Merge branch 'jk/ident-ai-canonname-could-be-null' into maint

In the codepath that comes up with the hostname to be used in an
e-mail when the user didn't tell us, we looked at ai_canonname
field in struct addrinfo without making sure it is not NULL first.

* jk/ident-ai-canonname-could-be-null:
  ident: handle NULL ai_canonname
diff --git a/.gitattributes b/.gitattributes
index 5e98806..320e33c 100644
--- a/.gitattributes
+++ b/.gitattributes
@@ -1,3 +1,3 @@
 * whitespace=!indent,trail,space
-*.[ch] whitespace=indent,trail,space
+*.[ch] whitespace=indent,trail,space diff=cpp
 *.sh whitespace=indent,trail,space
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 5087ce1..05cb58a 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -179,39 +179,6 @@
 /gitweb/gitweb.cgi
 /gitweb/static/gitweb.js
 /gitweb/static/gitweb.min.*
-/test-chmtime
-/test-ctype
-/test-config
-/test-date
-/test-delta
-/test-dump-cache-tree
-/test-dump-split-index
-/test-dump-untracked-cache
-/test-fake-ssh
-/test-scrap-cache-tree
-/test-genrandom
-/test-hashmap
-/test-index-version
-/test-line-buffer
-/test-match-trees
-/test-mergesort
-/test-mktemp
-/test-parse-options
-/test-path-utils
-/test-prio-queue
-/test-read-cache
-/test-regex
-/test-revision-walking
-/test-run-command
-/test-sha1
-/test-sha1-array
-/test-sigchain
-/test-string-list
-/test-submodule-config
-/test-subprocess
-/test-svn-fe
-/test-urlmatch-normalization
-/test-wildmatch
 /common-cmds.h
 *.tar.gz
 *.dsc
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index a9162c0..9441a54 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
 Chris Shoemaker <c.shoemaker@cox.net>
 Chris Wright <chrisw@sous-sol.org> <chrisw@osdl.org>
 Cord Seele <cowose@gmail.com> <cowose@googlemail.com>
+Christian Couder <chriscool@tuxfamily.org> <christian.couder@gmail.com>
 Christian Stimming <stimming@tuhh.de> <chs@ckiste.goetheallee>
 Csaba Henk <csaba@gluster.com> <csaba@lowlife.hu>
 Dan Johnson <computerdruid@gmail.com>
@@ -46,6 +47,7 @@
 David Kågedal <davidk@lysator.liu.se>
 David Reiss <dreiss@facebook.com> <dreiss@dreiss-vmware.(none)>
 David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
+David Turner <novalis@novalis.org> <dturner@twopensource.com>
 Deskin Miller <deskinm@umich.edu>
 Dirk Süsserott <newsletter@dirk.my1.cc>
 Eric Blake <eblake@redhat.com> <ebb9@byu.net>
diff --git a/.travis.yml b/.travis.yml
index adab5b8..37a1e1f 100644
--- a/.travis.yml
+++ b/.travis.yml
@@ -18,6 +18,8 @@
   apt:
     packages:
     - language-pack-is
+    - git-svn
+    - apache2
 
 env:
   global:
@@ -30,6 +32,7 @@
     - DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove
     - GIT_PROVE_OPTS="--timer --jobs 3 --state=failed,slow,save"
     - GIT_TEST_OPTS="--verbose --tee"
+    - GIT_TEST_HTTPD=true
     - GIT_TEST_CLONE_2GB=YesPlease
     # t9810 occasionally fails on Travis CI OS X
     # t9816 occasionally fails with "TAP out of sequence errors" on Travis CI OS X
@@ -75,12 +78,14 @@
         FORMULA=$1
         SHA=$(brew fetch --force $FORMULA 2>&1 | grep ^SHA256: | cut -d ' ' -f 2)
         sed -E -i.bak "s/sha256 \"[0-9a-f]{64}\"/sha256 \"$SHA\"/g" \
-          /usr/local/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-binary/$FORMULA.rb
+          "$(brew --repository homebrew/homebrew-binary)/$FORMULA.rb"
       }
       brew update --quiet
       brew tap homebrew/binary --quiet
       brew_force_set_latest_binary_hash perforce
       brew_force_set_latest_binary_hash perforce-server
+      # Uncomment this if you want to run perf tests:
+      # brew install gnu-time
       brew install git-lfs perforce-server perforce gettext
       brew link --force gettext
       ;;
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 0ddd368..4cd95da 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -526,12 +526,20 @@
  modifying paragraphs or option/command explanations that contain options
  or commands:
 
- Literal examples (e.g. use of command-line options, command names, and
- configuration variables) are typeset in monospace, and if you can use
- `backticks around word phrases`, do so.
