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<body class="manpage">
<div id="header">
<h1>
git-diff-tree(1) Manual Page
</h1>
<h2>NAME</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<p>git-diff-tree -
Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div id="content">
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_synopsis">SYNOPSIS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="verseblock">
<pre class="content"><em>git diff-tree</em> [--stdin] [-m] [-s] [-v] [--no-commit-id] [--pretty]
[-t] [-r] [-c | --cc] [--root] [&lt;common diff options&gt;]
&lt;tree-ish&gt; [&lt;tree-ish&gt;] [&lt;path&gt;&#8230;]</pre>
<div class="attribution">
</div></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_description">DESCRIPTION</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via two tree objects.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If there is only one &lt;tree-ish&gt; given, the commit is compared with its parents
(see --stdin below).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that <em>git diff-tree</em> can use the tree encapsulated in a commit object.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_options">OPTIONS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-p
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-u
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate patch (see section on generating patches).
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-s
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-patch
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like <code>git show</code> that
show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of <code>--patch</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-U&lt;n&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--unified=&lt;n&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate diffs with &lt;n&gt; lines of context instead of
the usual three.
Implies <code>-p</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--raw
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate the diff in raw format.
This is the default.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch-with-raw
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Synonym for <code>-p --raw</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--indent-heuristic
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make patches
easier to read. This is the default.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-indent-heuristic
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disable the indent heuristic.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--minimal
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
diff is produced.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patience
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--histogram
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--anchored=&lt;text&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This option may be specified more than once.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If a line exists in both the source and destination, exists only once,
and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts to prevent it from
appearing as a deletion or addition in the output. It uses the "patience
diff" algorithm internally.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>default</code>, <code>myers</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>minimal</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
produced.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>patience</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>histogram</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
low-occurrence common elements".
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For instance, if you configured the <code>diff.algorithm</code> variable to a
non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
have to use <code>--diff-algorithm=default</code> option.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--stat[=&lt;width&gt;[,&lt;name-width&gt;[,&lt;count&gt;]]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
part. Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns
if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by
<code>&lt;width&gt;</code>. The width of the filename part can be limited by
giving another width <code>&lt;name-width&gt;</code> after a comma. The width
of the graph part can be limited by using
<code>--stat-graph-width=&lt;width&gt;</code> (affects all commands generating
a stat graph) or by setting <code>diff.statGraphWidth=&lt;width&gt;</code>
(does not affect <code>git format-patch</code>).
By giving a third parameter <code>&lt;count&gt;</code>, you can limit the
output to the first <code>&lt;count&gt;</code> lines, followed by <code>...</code> if
there are more.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>These parameters can also be set individually with <code>--stat-width=&lt;width&gt;</code>,
<code>--stat-name-width=&lt;name-width&gt;</code> and <code>--stat-count=&lt;count&gt;</code>.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--compact-summary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output a condensed summary of extended header information such
as file creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l"
if it&#8217;s a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding
or removing executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The
information is put between the filename part and the graph
part. Implies <code>--stat</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--numstat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Similar to <code>--stat</code>, but shows number of added and
deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
binary files, outputs two <code>-</code> instead of saying
<code>0 0</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--shortstat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output only the last line of the <code>--stat</code> format containing total
number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
lines.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--dirstat[=&lt;param1,param2,&#8230;&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
sub-directory. The behavior of <code>--dirstat</code> can be customized by
passing it a comma separated list of parameters.
The defaults are controlled by the <code>diff.dirstat</code> configuration
variable (see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).
The following parameters are available:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>changes</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been
removed from the source, or added to the destination. This ignores
the amount of pure code movements within a file. In other words,
rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much as other changes.
This is the default behavior when no parameter is given.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>lines</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff
analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For binary
files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive <code>--dirstat</code>
behavior than the <code>changes</code> behavior, but it does count rearranged
lines within a file as much as other changes. The resulting output
is consistent with what you get from the other <code>--*stat</code> options.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>files</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files changed.
Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat analysis. This is
the computationally cheapest <code>--dirstat</code> behavior, since it does
not have to look at the file contents at all.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
<code>cumulative</code>
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as well.
