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Limit the commits output to ones that match all given <code>--grep</code>,
instead of ones that match at least one.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--invert-grep
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not
match the pattern specified with <code>--grep=&lt;pattern&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-i
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--regexp-ignore-case
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter
case.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--basic-regexp
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
this is the default.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-E
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--extended-regexp
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
instead of the default basic regular expressions.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-F
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--fixed-strings
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don&#8217;t interpret
pattern as a regular expression).
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-P
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--perl-regexp
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
expressions.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
compile-time dependency. If Git wasn&#8217;t compiled with support for them
providing this option will cause it to die.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--remove-empty
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--merges
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as <code>--min-parents=2</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-merges
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
exactly the same as <code>--max-parents=1</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--min-parents=&lt;number&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--max-parents=&lt;number&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-min-parents
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-max-parents
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
commits. In particular, <code>--max-parents=1</code> is the same as <code>--no-merges</code>,
<code>--min-parents=2</code> is the same as <code>--merges</code>. <code>--max-parents=0</code>
gives all root commits and <code>--min-parents=3</code> all octopus merges.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--no-min-parents</code> and <code>--no-max-parents</code> reset these limits (to no limit)
again. Equivalent forms are <code>--min-parents=0</code> (any commit has 0 or more
parents) and <code>--max-parents=-1</code> (negative numbers denote no upper limit).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--first-parent
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
commit. This option can give a better overview when
viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
brought in to your history by such a merge. Cannot be
combined with --bisect.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--not
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Reverses the meaning of the <em>&#94;</em> prefix (or lack thereof)
for all following revision specifiers, up to the next <code>--not</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--all
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretend as if all the refs in <code>refs/</code>, along with <code>HEAD</code>, are
listed on the command line as <em>&lt;commit&gt;</em>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--branches[=&lt;pattern&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretend as if all the refs in <code>refs/heads</code> are listed
on the command line as <em>&lt;commit&gt;</em>. If <em>&lt;pattern&gt;</em> is given, limit
branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks <em>?</em>,
<em>&#42;</em>, or <em>[</em>, <em>/&#42;</em> at the end is implied.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--tags[=&lt;pattern&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretend as if all the refs in <code>refs/tags</code> are listed
on the command line as <em>&lt;commit&gt;</em>. If <em>&lt;pattern&gt;</em> is given, limit
tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks <em>?</em>, <em>&#42;</em>,
or <em>[</em>, <em>/&#42;</em> at the end is implied.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--remotes[=&lt;pattern&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretend as if all the refs in <code>refs/remotes</code> are listed
on the command line as <em>&lt;commit&gt;</em>. If <em>&lt;pattern&gt;</em> is given, limit
remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
If pattern lacks <em>?</em>, <em>&#42;</em>, or <em>[</em>, <em>/&#42;</em> at the end is implied.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--glob=&lt;glob-pattern&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <em>&lt;glob-pattern&gt;</em>
are listed on the command line as <em>&lt;commit&gt;</em>. Leading <em>refs/</em>,
is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks <em>?</em>, <em>&#42;</em>,
or <em>[</em>, <em>/&#42;</em> at the end is implied.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--exclude=&lt;glob-pattern&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not include refs matching <em>&lt;glob-pattern&gt;</em> that the next <code>--all</code>,
<code>--branches</code>, <code>--tags</code>, <code>--remotes</code>, or <code>--glob</code> would otherwise
consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
up to the next <code>--all</code>, <code>--branches</code>, <code>--tags</code>, <code>--remotes</code>, or
<code>--glob</code> option (other options or arguments do not clear
accumulated patterns).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The patterns given should not begin with <code>refs/heads</code>, <code>refs/tags</code>, or
<code>refs/remotes</code> when applied to <code>--branches</code>, <code>--tags</code>, or <code>--remotes</code>,
respectively, and they must begin with <code>refs/</code> when applied to <code>--glob</code>
or <code>--all</code>. If a trailing <em>/&#42;</em> is intended, it must be given
explicitly.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--reflog
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
command line as <code>&lt;commit&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--single-worktree
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
By default, all working trees will be examined by the
following options when there are more than one (see
<a href="git-worktree.html">git-worktree(1)</a>): <code>--all</code>, <code>--reflog</code> and
<code>--indexed-objects</code>.