+ Literal examples (e.g. use of command-line options, command names,
+ branch names, configuration and environment variables) must be
+ typeset in monospace (i.e. wrapped with backticks):
    `--pretty=oneline`
    `git rev-list`
    `remote.pushDefault`
+   `GIT_DIR`
+   `HEAD`
+
+ An environment variable must be prefixed with "$" only when referring to its
+ value and not when referring to the variable itself, in this case there is
+ nothing to add except the backticks:
+   `GIT_DIR` is specified
+   `$GIT_DIR/hooks/pre-receive`
 
  Word phrases enclosed in `backtick characters` are rendered literally
  and will not be further expanded. The use of `backticks` to achieve the
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 3e39e28..b43d66e 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -76,6 +76,7 @@
 TECH_DOCS += technical/racy-git
 TECH_DOCS += technical/send-pack-pipeline
 TECH_DOCS += technical/shallow
+TECH_DOCS += technical/signature-format
 TECH_DOCS += technical/trivial-merge
 SP_ARTICLES += $(TECH_DOCS)
 SP_ARTICLES += technical/api-index
@@ -146,7 +147,7 @@
 	ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-asciidoc-no-roff
 	endif
 endif
-ifdef MAN_BOLD_LITERAL
+ifndef NO_MAN_BOLD_LITERAL
 XMLTO_EXTRA += -m manpage-bold-literal.xsl
 endif
 ifdef DOCBOOK_SUPPRESS_SP
@@ -204,6 +205,7 @@
 	QUIET_DBLATEX	= @echo '   ' DBLATEX $@;
 	QUIET_XSLTPROC	= @echo '   ' XSLTPROC $@;
 	QUIET_GEN	= @echo '   ' GEN $@;
+	QUIET_LINT	= @echo '   ' LINT $@;
 	QUIET_STDERR	= 2> /dev/null
 	QUIET_SUBDIR0	= +@subdir=
 	QUIET_SUBDIR1	= ;$(NO_SUBDIR) echo '   ' SUBDIR $$subdir; \
@@ -427,4 +429,7 @@
 print-man1:
 	@for i in $(MAN1_TXT); do echo $$i; done
 
+lint-docs::
+	$(QUIET_LINT)$(PERL_PATH) lint-gitlink.perl
+
 .PHONY: FORCE
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f4da28a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,675 @@
+Git 2.10 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+Updates since v2.9
+------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git pull --rebase --verify-signature" learned to warn the user
+   that "--verify-signature" is a no-op when rebasing.
+
+ * An upstream project can make a recommendation to shallowly clone
+   some submodules in the .gitmodules file it ships.
+
+ * "git worktree add" learned that '-' can be used as a short-hand for
+   "@{-1}", the previous branch.
+
+ * Update the funcname definition to support css files.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) learned to complete "git
+   status" options.
+
+ * Messages that are generated by auto gc during "git push" on the
+   receiving end are now passed back to the sending end in such a way
+   that they are shown with "remote: " prefix to avoid confusing the
+   users.
+
+ * "git add -i/-p" learned to honor diff.compactionHeuristic
+   experimental knob, so that the user can work on the same hunk split
+   as "git diff" output.
+
+ * "upload-pack" allows a custom "git pack-objects" replacement when
+   responding to "fetch/clone" via the uploadpack.packObjectsHook.
+   (merge b738396 jk/upload-pack-hook later to maint).
+
+ * Teach format-patch and mailsplit (hence "am") how a line that
+   happens to begin with "From " in the e-mail message is quoted with
+   ">", so that these lines can be restored to their original shape.
+   (merge d9925d1 ew/mboxrd-format-am later to maint).