Note that when using <code>cumulative</code>, the sum of the percentages
reported may exceed 100%. The default (non-cumulative) behavior can
be specified with the <code>noncumulative</code> parameter.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;limit&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default).
Directories contributing less than this percentage of the changes
are not shown in the output.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed files,
and accumulating child directory counts in the parent directories:
<code>--dirstat=files,10,cumulative</code>.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--summary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Output a condensed summary of extended header information
such as creations, renames and mode changes.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--patch-with-stat
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Synonym for <code>-p --stat</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-z
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When <code>--raw</code>, <code>--numstat</code>, <code>--name-only</code> or <code>--name-status</code> has been
given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
explained for the configuration variable <code>core.quotePath</code> (see
<a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--name-only
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only names of changed files.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--name-status
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show only names and status of changed files. See the description
of the <code>--diff-filter</code> option on what the status letters mean.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--submodule[=&lt;format&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
<code>--submodule=short</code> the <em>short</em> format is used. This format just
shows the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the range.
When <code>--submodule</code> or <code>--submodule=log</code> is specified, the <em>log</em>
format is used. This format lists the commits in the range like
<a href="git-submodule.html">git-submodule(1)</a> <code>summary</code> does. When <code>--submodule=diff</code>
is specified, the <em>diff</em> format is used. This format shows an
inline diff of the changes in the submodule contents between the
commit range. Defaults to <code>diff.submodule</code> or the <em>short</em> format
if the config option is unset.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color[=&lt;when&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show colored diff.
<code>--color</code> (i.e. without <em>=&lt;when&gt;</em>) is the same as <code>--color=always</code>.
<em>&lt;when&gt;</em> can be one of <code>always</code>, <code>never</code>, or <code>auto</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-color
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Turn off colored diff.
It is the same as <code>--color=never</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color-moved[=&lt;mode&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Moved lines of code are colored differently.
The &lt;mode&gt; defaults to <em>no</em> if the option is not given
and to <em>zebra</em> if the option with no mode is given.
The mode must be one of:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
no
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Moved lines are not highlighted.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
default
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Is a synonym for <code>zebra</code>. This may change to a more sensible mode
in the future.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
plain
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Any line that is added in one location and was removed
in another location will be colored with <em>color.diff.newMoved</em>.
Similarly <em>color.diff.oldMoved</em> will be used for removed lines
that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine
if a block of code was moved without permutation.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
blocks
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters
are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
painted using either the <em>color.diff.{old,new}Moved</em> color.
Adjacent blocks cannot be told apart.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
zebra
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Blocks of moved text are detected as in <em>blocks</em> mode. The blocks
are painted using either the <em>color.diff.{old,new}Moved</em> color or
<em>color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative</em>. The change between
the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
dimmed-zebra
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Similar to <em>zebra</em>, but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
<code>dimmed_zebra</code> is a deprecated synonym.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-color-moved
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Turn off move detection. This can be used to override configuration
settings. It is the same as <code>--color-moved=no</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color-moved-ws=&lt;modes&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This configures how whitespace is ignored when performing the
move detection for <code>--color-moved</code>.
These modes can be given as a comma separated list:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
no
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
ignore-space-at-eol
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
ignore-space-change
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
ignore-all-space
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
allow-indentation-change
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Initially ignore any whitespace in the move detection, then
group the moved code blocks only into a block if the change in
whitespace is the same per line. This is incompatible with the
other modes.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-color-moved-ws
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection. This can be
used to override configuration settings. It is the same as
<code>--color-moved-ws=no</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--word-diff[=&lt;mode&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show a word diff, using the &lt;mode&gt; to delimit changed words.