This option forces them to examine the current working tree
only.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-missing
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
the bad input was not given.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--bisect
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretend as if the bad bisection ref <code>refs/bisect/bad</code>
was listed and as if it was followed by <code>--not</code> and the good
bisection refs <code>refs/bisect/good-*</code> on the command
line. Cannot be combined with --first-parent.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--stdin
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
In addition to the <em>&lt;commit&gt;</em> listed on the command
line, read them from the standard input. If a <code>--</code> separator is
seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
result.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--cherry-mark
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Like <code>--cherry-pick</code> (see below) but mark equivalent commits
with <code>=</code> rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with <code>+</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--cherry-pick
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
another commit on the &#8220;other side&#8221; when the set of
commits are limited with symmetric difference.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For example, if you have two branches, <code>A</code> and <code>B</code>, a usual way
to list all commits on only one side of them is with
<code>--left-right</code> (see the example below in the description of
the <code>--left-right</code> option). However, it shows the commits that were
cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, &#8220;3rd on b&#8221; may be
cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
excluded from the output.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--left-only
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--right-only
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
i.e. only those which would be marked <code>&lt;</code> resp. <code>&gt;</code> by
<code>--left-right</code>.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For example, <code>--cherry-pick --right-only A...B</code> omits those
commits from <code>B</code> which are in <code>A</code> or are patch-equivalent to a commit in
<code>A</code>. In other words, this lists the <code>+</code> commits from <code>git cherry A B</code>.
More precisely, <code>--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges</code> gives the exact
list.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--cherry
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
A synonym for <code>--right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges</code>; useful to
limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
have been applied to the other side of a forked history with
<code>git log --cherry upstream...mybranch</code>, similar to
<code>git cherry upstream mybranch</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-g
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--walk-reflogs
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
exclude (that is, <em>&#94;commit</em>, <em>commit1..commit2</em>,
and <em>commit1...commit2</em> notations cannot be used).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>With <code>--pretty</code> format other than <code>oneline</code> (for obvious reasons),
this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the output may be shown
as <code>ref@{Nth}</code> (where <code>Nth</code> is the reverse-chronological index in the
reflog) or as <code>ref@{timestamp}</code> (with the timestamp for that entry),
depending on a few rules:</p></div>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
If the starting point is specified as <code>ref@{Nth}</code>, show the index
format.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
If the starting point was specified as <code>ref@{now}</code>, show the
timestamp format.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
If neither was used, but <code>--date</code> was given on the command line, show
the timestamp in the format requested by <code>--date</code>.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Otherwise, show the index format.
</p>
</li>
</ol></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Under <code>--pretty=oneline</code>, the commit message is
prefixed with this information on the same line.
This option cannot be combined with <code>--reverse</code>.