+
+ * "git repack" learned the "--keep-unreachable" option, which sends
+   loose unreachable objects to a pack instead of leaving them loose.
+   This helps heuristics based on the number of loose objects
+   (e.g. "gc --auto").
+   (merge e26a8c4 jk/repack-keep-unreachable later to maint).
+
+ * "log --graph --format=" learned that "%>|(N)" specifies the width
+   relative to the terminal's left edge, not relative to the area to
+   draw text that is to the right of the ancestry-graph section.  It
+   also now accepts negative N that means the column limit is relative
+   to the right border.
+
+ * A careless invocation of "git send-email directory/" after editing
+   0001-change.patch with an editor often ends up sending both
+   0001-change.patch and its backup file, 0001-change.patch~, causing
+   embarrassment and a minor confusion.  Detect such an input and
+   offer to skip the backup files when sending the patches out.
+   (merge 531220b jc/send-email-skip-backup later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule update" that drives many "git clone" could
+   eventually hit flaky servers/network conditions on one of the
+   submodules; the command learned to retry the attempt.
+
+ * The output coloring scheme learned two new attributes, italic and
+   strike, in addition to existing bold, reverse, etc.
+
+ * "git log" learns log.showSignature configuration variable, and a
+   command line option "--no-show-signature" to countermand it.
+   (merge fce04c3 mj/log-show-signature-conf later to maint).
+
+ * More markings of messages for i18n, with updates to various tests
+   to pass GETTEXT_POISON tests.
+
+ * "git archive" learned to handle files that are larger than 8GB and
+   commits far in the future than expressible by the traditional US-TAR
+   format.
+   (merge 560b0e8 jk/big-and-future-archive-tar later to maint).
+
+
+ * A new configuration variable core.sshCommand has been added to
+   specify what value for GIT_SSH_COMMAND to use per repository.
+
+ * "git worktree prune" protected worktrees that are marked as
+   "locked" by creating a file in a known location.  "git worktree"
+   command learned a dedicated command pair to create and remove such
+   a file, so that the users do not have to do this with editor.
+
+ * A handful of "git svn" updates.
+
+ * "git push" learned to accept and pass extra options to the
+   receiving end so that hooks can read and react to them.
+
+ * "git status" learned to suggest "merge --abort" during a conflicted
+   merge, just like it already suggests "rebase --abort" during a
+   conflicted rebase.
+
+ * "git jump" script (in contrib/) has been updated a bit.
+   (merge a91e692 jk/git-jump later to maint).
+
+ * "git push" and "git clone" learned to give better progress meters
+   to the end user who is waiting on the terminal.
+
+ * An entry "git log --decorate" for the tip of the current branch is
+   shown as "HEAD -> name" (where "name" is the name of the branch);
+   the arrow is now painted in the same color as "HEAD", not in the
+   color for commits.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned format.from configuration variable to
+   specify the default settings for its "--from" option.
+
+ * "git am -3" calls "git merge-recursive" when it needs to fall back
+   to a three-way merge; this call has been turned into an internal
+   subroutine call instead of spawning a separate subprocess.
+
+ * The command line completion scripts (in contrib/) now knows about
+   "git branch --delete/--move [--remote]".
+   (merge 2703c22 vs/completion-branch-fully-spelled-d-m-r later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-parse --git-path hooks/<hook>" learned to take
+   core.hooksPath configuration variable (introduced during 2.9 cycle)
+   into account.
+   (merge 9445b49 ab/hooks later to maint).
+
+ * "git log --show-signature" and other commands that display the
+   verification status of PGP signature now shows the longer key-id,
+   as 32-bit key-id is so last century.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * "git fast-import" learned the same performance trick to avoid
+   creating too small a packfile as "git fetch" and "git push" have,
+   using *.unpackLimit configuration.
+
+ * When "git daemon" is run without --[init-]timeout specified, a
+   connection from a client that silently goes offline can hang around
+   for a long time, wasting resources.  The socket-level KEEPALIVE has
+   been enabled to allow the OS to notice such failed connections.
+
+ * "git upload-pack" command has been updated to use the parse-options
+   API.
+
+ * The "git apply" standalone program is being libified; the first
+   step to move many state variables into a structure that can be
+   explicitly (re)initialized to make the machinery callable more
+   than once has been merged.