By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see
<code>--word-diff-regex</code> below. The &lt;mode&gt; defaults to <em>plain</em>, and
must be one of:
</p>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
color
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies <code>--color</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
plain
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show words as <code>[-removed-]</code> and <code>{+added+}</code>. Makes no
attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in the input,
so the output may be ambiguous.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
porcelain
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use a special line-based format intended for script
consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
usual unified diff format, starting with a <code>+</code>/<code>-</code>/` `
character at the beginning of the line and extending to the
end of the line. Newlines in the input are represented by a
tilde <code>~</code> on a line of its own.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
none
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disable word diff again.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--word-diff-regex=&lt;regex&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Use &lt;regex&gt; to decide what a word is, instead of considering
runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies
<code>--word-diff</code> unless it was already enabled.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Every non-overlapping match of the
&lt;regex&gt; is considered a word. Anything between these matches is
considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
differences. You may want to append <code>|[^[:space:]]</code> to your regular
expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters.
A match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the
newline.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For example, <code>--word-diff-regex=.</code> will treat each character as a word
and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
<a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a> or <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>. Giving it explicitly
overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
override configuration settings.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--color-words[=&lt;regex&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Equivalent to <code>--word-diff=color</code> plus (if a regex was
specified) <code>--word-diff-regex=&lt;regex&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-renames
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
file gives the default to do so.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--check
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors.
What are considered whitespace errors is controlled by <code>core.whitespace</code>
configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces (including
lines that consist solely of whitespaces) and a space character
that is immediately followed by a tab character inside the
initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
with --exit-code.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ws-error-highlight=&lt;kind&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Highlight whitespace errors in the <code>context</code>, <code>old</code> or <code>new</code>
lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by comma,
<code>none</code> resets previous values, <code>default</code> reset the list to
<code>new</code> and <code>all</code> is a shorthand for <code>old,new,context</code>. When
this option is not given, and the configuration variable
<code>diff.wsErrorHighlight</code> is not set, only whitespace errors in
<code>new</code> lines are highlighted. The whitespace errors are colored
with <code>color.diff.whitespace</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--full-index
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index"
line when generating patch format output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--binary
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
In addition to <code>--full-index</code>, output a binary diff that
can be applied with <code>git-apply</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--abbrev[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
lines, show only a partial prefix. This is
independent of the <code>--full-index</code> option above, which controls
the diff-patch output format. Non default number of
digits can be specified with <code>--abbrev=&lt;n&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-B[&lt;n&gt;][/&lt;m&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--break-rewrites[=[&lt;n&gt;][/&lt;m&gt;]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
create. This serves two purposes:
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file
not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with a very
few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
everything new, and the number <code>m</code> controls this aspect of the -B
option (defaults to 60%). <code>-B/70%</code> specifies that less than 30% of the
original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the
source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that disappeared
as the source of a rename), and the number <code>n</code> controls this aspect of
the -B option (defaults to 50%). <code>-B20%</code> specifies that a change with
addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the file&#8217;s size are
eligible for being picked up as a possible source of a rename to
another file.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-M[&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-renames[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Detect renames.
If <code>n</code> is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
file&#8217;s size). For example, <code>-M90%</code> means Git should consider a
delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file
hasn&#8217;t changed. Without a <code>%</code> sign, the number is to be read as
a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., <code>-M5</code> becomes
0.5, and is thus the same as <code>-M50%</code>. Similarly, <code>-M05</code> is
the same as <code>-M5%</code>. To limit detection to exact renames, use
<code>-M100%</code>. The default similarity index is 50%.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-C[&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-copies[=&lt;n&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Detect copies as well as renames. See also <code>--find-copies-harder</code>.
If <code>n</code> is specified, it has the same meaning as for <code>-M&lt;n&gt;</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-copies-harder
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
For performance reasons, by default, <code>-C</code> option finds copies only
if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
changeset. This flag makes the command
inspect unmodified files as candidates for the source of
copy. This is a very expensive operation for large
projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one
<code>-C</code> option has the same effect.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-D
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--irreversible-delete
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
the diff between the preimage and <code>/dev/null</code>. The resulting patch
is not meant to be applied with <code>patch</code> or <code>git apply</code>; this is
solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lacks
enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually,
hence the name of the option.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When used together with <code>-B</code>, omit also the preimage in the deletion part
of a delete/create pair.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-l&lt;num&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The <code>-M</code> and <code>-C</code> options require O(n^2) processing time where n
is the number of potential rename/copy targets. This
option prevents rename/copy detection from running if
the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified
number.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)&#8230;[*]]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Select only files that are Added (<code>A</code>), Copied (<code>C</code>),
Deleted (<code>D</code>), Modified (<code>M</code>), Renamed (<code>R</code>), have their
type (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, &#8230;) changed (<code>T</code>),
are Unmerged (<code>U</code>), are
Unknown (<code>X</code>), or have had their pairing Broken (<code>B</code>).