See also <a href="git-reflog.html">git-reflog(1)</a>.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--merge
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
conflict and don&#8217;t exist on all heads to merge.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--boundary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
prefixed with <code>-</code>.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="_history_simplification">History Simplification</h3>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
commits modifying a particular &lt;path&gt;. But there are two parts of
<em>History Simplification</em>, one part is selecting the commits and the other
is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The following options select the commits to be shown:</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;paths&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Commits modifying the given &lt;paths&gt; are selected.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--simplify-by-decoration
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
Default mode
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
with the same content)
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--full-history
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--dense
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
meaningful history.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--sparse
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
All commits in the simplified history are shown.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--simplify-merges
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Additional option to <code>--full-history</code> to remove some needless
merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
commits contributing to this merge.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ancestry-path
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When given a range of commits to display (e.g. <em>commit1..commit2</em>
or <em>commit2 &#94;commit1</em>), only display commits that exist
directly on the ancestry chain between the <em>commit1</em> and
<em>commit2</em>, i.e. commits that are both descendants of <em>commit1</em>,
and ancestors of <em>commit2</em>.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A more detailed explanation follows.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Suppose you specified <code>foo</code> as the &lt;paths&gt;. We shall call commits
that modify <code>foo</code> !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
filtered for <code>foo</code>, they look different and equal, respectively.)</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
that you are filtering for a file <code>foo</code> in this commit graph:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
/ / / / / /
I B C D E Y
\ / / / / /
`-------------' X</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
each merge. The commits are:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<code>I</code> is the initial commit, in which <code>foo</code> exists with contents
&#8220;asdf&#8221;, and a file <code>quux</code> exists with contents &#8220;quux&#8221;. Initial
commits are compared to an empty tree, so <code>I</code> is !TREESAME.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
In <code>A</code>, <code>foo</code> contains just &#8220;foo&#8221;.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<code>B</code> contains the same change as <code>A</code>. Its merge <code>M</code> is trivial and
hence TREESAME to all parents.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<code>C</code> does not change <code>foo</code>, but its merge <code>N</code> changes it to &#8220;foobar&#8221;,
so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<code>D</code> sets <code>foo</code> to &#8220;baz&#8221;. Its merge <code>O</code> combines the strings from
<code>N</code> and <code>D</code> to &#8220;foobarbaz&#8221;; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<code>E</code> changes <code>quux</code> to &#8220;xyzzy&#8221;, and its merge <code>P</code> combines the
strings to &#8220;quux xyzzy&#8221;. <code>P</code> is TREESAME to <code>O</code>, but not to <code>E</code>.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<code>X</code> is an independent root commit that added a new file <code>side</code>, and <code>Y</code>
modified it. <code>Y</code> is TREESAME to <code>X</code>. Its merge <code>Q</code> added <code>side</code> to <code>P</code>, and
<code>Q</code> is TREESAME to <code>P</code>, but not to <code>Y</code>.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>rev-list</code> walks backwards through history, including or excluding
commits based on whether <code>--full-history</code> and/or parent rewriting
(via <code>--parents</code> or <code>--children</code>) are used. The following settings
are available.</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
Default mode
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
(though this can be changed, see <code>--sparse</code> below). If the
commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
parents.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This results in:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> .-A---N---O
/ / /
I---------D</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
available, removed <code>B</code> from consideration entirely. <code>C</code> was
considered via <code>N</code>, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
empty tree, so <code>I</code> is !TREESAME.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Parent/child relations are only visible with <code>--parents</code>, but that does
not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
parent lines.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--full-history without parent rewriting
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
the example, we get
</p>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> I A B N D O P Q</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>M</code> was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents. <code>E</code>,
<code>C</code> and <code>B</code> were all walked, but only <code>B</code> was !TREESAME, so the others
do not appear.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
them disconnected.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--full-history with parent rewriting
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
(though this can be changed, see <code>--sparse</code> below).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
themselves. This results in</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
/ / / / /
I B / D /
\ / / / /
`-------------'</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Compare to <code>--full-history</code> without rewriting above. Note that <code>E</code>
was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
rewritten to contain <code>E</code>'s parent <code>I</code>. The same happened for <code>C</code> and
<code>N</code>, and <code>X</code>, <code>Y</code> and <code>Q</code>.</p></div>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
affects inclusion:</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--dense
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
to any parent.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--sparse
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
All commits that are walked are included.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that without <code>--full-history</code>, this still simplifies merges: if
one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
sides of the merge are never walked.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--simplify-merges
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
First, build a history graph in the same way that