+
+ * HTTP transport gained an option to produce more detailed debugging
+   trace.
+   (merge 73e57aa ep/http-curl-trace later to maint).
+
+ * Instead of taking advantage of the fact that a struct string_list
+   that is allocated with all NULs happens to be the INIT_NODUP kind,
+   the users of string_list structures are taught to initialize them
+   explicitly as such, to document their behaviour better.
+   (merge 2721ce2 jk/string-list-static-init later to maint).
+
+ * HTTPd tests learned to show the server error log to help diagnosing
+   a failing tests.
+   (merge 44f243d nd/test-lib-httpd-show-error-log-in-verbose later to maint).
+
+ * The ownership rule for the piece of memory that hold references to
+   be fetched in "git fetch" was screwy, which has been cleaned up.
+
+ * "git bisect" makes an internal call to "git diff-tree" when
+   bisection finds the culprit, but this call did not initialize the
+   data structure to pass to the diff-tree API correctly.
+
+ * Further preparatory clean-up for "worktree" feature continues.
+   (merge 0409e0b nd/worktree-cleanup-post-head-protection later to maint).
+
+ * Formats of the various data (and how to validate them) where we use
+   GPG signature have been documented.
+
+ * A new run-command API function pipe_command() is introduced to
+   sanely feed data to the standard input while capturing data from
+   the standard output and the standard error of an external process,
+   which is cumbersome to hand-roll correctly without deadlocking.
+
+ * The codepath to sign data in a prepared buffer with GPG has been
+   updated to use this API to read from the status-fd to check for
+   errors (instead of relying on GPG's exit status).
+   (merge efee955 jk/gpg-interface-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Allow t/perf framework to use the features from the most recent
+   version of Git even when testing an older installed version.
+
+ * The commands in the "log/diff" family have had an FILE* pointer in the
+   data structure they pass around for a long time, but some codepaths
+   used to always write to the standard output.  As a preparatory step
+   to make "git format-patch" available to the internal callers, these
+   codepaths have been updated to consistently write into that FILE*
+   instead.
+
+ * Conversion from unsigned char sha1[20] to struct object_id
+   continues.
+
+ * Improve the look of the way "git fetch" reports what happened to
+   each ref that was fetched.
+
+ * The .c/.h sources are marked as such in our .gitattributes file so
+   that "git diff -W" and friends would work better.
+
+ * Code clean-up to avoid using a variable string that compilers may
+   feel untrustable as printf-style format given to write_file()
+   helper function.
+
+ * "git p4" used a location outside $GIT_DIR/refs/ to place its
+   temporary branches, which has been moved to refs/git-p4-tmp/.
+
+ * Existing autoconf generated test for the need to link with pthread
+   library did not check all the functions from pthread libraries;
+   recent FreeBSD has some functions in libc but not others, and we
+   mistakenly thought linking with libc is enough when it is not.
+
+ * When "git fsck" reports a broken link (e.g. a tree object contains
+   a blob that does not exist), both containing object and the object
+   that is referred to were reported with their 40-hex object names.
+   The command learned the "--name-objects" option to show the path to
+   the containing object from existing refs (e.g. "HEAD~24^2:file.txt").
+
+ * Allow http daemon tests in Travis CI tests.
+
+ * Makefile assumed that -lrt is always available on platforms that
+   want to use clock_gettime() and CLOCK_MONOTONIC, which is not a
+   case for recent Mac OS X.  The necessary symbols are often found in
+   libc on many modern systems and having -lrt on the command line, as
+   long as the library exists, had no effect, but when the platform
+   removes librt.a that is a different matter--having -lrt will break
+   the linkage.
+
+   This change could be seen as a regression for those who do need to
+   specify -lrt, as they now specifically ask for NEEDS_LIBRT when
+   building. Hopefully they are in the minority these days.
+
+ * Further preparatory work on the refs API before the pluggable
+   backend series can land.
+
+ * Error handling in the codepaths that updates refs has been
+   improved.
+
+ * The API to iterate over all the refs (i.e. for_each_ref(), etc.)
+   has been revamped.
+
+ * The handling of the "text=auto" attribute has been corrected.