Any combination of the filter characters (including none) can be used.
When <code>*</code> (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all
paths are selected if there is any file that matches
other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
<code>--diff-filter=ad</code> excludes added and deleted paths.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance, diffs
from the index to the working tree can never have Added entries
(because the set of paths included in the diff is limited by what is in
the index). Similarly, copied and renamed entries cannot appear if
detection for those types is disabled.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-S&lt;string&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
Intended for the scripter&#8217;s use.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>It is useful when you&#8217;re looking for an exact block of code (like a
struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
block in the preimage back into <code>-S</code>, and keep going until you get the
very first version of the block.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Binary files are searched as well.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-G&lt;regex&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
lines that match &lt;regex&gt;.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>To illustrate the difference between <code>-S&lt;regex&gt; --pickaxe-regex</code> and
<code>-G&lt;regex&gt;</code>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
file:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>+ return !regexec(regexp, two-&gt;ptr, 1, &amp;regmatch, 0);
...
- hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &amp;regmatch, 0);</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>While <code>git log -G"regexec\(regexp"</code> will show this commit, <code>git log
-S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex</code> will not (because the number of
occurrences of that string did not change).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Unless <code>--text</code> is supplied patches of binary files without a textconv
filter will be ignored.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>See the <em>pickaxe</em> entry in <a href="gitdiffcore.html">gitdiffcore(7)</a> for more
information.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--find-object=&lt;object-id&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
the specified object. Similar to <code>-S</code>, just the argument is different
in that it doesn&#8217;t search for a specific string but for a specific
object id.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies the <code>-t</code> option in
<code>git-log</code> to also find trees.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pickaxe-all
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When <code>-S</code> or <code>-G</code> finds a change, show all the changes in that
changeset, not just the files that contain the change
in &lt;string&gt;.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pickaxe-regex
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Treat the &lt;string&gt; given to <code>-S</code> as an extended POSIX regular
expression to match.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-O&lt;orderfile&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Control the order in which files appear in the output.
This overrides the <code>diff.orderFile</code> configuration variable
(see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>). To cancel <code>diff.orderFile</code>,
use <code>-O/dev/null</code>.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns in
&lt;orderfile&gt;.
All files with pathnames that match the first pattern are output
first, all files with pathnames that match the second pattern (but not
the first) are output next, and so on.
All files with pathnames that do not match any pattern are output
last, as if there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end of the
file.
If multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern
but no earlier patterns), their output order relative to each other is
the normal order.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>&lt;orderfile&gt; is parsed as follows:</p></div>
<div class="openblock">
<div class="content">
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as separators for
readability.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Lines starting with a hash ("<code>#</code>") are ignored, so they can be used
for comments. Add a backslash ("<code>\</code>") to the beginning of the
pattern if it starts with a hash.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
Each other line contains a single pattern.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "<code>foo*bar</code>"
matches "<code>fooasdfbar</code>" and "<code>foo/bar/baz/asdf</code>" but not "<code>foobarx</code>".</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-R
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
on-disk file to tree contents.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--relative[=&lt;path&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
to by giving a &lt;path&gt; as an argument.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-a
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--text
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Treat all files as text.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-cr-at-eol
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-space-at-eol
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-b
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-space-change
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-w
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-all-space
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
line has none.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-blank-lines
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--inter-hunk-context=&lt;lines&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
Defaults to <code>diff.interHunkContext</code> or 0 if the config option
is unset.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-W
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--function-context
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show whole surrounding functions of changes.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--exit-code
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and
0 means no differences.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--quiet
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disable all output of the program. Implies <code>--exit-code</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ext-diff
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
external diff driver with <a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a>, you need
to use this option with <a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a> and friends.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-ext-diff
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Disallow external diff drivers.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--textconv
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-textconv
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run
when comparing binary files. See <a href="gitattributes.html">gitattributes(5)</a> for
details. Because textconv filters are typically a one-way
conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human
consumption, but cannot be applied. For this reason, textconv
filters are enabled by default only for <a href="git-diff.html">git-diff(1)</a> and
<a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a>, but not for <a href="git-format-patch.html">git-format-patch(1)</a> or
diff plumbing commands.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ignore-submodules[=&lt;when&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. &lt;when&gt; can be
either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either contains
untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit recorded
in the superproject and can be used to override any settings of the
<em>ignore</em> option in <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a> or <a href="gitmodules.html">gitmodules(5)</a>. When
"untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when they only
contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for modified
content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work tree of submodules,
only changes to the commits stored in the superproject are shown (this was
the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to submodules.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--src-prefix=&lt;prefix&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--dst-prefix=&lt;prefix&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-prefix
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not show any source or destination prefix.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--line-prefix=&lt;prefix&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--ita-invisible-in-index
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing
empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached".