<code>--full-history</code> with parent rewriting does (see above).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Then simplify each commit <code>C</code> to its replacement <code>C'</code> in the final
history according to the following rules:</p></div>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
Set <code>C'</code> to <code>C</code>.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Replace each parent <code>P</code> of <code>C'</code> with its simplification <code>P'</code>. In
the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are
root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care
to never drop all parents that we are TREESAME to.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
If after this parent rewriting, <code>C'</code> is a root or merge commit (has
zero or &gt;1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
<code>--full-history</code> with parent rewriting. The example turns into:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> .-A---M---N---O
/ / /
I B D
\ / /
`---------'</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note the major differences in <code>N</code>, <code>P</code>, and <code>Q</code> over <code>--full-history</code>:</p></div>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<code>N</code>'s parent list had <code>I</code> removed, because it is an ancestor of the
other parent <code>M</code>. Still, <code>N</code> remained because it is !TREESAME.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<code>P</code>'s parent list similarly had <code>I</code> removed. <code>P</code> was then
removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<code>Q</code>'s parent list had <code>Y</code> simplified to <code>X</code>. <code>X</code> was then removed, because it
was a TREESAME root. <code>Q</code> was then removed completely, because it had one
parent and is TREESAME.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div></div>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ancestry-path
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
chain between the &#8220;from&#8221; and &#8220;to&#8221; commits in the given commit
range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the &#8220;to&#8221;
commit and descendants of the &#8220;from&#8221; commit.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>As an example use case, consider the following commit history:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> D---E-------F
/ \ \
B---C---G---H---I---J
/ \
A-------K---------------L--M</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A regular <em>D..M</em> computes the set of commits that are ancestors of <code>M</code>,
but excludes the ones that are ancestors of <code>D</code>. This is useful to see
what happened to the history leading to <code>M</code> since <code>D</code>, in the sense
that &#8220;what does <code>M</code> have that did not exist in <code>D</code>&#8221;. The result in this
example would be all the commits, except <code>A</code> and <code>B</code> (and <code>D</code> itself,
of course).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When we want to find out what commits in <code>M</code> are contaminated with the
bug introduced by <code>D</code> and need fixing, however, we might want to view
only the subset of <em>D..M</em> that are actually descendants of <code>D</code>, i.e.
excluding <code>C</code> and <code>K</code>. This is exactly what the <code>--ancestry-path</code>
option does. Applied to the <em>D..M</em> range, it results in:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> E-------F
\ \
G---H---I---J
\
L--M</code></pre>
</div></div>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <code>--simplify-by-decoration</code> option allows you to view only the
big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).</p></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="_commit_ordering">Commit Ordering</h3>
<div class="paragraph"><p>By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--date-order
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--author-date-order
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--topo-order
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
intermixed.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For example, in a commit history like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> ---1----2----4----7
\ \
3----5----6----8---</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, <code>git
rev-list</code> and friends with <code>--date-order</code> show the commits in the
timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>With <code>--topo-order</code>, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
together.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--reverse
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting
section above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with
<code>--walk-reflogs</code>.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="_object_traversal">Object Traversal</h3>
<div class="paragraph"><p>These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
<code>unsorted</code> is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
given on the command line. Otherwise (if <code>sorted</code> or no argument
was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
by commit time.
Cannot be combined with <code>--graph</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--do-walk
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Overrides a previous <code>--no-walk</code>.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="_commit_formatting">Commit Formatting</h3>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pretty[=&lt;format&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--format=&lt;format&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
where <em>&lt;format&gt;</em> can be one of <em>oneline</em>, <em>short</em>, <em>medium</em>,
<em>full</em>, <em>fuller</em>, <em>email</em>, <em>raw</em>, <em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em>
and <em>tformat:&lt;string&gt;</em>. When <em>&lt;format&gt;</em> is none of the above,
and has <em>%placeholder</em> in it, it acts as if
<em>--pretty=tformat:&lt;format&gt;</em> were given.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each
format. When <em>=&lt;format&gt;</em> part is omitted, it defaults to <em>medium</em>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
configuration (see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--abbrev-commit
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of
digits can be specified with "--abbrev=&lt;n&gt;" (which also modifies
diff output, if it is displayed).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
people using 80-column terminals.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-abbrev-commit
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
<code>--abbrev-commit</code> and those options which imply it such as
"--oneline". It also overrides the <code>log.abbrevCommit</code> variable.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--oneline
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
used together.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--encoding=&lt;encoding&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message
in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the
command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this
defaults to UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be encoded
in <code>X</code> and we are outputting in <code>X</code>, we will output the object
verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the original
commit may be copied to the output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--expand-tabs=&lt;n&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--expand-tabs
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-expand-tabs
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces
to fill to the next display column that is multiple of <em>&lt;n&gt;</em>)
in the log message before showing it in the output.