+   $ echo "* text=auto eol=crlf" >.gitattributes
+   used to have the same effect as
+   $ echo "* text eol=crlf" >.gitattributes
+   i.e. declaring all files are text (ignoring "auto").  The
+   combination has been fixed to be equivalent to doing
+   $ git config core.autocrlf true
+
+ * Documentation has been updated to show better example usage
+   of the updated "text=auto" attribute.
+
+ * A few tests that specifically target "git rebase -i" have been
+   added.
+
+ * Dumb http transport on the client side has been optimized.
+   (merge ecba195 ew/http-walker later to maint).
+
+ * Users of the parse_options_concat() API function need to allocate
+   extra slots in advance and fill them with OPT_END() when they want
+   to decide the set of supported options dynamically, which makes the
+   code error-prone and hard to read.  This has been corrected by tweaking
+   the API to allocate and return a new copy of "struct option" array.
+
+ * "git fetch" exchanges batched have/ack messages between the sender
+   and the receiver, initially doubling every time and then falling
+   back to enlarge the window size linearly.  The "smart http"
+   transport, being an half-duplex protocol, outgrows the preset limit
+   too quickly and becomes inefficient when interacting with a large
+   repository.  The internal mechanism learned to grow the window size
+   more aggressively when working with the "smart http" transport.
+
+ * Tests for "git svn" have been taught to reuse the lib-httpd test
+   infrastructure when testing the subversion integration that
+   interacts with subversion repositories served over the http://
+   protocol.
+   (merge a8a5d25 ew/git-svn-http-tests later to maint).
+
+ * "git pack-objects" has a few options that tell it not to pack
+   objects found in certain packfiles, which require it to scan .idx
+   files of all available packs.  The codepaths involved in these
+   operations have been optimized for a common case of not having any
+   non-local pack and/or any .kept pack.
+
+ * The t3700 test about "add --chmod=-x" have been made a bit more
+   robust and generally cleaned up.
+   (merge 766cdc4 ib/t3700-add-chmod-x-updates later to maint).
+
+ * The build procedure learned PAGER_ENV knob that lists what default
+   environment variable settings to export for popular pagers.  This
+   mechanism is used to tweak the default settings to MORE on FreeBSD.
+   (merge 995bc22 ew/build-time-pager-tweaks later to maint).
+
+ * The http-backend (the server-side component of smart-http
+   transport) used to trickle the HTTP header one at a time.  Now
+   these write(2)s are batched.
+   (merge b36045c ew/http-backend-batch-headers later to maint).
+
+ * When "git rebase" tries to compare set of changes on the updated
+   upstream and our own branch, it computes patch-id for all of these
+   changes and attempts to find matches. This has been optimized by
+   lazily computing the full patch-id (which is expensive) to be
+   compared only for changes that touch the same set of paths.
+   (merge ba67504 kw/patch-ids-optim later to maint).
+
+ * A handful of tests that were broken under gettext-poison build have
+   been fixed.
+
+ * The recent i18n patch we added during this cycle did a bit too much
+   refactoring of the messages to avoid word-legos; the repetition has
+   been reduced to help translators.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.9
+----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.8 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * The commands in `git log` family take %C(auto) in a custom format
+   string.  This unconditionally turned the color on, ignoring
+   --no-color or with --color=auto when the output is not connected to
+   a tty; this was corrected to make the format truly behave as
+   "auto".
+
+ * "git rev-list --count" whose walk-length is limited with "-n"
+   option did not work well with the counting optimized to look at the
+   bitmap index.
+
+ * "git show -W" (extend hunks to cover the entire function, delimited
+   by lines that match the "funcname" pattern) used to show the entire
+   file when a change added an entire function at the end of the file,
+   which has been fixed.
+
+ * The documentation set has been updated so that literal commands,
+   configuration variables and environment variables are consistently
+   typeset in fixed-width font and bold in manpages.
+
+ * "git svn propset" subcommand that was added in 2.3 days is
+   documented now.
+
+ * The documentation tries to consistently spell "GPG"; when
+   referring to the specific program name, "gpg" is used.
+
+ * "git reflog" stopped upon seeing an entry that denotes a branch
+   creation event (aka "unborn"), which made it appear as if the
+   reflog was truncated.