This option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff"
and non-existent in "git diff --cached". This option could be
reverted with <code>--ita-visible-in-index</code>. Both options are
experimental and could be removed in future.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
<a href="gitdiffcore.html">gitdiffcore(7)</a>.</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;tree-ish&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The id of a tree object.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
&lt;path&gt;&#8230;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
If provided, the results are limited to a subset of files
matching one of the provided pathspecs.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-r
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
recurse into sub-trees
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-t
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
show tree entry itself as well as subtrees. Implies -r.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--root
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When <code>--root</code> is specified the initial commit will be shown as a big
creation event. This is equivalent to a diff against the NULL tree.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--stdin
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
When <code>--stdin</code> is specified, the command does not take
&lt;tree-ish&gt; arguments from the command line. Instead, it
reads lines containing either two &lt;tree&gt;, one &lt;commit&gt;, or a
list of &lt;commit&gt; from its standard input. (Use a single space
as separator.)
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When two trees are given, it compares the first tree with the second.
When a single commit is given, it compares the commit with its
parents. The remaining commits, when given, are used as if they are
parents of the first commit.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>When comparing two trees, the ID of both trees (separated by a space
and terminated by a newline) is printed before the difference. When
comparing commits, the ID of the first (or only) commit, followed by a
newline, is printed.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The following flags further affect the behavior when comparing
commits (but not trees).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-m
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
By default, <em>git diff-tree --stdin</em> does not show
differences for merge commits. With this flag, it shows
differences to that commit from all of its parents. See
also <code>-c</code>.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-s
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
By default, <em>git diff-tree --stdin</em> shows differences,
either in machine-readable form (without <code>-p</code>) or in patch
form (with <code>-p</code>). This output can be suppressed. It is
only useful with <code>-v</code> flag.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-v
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This flag causes <em>git diff-tree --stdin</em> to also show
the commit message before the differences.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--pretty[=&lt;format&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--format=&lt;format&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
where <em>&lt;format&gt;</em> can be one of <em>oneline</em>, <em>short</em>, <em>medium</em>,
<em>full</em>, <em>fuller</em>, <em>email</em>, <em>raw</em>, <em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em>
and <em>tformat:&lt;string&gt;</em>. When <em>&lt;format&gt;</em> is none of the above,
and has <em>%placeholder</em> in it, it acts as if
<em>--pretty=tformat:&lt;format&gt;</em> were given.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each
format. When <em>=&lt;format&gt;</em> part is omitted, it defaults to <em>medium</em>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
configuration (see <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--abbrev-commit
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of
digits can be specified with "--abbrev=&lt;n&gt;" (which also modifies
diff output, if it is displayed).