<code>--expand-tabs</code> is a short-hand for <code>--expand-tabs=8</code>, and
<code>--no-expand-tabs</code> is a short-hand for <code>--expand-tabs=0</code>,
which disables tab expansion.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
message by 4 spaces (i.e. <em>medium</em>, which is the default, <em>full</em>,
and <em>fuller</em>).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--notes[=&lt;treeish&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the notes (see <a href="git-notes.html">git-notes(1)</a>) that annotate the
commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the default
for <code>git log</code>, <code>git show</code> and <code>git whatchanged</code> commands when
there is no <code>--pretty</code>, <code>--format</code>, or <code>--oneline</code> option given
on the command line.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
<code>core.notesRef</code> and <code>notes.displayRef</code> variables (or corresponding
environment overrides). See <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a> for more details.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>With an optional <em>&lt;treeish&gt;</em> argument, use the treeish to find the notes
to display. The treeish can specify the full refname when it begins
with <code>refs/notes/</code>; when it begins with <code>notes/</code>, <code>refs/</code> and otherwise
<code>refs/notes/</code> is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
"refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
"refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-notes
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not show notes. This negates the above <code>--notes</code> option, by
resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
"--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
from "refs/notes/bar".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--show-notes[=&lt;treeish&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--[no-]standard-notes
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
options instead.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--show-signature
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature
to <code>gpg --verify</code> and show the output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--relative-date
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Synonym for <code>--date=relative</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--date=&lt;format&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
as when using <code>--pretty</code>. <code>log.date</code> config variable sets a default
value for the log command&#8217;s <code>--date</code> option. By default, dates
are shown in the original time zone (either committer&#8217;s or
author&#8217;s). If <code>-local</code> is appended to the format (e.g.,
<code>iso-local</code>), the user&#8217;s local time zone is used instead.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=relative</code> shows dates relative to the current time,
e.g. &#8220;2 hours ago&#8221;. The <code>-local</code> option has no effect for
<code>--date=relative</code>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=local</code> is an alias for <code>--date=default-local</code>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=iso</code> (or <code>--date=iso8601</code>) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like format.
The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
a space instead of the <code>T</code> date/time delimiter
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space between time and time zone
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=iso-strict</code> (or <code>--date=iso8601-strict</code>) shows timestamps in strict
ISO 8601 format.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=rfc</code> (or <code>--date=rfc2822</code>) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
format, often found in email messages.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=short</code> shows only the date, but not the time, in <code>YYYY-MM-DD</code> format.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=raw</code> shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an offset
from UTC (a <code>+</code> or <code>-</code> with four digits; the first two are hours, and
the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp were formatted
with <code>strftime("%s %z")</code>).
Note that the <code>-local</code> option does not affect the seconds-since-epoch
value (which is always measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying
timezone value.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=unix</code> shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
1970). As with <code>--raw</code>, this is always in UTC and therefore <code>-local</code>
has no effect.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=format:...</code> feeds the format <code>...</code> to your system <code>strftime</code>,
except for %z and %Z, which are handled internally.
Use <code>--date=format:%c</code> to show the date in your system locale&#8217;s
preferred format. See the <code>strftime</code> manual for a complete list of
format placeholders. When using <code>-local</code>, the correct syntax is
<code>--date=format-local:...</code>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p><code>--date=default</code> is the default format, and is similar to
<code>--date=rfc2822</code>, with a few exceptions:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
there is no comma after the day-of-week
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--parents
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent&#8230;").
Also enables parent rewriting, see <em>History Simplification</em> above.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--children
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child&#8230;").
Also enables parent rewriting, see <em>History Simplification</em> above.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--left-right
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable from.
Commits from the left side are prefixed with <code>&lt;</code> and those from
the right with <code>&gt;</code>. If combined with <code>--boundary</code>, those
commits are prefixed with <code>-</code>.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For example, if you have this topology:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> y---b---b branch B
/ \ /
/ .
