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<body class="article">
<div id="header">
<h1>How to setup Git server over http</h1>
</div>
<div id="content">
<div id="preamble">
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">This document is from 2006. A lot has happened since then, and this
document is now relevant mainly if your web host is not CGI capable.
Almost everyone else should instead look at <a href="../git-http-backend.html">git-http-backend(1)</a>.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Since Apache is one of those packages people like to compile
themselves while others prefer the bureaucrat&#8217;s dream Debian, it is
impossible to give guidelines which will work for everyone. Just send
some feedback to the mailing list at <a href="mailto:git@vger.kernel.org">git@vger.kernel.org</a> to get this
document tailored to your favorite distro.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>What&#8217;s needed:</p></div>
<div class="ulist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
Have an Apache web-server
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian:
$ apt-get install apache2
To get apache2 by default started,
edit /etc/default/apache2 and set NO_START=0</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
can edit the configuration of it.
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>This could be found under /etc/httpd, or refer to your Apache documentation.</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian: this means being able to edit files under /etc/apache2</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
can restart it.
</p>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>'apachectl --graceful' might do. If it doesn't, just stop and
restart apache. Be warning that active connections to your server
might be aborted by this.</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian:
$ /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
or
$ /etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload
(which seems to do the same)
This adds symlinks from the /etc/apache2/mods-enabled to
/etc/apache2/mods-available.</code></pre>
</div></div>
</li>
<li>
<p>
have permissions to chown a directory
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
have Git installed on the client, and
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
either have Git installed on the server or have a webdav client on
the client.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>In effect, this means you&#8217;re going to be root, or that you&#8217;re using a
preconfigured WebDAV server.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_step_1_setup_a_bare_git_repository">Step 1: setup a bare Git repository</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>At the time of writing, git-http-push cannot remotely create a Git
repository. So we have to do that at the server side with Git. Another
option is to generate an empty bare repository at the client and copy
it to the server with a WebDAV client (which is the only option if Git
is not installed on the server).</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Create the directory under the DocumentRoot of the directories served
by Apache. As an example we take /usr/local/apache2, but try "grep
DocumentRoot /where/ever/httpd.conf" to find your root:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ cd /usr/local/apache/htdocs
$ mkdir my-new-repo.git</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian:</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ cd /var/www
$ mkdir my-new-repo.git</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Initialize a bare repository</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ cd my-new-repo.git
$ git --bare init</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Change the ownership to your web-server&#8217;s credentials. Use <code>"grep ^User
httpd.conf"</code> and <code>"grep ^Group httpd.conf"</code> to find out:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ chown -R www.www .</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian:</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ chown -R www-data.www-data .</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you do not know which user Apache runs as, you can alternatively do
a "chmod -R a+w .", inspect the files which are created later on, and
set the permissions appropriately.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Restart apache2, and check whether <a href="http://server/my-new-repo.git">http://server/my-new-repo.git</a> gives
a directory listing. If not, check whether apache started up
successfully.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_step_2_enable_dav_on_this_repository">Step 2: enable DAV on this repository</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>First make sure the dav_module is loaded. For this, insert in httpd.conf:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>LoadModule dav_module libexec/httpd/libdav.so
AddModule mod_dav.c</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Also make sure that this line exists which is the file used for
locking DAV operations:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>DAVLockDB "/usr/local/apache2/temp/DAV.lock"</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian these steps can be performed with:</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>Enable the dav and dav_fs modules of apache:
$ a2enmod dav_fs
(just to be sure. dav_fs might be unneeded, I don't know)
$ a2enmod dav
The DAV lock is located in /etc/apache2/mods-available/dav_fs.conf:
DAVLockDB /var/lock/apache2/DAVLock</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Of course, it can point somewhere else, but the string is actually just a
prefix in some Apache configurations, and therefore the <em>directory</em> has to
be writable by the user Apache runs as.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Then, add something like this to your httpd.conf</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;Location /my-new-repo.git&gt;
DAV on
AuthType Basic
AuthName "Git"
AuthUserFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/passwd.git
Require valid-user
&lt;/Location&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian:
Create (or add to) /etc/apache2/conf.d/git.conf :</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>&lt;Location /my-new-repo.git&gt;
DAV on
AuthType Basic
AuthName "Git"
AuthUserFile /etc/apache2/passwd.git
Require valid-user
&lt;/Location&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>Debian automatically reads all files under /etc/apache2/conf.d.</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>The password file can be somewhere else, but it has to be readable by