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
people using 80-column terminals.</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-abbrev-commit
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
<code>--abbrev-commit</code> and those options which imply it such as
"--oneline". It also overrides the <code>log.abbrevCommit</code> variable.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--oneline
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
used together.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--encoding=&lt;encoding&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message
in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the
command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this
defaults to UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be encoded
in <code>X</code> and we are outputting in <code>X</code>, we will output the object
verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the original
commit may be copied to the output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--expand-tabs=&lt;n&gt;
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--expand-tabs
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-expand-tabs
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces
to fill to the next display column that is multiple of <em>&lt;n&gt;</em>)
in the log message before showing it in the output.
<code>--expand-tabs</code> is a short-hand for <code>--expand-tabs=8</code>, and
<code>--no-expand-tabs</code> is a short-hand for <code>--expand-tabs=0</code>,
which disables tab expansion.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
message by 4 spaces (i.e. <em>medium</em>, which is the default, <em>full</em>,
and <em>fuller</em>).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--notes[=&lt;treeish&gt;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the notes (see <a href="git-notes.html">git-notes(1)</a>) that annotate the
commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the default
for <code>git log</code>, <code>git show</code> and <code>git whatchanged</code> commands when
there is no <code>--pretty</code>, <code>--format</code>, or <code>--oneline</code> option given
on the command line.
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
<code>core.notesRef</code> and <code>notes.displayRef</code> variables (or corresponding
environment overrides). See <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a> for more details.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>With an optional <em>&lt;treeish&gt;</em> argument, use the treeish to find the notes
to display. The treeish can specify the full refname when it begins
with <code>refs/notes/</code>; when it begins with <code>notes/</code>, <code>refs/</code> and otherwise
<code>refs/notes/</code> is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
"refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
"refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).</p></div>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-notes
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Do not show notes. This negates the above <code>--notes</code> option, by
resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
"--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
from "refs/notes/bar".
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--show-notes[=&lt;treeish&gt;]
</dt>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--[no-]standard-notes
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
options instead.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--show-signature
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature
to <code>gpg --verify</code> and show the output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--no-commit-id
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
<em>git diff-tree</em> outputs a line with the commit ID when
applicable. This flag suppressed the commit ID output.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
-c
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed
(which means it is useful only when the command is given
one &lt;tree-ish&gt;, or <code>--stdin</code>). It shows the differences
from each of the parents to the merge result simultaneously
instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent and the
result one at a time (which is what the <code>-m</code> option does).
Furthermore, it lists only files which were modified
from all parents.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--cc
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
This flag changes the way a merge commit patch is displayed,
in a similar way to the <code>-c</code> option. It implies the <code>-c</code>
and <code>-p</code> options and further compresses the patch output
by omitting uninteresting hunks whose the contents in the parents
have only two variants and the merge result picks one of them
without modification. When all hunks are uninteresting, the commit
itself and the commit log message is not shown, just like in any other
"empty diff" case.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
--always
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
Show the commit itself and the commit log message even
if the diff itself is empty.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_pretty_formats">PRETTY FORMATS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format
is not <em>oneline</em>, <em>email</em> or <em>raw</em>, an additional line is
inserted before the <em>Author:</em> line. This line begins with
"Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed,
separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
necessarily be the list of the <strong>direct</strong> parent commits if you
have limited your view of history: for example, if you are
only interested in changes related to a certain directory or
file.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>There are several built-in formats, and you can define
additional formats by setting a pretty.&lt;name&gt;
config option to either another format name, or a
<em>format:</em> string, as described below (see
<a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>). Here are the details of the
built-in formats:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>oneline</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;sha1&gt; &lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This is designed to be as compact as possible.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>short</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>medium</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
Date: &lt;author date&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>full</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
Commit: &lt;committer&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>fuller</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>commit &lt;sha1&gt;
Author: &lt;author&gt;
AuthorDate: &lt;author date&gt;
Commit: &lt;committer&gt;
CommitDate: &lt;committer date&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>email</em>
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>From &lt;sha1&gt; &lt;date&gt;
From: &lt;author&gt;
Date: &lt;author date&gt;
Subject: [PATCH] &lt;title line&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;full commit message&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>raw</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>raw</em> format shows the entire commit exactly as
stored in the commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are
displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
--no-abbrev are used, and <em>parents</em> information show the
true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
simplification into account. Note that this format affects the way
commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown e.g. with