/ / \
o---x---a---a branch A</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>you would get an output like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code> $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
&gt;bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
&gt;bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
&lt;aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
&lt;aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
-yyyyyyy... 1st on b
-xxxxxxx... 1st on a</code></pre>
</div></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--graph
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
to be drawn properly.
Cannot be combined with <code>--no-walk</code>.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This enables parent rewriting, see <em>History Simplification</em> above.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This implies the <code>--topo-order</code> option by default, but the
<code>--date-order</code> option may also be specified.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--show-linear-break[=&lt;barrier&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits
do not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier
in between them in that case. If <code>&lt;barrier&gt;</code> is specified, it
is the string that will be shown instead of the default one.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="_diff_formatting">Diff Formatting</h3>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
Some of them are specific to <a href="git-rev-list.html">git-rev-list(1)</a>, however other diff
options may be given. See <a href="git-diff-files.html">git-diff-files(1)</a> for more options.</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-c
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
With this option, diff output for a merge commit
shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
which were modified from all parents.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--cc
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This flag implies the <code>-c</code> option and further compresses the
patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
one of them without modification.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-m
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
the first parent is shown when <code>--first-parent</code> option is given;
in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
brought <em>into</em> the then-current branch.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-r
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show recursive diffs.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-t
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies <code>-r</code>.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_pretty_formats">PRETTY FORMATS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format
is not <em>oneline</em>, <em>email</em> or <em>raw</em>, an additional line is
inserted before the <em>Author:</em> line. This line begins with
"Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed,
separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
necessarily be the list of the <strong>direct</strong> parent commits if you
have limited your view of history: for example, if you are
only interested in changes related to a certain directory or
file.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>There are several built-in formats, and you can define
additional formats by setting a pretty.&lt;name&gt;
config option to either another format name, or a
<em>format:</em> string, as described below (see
<a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>). Here are the details of the
built-in formats:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>oneline</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;sha1&gt; &lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This is designed to be as compact as possible.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>short</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>medium</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
Date: &lt;author date&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>full</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
Commit: &lt;committer&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>fuller</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
AuthorDate: &lt;author date&gt;
Commit: &lt;committer&gt;
CommitDate: &lt;committer date&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>email</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>From &lt;sha1&gt; &lt;date&gt;
From: &lt;author&gt;
Date: &lt;author date&gt;
Subject: [PATCH] &lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>raw</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>raw</em> format shows the entire commit exactly as
stored in the commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are
displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
--no-abbrev are used, and <em>parents</em> information show the
true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
simplification into account. Note that this format affects the way
commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown e.g. with
<code>git log --raw</code>. To get full object names in a raw diff format,
use <code>--no-abbrev</code>.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em> format allows you to specify which information
you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format,
with the notable exception that you get a newline with <em>%n</em>
instead of <em>\n</em>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>E.g, <em>format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was &gt;&gt;%s&lt;&lt;%n"</em>
would show something like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
The title was &gt;&gt;t4119: test autocomputing -p&lt;n&gt; for traditional diff input.&lt;&lt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The placeholders are:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>%H</em>: commit hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%h</em>: abbreviated commit hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%T</em>: tree hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%t</em>: abbreviated tree hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%P</em>: parent hashes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%p</em>: abbreviated parent hashes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%an</em>: author name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aN</em>: author name (respecting .mailmap, see <a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a>
or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ae</em>: author email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aE</em>: author email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ad</em>: author date (format respects --date= option)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aD</em>: author date, RFC2822 style
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ar</em>: author date, relative
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%at</em>: author date, UNIX timestamp
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ai</em>: author date, ISO 8601-like format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aI</em>: author date, strict ISO 8601 format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cn</em>: committer name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cN</em>: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ce</em>: committer email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cE</em>: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cd</em>: committer date (format respects --date= option)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cD</em>: committer date, RFC2822 style
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cr</em>: committer date, relative
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ct</em>: committer date, UNIX timestamp
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ci</em>: committer date, ISO 8601-like format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cI</em>: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%d</em>: ref names, like the --decorate option of <a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%D</em>: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%e</em>: encoding
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%s</em>: subject
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%f</em>: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%b</em>: body
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%B</em>: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%N</em>: commit notes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GG</em>: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%G?</em>: show "G" for a good (valid) signature,
"B" for a bad signature,
"U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
"X" for a good signature that has expired,
"Y" for a good signature made by an expired key,
"R" for a good signature made by a revoked key,
"E" if the signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing key)
and "N" for no signature
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GS</em>: show the name of the signer for a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GK</em>: show the key used to sign a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GF</em>: show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GP</em>: show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was used
to sign a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gD</em>: reflog selector, e.g., <code>refs/stash@{1}</code> or
<code>refs/stash@{2 minutes ago</code>}; the format follows the rules described
for the <code>-g</code> option. The portion before the <code>@</code> is the refname as
given on the command line (so <code>git log -g refs/heads/master</code> would
yield <code>refs/heads/master@{0}</code>).