Apache and preferably not readable by the world.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Create this file by
$ htpasswd -c /usr/local/apache2/conf/passwd.git &lt;user&gt;</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian:
$ htpasswd -c /etc/apache2/passwd.git &lt;user&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>You will be asked a password, and the file is created. Subsequent calls
to htpasswd should omit the <em>-c</em> option, since you want to append to the
existing file.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>You need to restart Apache.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Now go to <a href="http://&lt;username&gt;@&lt;servername&gt;/my-new-repo.git">http://&lt;username&gt;@&lt;servername&gt;/my-new-repo.git</a> in your
browser to check whether it asks for a password and accepts the right
password.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>On Debian:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>To test the WebDAV part, do:</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ apt-get install litmus
$ litmus http://&lt;servername&gt;/my-new-repo.git &lt;username&gt; &lt;password&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>Most tests should pass.</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>A command-line tool to test WebDAV is cadaver. If you prefer GUIs, for
example, konqueror can open WebDAV URLs as "webdav://&#8230;" or
"webdavs://&#8230;".</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you&#8217;re into Windows, from XP onwards Internet Explorer supports
WebDAV. For this, do Internet Explorer &#8594; Open Location &#8594;
<a href="http://&lt;servername&gt;/my-new-repo.git">http://&lt;servername&gt;/my-new-repo.git</a> [x] Open as webfolder &#8594; login .</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_step_3_setup_the_client">Step 3: setup the client</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>Make sure that you have HTTP support, i.e. your Git was built with
libcurl (version more recent than 7.10). The command <em>git http-push</em> with
no argument should display a usage message.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Then, add the following to your $HOME/.netrc (you can do without, but will be
asked to input your password a <em>lot</em> of times):</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>machine &lt;servername&gt;
login &lt;username&gt;
password &lt;password&gt;</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>&#8230;and set permissions:
chmod 600 ~/.netrc</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you want to access the web-server by its IP, you have to type that in,
instead of the server name.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>To check whether all is OK, do:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>curl --netrc --location -v http://&lt;username&gt;@&lt;servername&gt;/my-new-repo.git/HEAD</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>&#8230;this should give something like <em>ref: refs/heads/master</em>, which is
the content of the file HEAD on the server.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Now, add the remote in your existing repository which contains the project
you want to export:</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ git-config remote.upload.url \
http://&lt;username&gt;@&lt;servername&gt;/my-new-repo.git/</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>It is important to put the last <em>/</em>; Without it, the server will send
a redirect which git-http-push does not (yet) understand, and git-http-push
will repeat the request infinitely.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_step_4_make_the_initial_push">Step 4: make the initial push</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>From your client repository, do</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>$ git push upload master</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>This pushes branch <em>master</em> (which is assumed to be the branch you
want to export) to repository called <em>upload</em>, which we previously
defined with git-config.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_using_a_proxy">Using a proxy:</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you have to access the WebDAV server from behind an HTTP(S) proxy,
set the variable <em>all_proxy</em> to <em>http://proxy-host.com:port</em>, or
<em>http://login-on-proxy:passwd-on-proxy@proxy-host.com:port</em>. See <em>man
curl</em> for details.</p></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="_troubleshooting">Troubleshooting:</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph"><p>If git-http-push says</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>Error: no DAV locking support on remote repo http://...</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>then it means the web-server did not accept your authentication. Make sure
that the user name and password matches in httpd.conf, .netrc and the URL
you are uploading to.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If git-http-push shows you an error (22/502) when trying to MOVE a blob,
it means that your web-server somehow does not recognize its name in the
request; This can happen when you start Apache, but then disable the
network interface. A simple restart of Apache helps.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Errors like (22/502) are of format (curl error code/http error
code). So (22/404) means something like <em>not found</em> at the server.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Reading /usr/local/apache2/logs/error_log is often helpful.</p></div>
<div class="literalblock">
<div class="content">
<pre><code>On Debian: Read /var/log/apache2/error.log instead.</code></pre>
</div></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>If you access HTTPS locations, Git may fail verifying the SSL
certificate (this is return code 60). Setting http.sslVerify=false can
help diagnosing the problem, but removes security checks.</p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Debian References: <a href="http://www.debian-administration.org/articles/285">http://www.debian-administration.org/articles/285</a></p></div>
<div class="paragraph"><p>Authors
Johannes Schindelin &lt;<a href="mailto:Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de">Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de</a>&gt;
Rutger Nijlunsing &lt;<a href="mailto:git@wingding.demon.nl">git@wingding.demon.nl</a>&gt;
Matthieu Moy &lt;<a href="mailto:Matthieu.Moy@imag.fr">Matthieu.Moy@imag.fr</a>&gt;</p></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div id="footnotes"><hr /></div>
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<div id="footer-text">
Last updated
2019-02-19 15:23:47 PST
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