<code>git log --raw</code>. To get full object names in a raw diff format,
use <code>--no-abbrev</code>.</p></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>format:&lt;string&gt;</em> format allows you to specify which information
you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format,
with the notable exception that you get a newline with <em>%n</em>
instead of <em>\n</em>.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>E.g, <em>format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was &gt;&gt;%s&lt;&lt;%n"</em>
would show something like this:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
The title was &gt;&gt;t4119: test autocomputing -p&lt;n&gt; for traditional diff input.&lt;&lt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The placeholders are:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>%H</em>: commit hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%h</em>: abbreviated commit hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%T</em>: tree hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%t</em>: abbreviated tree hash
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%P</em>: parent hashes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%p</em>: abbreviated parent hashes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%an</em>: author name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aN</em>: author name (respecting .mailmap, see <a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a>
or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ae</em>: author email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aE</em>: author email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ad</em>: author date (format respects --date= option)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aD</em>: author date, RFC2822 style
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ar</em>: author date, relative
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%at</em>: author date, UNIX timestamp
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ai</em>: author date, ISO 8601-like format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%aI</em>: author date, strict ISO 8601 format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cn</em>: committer name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cN</em>: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ce</em>: committer email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cE</em>: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cd</em>: committer date (format respects --date= option)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cD</em>: committer date, RFC2822 style
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cr</em>: committer date, relative
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ct</em>: committer date, UNIX timestamp
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ci</em>: committer date, ISO 8601-like format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%cI</em>: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%d</em>: ref names, like the --decorate option of <a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%D</em>: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%S</em>: ref name given on the command line by which the commit was reached
(like <code>git log --source</code>), only works with <code>git log</code>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%e</em>: encoding
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%s</em>: subject
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%f</em>: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%b</em>: body
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%B</em>: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%N</em>: commit notes
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GG</em>: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%G?</em>: show "G" for a good (valid) signature,
"B" for a bad signature,
"U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
"X" for a good signature that has expired,
"Y" for a good signature made by an expired key,
"R" for a good signature made by a revoked key,
"E" if the signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing key)
and "N" for no signature
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GS</em>: show the name of the signer for a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GK</em>: show the key used to sign a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GF</em>: show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%GP</em>: show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was used
to sign a signed commit
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gD</em>: reflog selector, e.g., <code>refs/stash@{1}</code> or
<code>refs/stash@{2 minutes ago</code>}; the format follows the rules described
for the <code>-g</code> option. The portion before the <code>@</code> is the refname as
given on the command line (so <code>git log -g refs/heads/master</code> would
yield <code>refs/heads/master@{0}</code>).
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gd</em>: shortened reflog selector; same as <code>%gD</code>, but the refname
portion is shortened for human readability (so <code>refs/heads/master</code>
becomes just <code>master</code>).
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gn</em>: reflog identity name
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gN</em>: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%ge</em>: reflog identity email
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gE</em>: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a> or <a href="git-blame.html">git-blame(1)</a>)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%gs</em>: reflog subject
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cred</em>: switch color to red
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cgreen</em>: switch color to green
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Cblue</em>: switch color to blue
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%Creset</em>: reset color
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%C(&#8230;)</em>: color specification, as described under Values in the
"CONFIGURATION FILE" section of <a href="git-config.html">git-config(1)</a>.
By default, colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
<code>color.diff</code>, <code>color.ui</code>, or <code>--color</code>, and respecting the <code>auto</code>
settings of the former if we are going to a terminal). <code>%C(auto,...)</code>
is accepted as a historical synonym for the default (e.g.,
<code>%C(auto,red)</code>). Specifying <code>%C(always,...)</code> will show the colors
even when color is not otherwise enabled (though consider
just using <code>--color=always</code> to enable color for the whole output,
including this format and anything else git might color). <code>auto</code>
alone (i.e. <code>%C(auto)</code>) will turn on auto coloring on the next
placeholders until the color is switched again.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%m</em>: left (<code>&lt;</code>), right (<code>&gt;</code>) or boundary (<code>-</code>) mark
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%n</em>: newline
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%%</em>: a raw <em>%</em>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%x00</em>: print a byte from a hex code
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%w([&lt;w&gt;[,&lt;i1&gt;[,&lt;i2&gt;]]])</em>: switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
<a href="git-shortlog.html">git-shortlog(1)</a>.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&lt;(&lt;N&gt;[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])</em>: make the next placeholder take at
least N columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc)
or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns.