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gd</em>: shortened reflog selector; same as <code>%gD</code>, but the refname
portion is shortened for human readability (so <code>refs/heads/master</code>
becomes just <code>master</code>).
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gn</em>: reflog identity name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gN</em>: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ge</em>: reflog identity email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gE</em>: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gs</em>: reflog subject
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cred</em>: switch color to red
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cgreen</em>: switch color to green
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cblue</em>: switch color to blue
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Creset</em>: reset color
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%C(&#8230;)</em>: color specification, as described under Values in the
"CONFIGURATION FILE" section of <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>.
By default, colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
<code>color.diff</code>, <code>color.ui</code>, or <code>--color</code>, and respecting the <code>auto</code>
settings of the former if we are going to a terminal). <code>%C(auto,...)</code>
is accepted as a historical synonym for the default (e.g.,
<code>%C(auto,red)</code>). Specifying <code>%C(always,...) will show the colors
even when color is not otherwise enabled (though consider
just using `--color=always</code> to enable color for the whole output,
including this format and anything else git might color). <code>auto</code>
alone (i.e. <code>%C(auto)</code>) will turn on auto coloring on the next
placeholders until the color is switched again.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%m</em>: left (<code>&lt;</code>), right (<code>&gt;</code>) or boundary (<code>-</code>) mark
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%n</em>: newline
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%%</em>: a raw <em>%</em>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%x00</em>: print a byte from a hex code
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%w([&lt;w&gt;[,&lt;i1&gt;[,&lt;i2&gt;]]])</em>: switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a>.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&lt;(&lt;N&gt;[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])</em>: make the next placeholder take at
least N columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc)
or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns.
Note that truncating only works correctly with N &gt;= 2.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>%&lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, but padding spaces on the left
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>%&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, except that if the next placeholder takes more spaces
than given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;&lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>%&lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
%(trailers[:options]): display the trailers of the body as interpreted
by <a href="git-interpret-trailers.html">git-interpret-trailers(1)</a>. The <code>trailers</code> string may be
followed by a colon and zero or more comma-separated options. If the
<code>only</code> option is given, omit non-trailer lines from the trailer block.
If the <code>unfold</code> option is given, behave as if interpret-trailer&#8217;s
<code>--unfold</code> option was given. E.g., <code>%(trailers:only,unfold)</code> to do
both.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
revision traversal engine. For example, the <code>%g*</code> reflog options will
insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
<code>git log -g</code>). The <code>%d</code> and <code>%D</code> placeholders will use the "short"
decoration format if <code>--decorate</code> was not already provided on the command
line.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a <code>+</code> (plus sign) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, a line-feed
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a <code>-</code> (minus sign) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, all consecutive
line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only if the
placeholder expands to an empty string.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a ` ` (space) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, a space
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>tformat:</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>tformat:</em> format works exactly like <em>format:</em>, except that it
provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In
other words, each commit has the message terminator character (usually a
newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between entries.
This means that the final entry of a single-line format will be properly
terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does.
For example:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973 -- NO NEWLINE
$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In addition, any unrecognized string that has a <code>%</code> in it is interpreted
as if it has <code>tformat:</code> in front of it. For example, these two are
equivalent:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
$ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_common_diff_options">COMMON DIFF OPTIONS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-p
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-u
</dt>