Note that truncating only works correctly with N &gt;= 2.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>%&lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, but padding spaces on the left
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>%&gt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, except that if the next placeholder takes more spaces
than given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<em>%&gt;&lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&gt;&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>: similar to <em>%&lt;(&lt;N&gt;)</em>, <em>%&lt;|(&lt;N&gt;)</em>
respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
%(trailers[:options]): display the trailers of the body as interpreted
by <a href="git-interpret-trailers.html">git-interpret-trailers(1)</a>. The <code>trailers</code> string may be
followed by a colon and zero or more comma-separated options. If the
<code>only</code> option is given, omit non-trailer lines from the trailer block.
If the <code>unfold</code> option is given, behave as if interpret-trailer&#8217;s
<code>--unfold</code> option was given. E.g., <code>%(trailers:only,unfold)</code> to do
both.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
revision traversal engine. For example, the <code>%g*</code> reflog options will
insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
<code>git log -g</code>). The <code>%d</code> and <code>%D</code> placeholders will use the "short"
decoration format if <code>--decorate</code> was not already provided on the command
line.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a <code>+</code> (plus sign) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, a line-feed
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a <code>-</code> (minus sign) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, all consecutive
line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only if the
placeholder expands to an empty string.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you add a ` ` (space) after <em>%</em> of a placeholder, a space
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
<em>tformat:</em>
</p>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>tformat:</em> format works exactly like <em>format:</em>, except that it
provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In
other words, each commit has the message terminator character (usually a
newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between entries.
This means that the final entry of a single-line format will be properly
terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does.
For example:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973 -- NO NEWLINE
$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In addition, any unrecognized string that has a <code>%</code> in it is interpreted
as if it has <code>tformat:</code> in front of it. For example, these two are
equivalent:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
$ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_raw_output_format">Raw output format</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>The raw output format from "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree",
"git-diff-files" and "git diff --raw" are very similar.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>These commands all compare two sets of things; what is
compared differs:</p></div>
<div class="dlist"><dl>
<dt class="hdlist1">
git-diff-index &lt;tree-ish&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
compares the &lt;tree-ish&gt; and the files on the filesystem.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
git-diff-index --cached &lt;tree-ish&gt;
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
compares the &lt;tree-ish&gt; and the index.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
git-diff-tree [-r] &lt;tree-ish-1&gt; &lt;tree-ish-2&gt; [&lt;pattern&gt;&#8230;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
compares the trees named by the two arguments.
</p>
</dd>
<dt class="hdlist1">
git-diff-files [&lt;pattern&gt;&#8230;]
</dt>
<dd>
<p>
compares the index and the files on the filesystem.
</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The "git-diff-tree" command begins its output by printing the hash of
what is being compared. After that, all the commands print one output
line per changed file.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>An output line is formatted this way:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>in-place edit :100644 100644 bcd1234 0123456 M file0
copy-edit :100644 100644 abcd123 1234567 C68 file1 file2
rename-edit :100644 100644 abcd123 1234567 R86 file1 file3
create :000000 100644 0000000 1234567 A file4
delete :100644 000000 1234567 0000000 D file5
unmerged :000000 000000 0000000 0000000 U file6</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>That is, from the left to the right:</p></div>
<div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
<li>
<p>
a colon.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
mode for "src"; 000000 if creation or unmerged.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
mode for "dst"; 000000 if deletion or unmerged.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
sha1 for "src"; 0{40} if creation or unmerged.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
sha1 for "dst"; 0{40} if creation, unmerged or "look at work tree".
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a space.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
status, followed by optional "score" number.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
a tab or a NUL when <code>-z</code> option is used.
</p>