+
+ * The git-prompt scriptlet (in contrib/) was not friendly with those
+   who uses "set -u", which has been fixed.
+
+ * compat/regex code did not cleanly compile.
+
+ * A codepath that used alloca(3) to place an unbounded amount of data
+   on the stack has been updated to avoid doing so.
+
+ * "git update-index --add --chmod=+x file" may be usable as an escape
+   hatch, but not a friendly thing to force for people who do need to
+   use it regularly.  "git add --chmod=+x file" can be used instead.
+
+ * Build improvements for gnome-keyring (in contrib/)
+
+ * "git status" used to say "working directory" when it meant "working
+   tree".
+
+ * Comments about misbehaving FreeBSD shells have been clarified with
+   the version number (9.x and before are broken, newer ones are OK).
+
+ * "git cherry-pick A" worked on an unborn branch, but "git
+   cherry-pick A..B" didn't.
+
+ * Fix an unintended regression in v2.9 that breaks "clone --depth"
+   that recurses down to submodules by forcing the submodules to also
+   be cloned shallowly, which many server instances that host upstream
+   of the submodules are not prepared for.
+
+ * Fix unnecessarily waste in the idiomatic use of ': ${VAR=default}'
+   to set the default value, without enclosing it in double quotes.
+
+ * Some platform-specific code had non-ANSI strict declarations of C
+   functions that do not take any parameters, which has been
+   corrected.
+
+ * The internal code used to show local timezone offset is not
+   prepared to handle timestamps beyond year 2100, and gave a
+   bogus offset value to the caller.  Use a more benign looking
+   +0000 instead and let "git log" going in such a case, instead
+   of aborting.
+
+ * One among four invocations of readlink(1) in our test suite has
+   been rewritten so that the test can run on systems without the
+   command (others are in valgrind test framework and t9802).
+
+ * t/perf needs /usr/bin/time with GNU extension; the invocation of it
+   is updated to "gtime" on Darwin.
+
+ * A bug, which caused "git p4" while running under verbose mode to
+   report paths that are omitted due to branch prefix incorrectly, has
+   been fixed; the command said "Ignoring file outside of prefix" for
+   paths that are _inside_.
+
+ * The top level documentation "git help git" still pointed at the
+   documentation set hosted at now-defunct google-code repository.
+   Update it to point to https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html
+   instead.
+
+ * A helper function that takes the contents of a commit object and
+   finds its subject line did not ignore leading blank lines, as is
+   commonly done by other codepaths.  Make it ignore leading blank
+   lines to match.
+
+ * For a long time, we carried an in-code comment that said our
+   colored output would work only when we use fprintf/fputs on
+   Windows, which no longer is the case for the past few years.
+
+ * "gc.autoPackLimit" when set to 1 should not trigger a repacking
+   when there is only one pack, but the code counted poorly and did
+   so.
+
+ * Add a test to specify the desired behaviour that currently is not
+   available in "git rebase -Xsubtree=...".
+
+ * More mark-up updates to typeset strings that are expected to
+   literally typed by the end user in fixed-width font.
+
+ * "git commit --amend --allow-empty-message -S" for a commit without
+   any message body could have misidentified where the header of the
+   commit object ends.
+
+ * "git rebase -i --autostash" did not restore the auto-stashed change
+   when the operation was aborted.
+
+ * Git does not know what the contents in the index should be for a
+   path added with "git add -N" yet, so "git grep --cached" should not
+   show hits (or show lack of hits, with -L) in such a path, but that
+   logic does not apply to "git grep", i.e. searching in the working
+   tree files.  But we did so by mistake, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git blame -M" missed a single line that was moved within the file.
+
+ * Fix recently introduced codepaths that are involved in parallel
+   submodule operations, which gave up on reading too early, and
+   could have wasted CPU while attempting to write under a corner
+   case condition.
+
+ * "git grep -i" has been taught to fold case in non-ascii locales
+   correctly.
+
+ * A test that unconditionally used "mktemp" learned that the command
+   is not necessarily available everywhere.
+
+ * There are certain house-keeping tasks that need to be performed at
+   the very beginning of any Git program, and programs that are not
+   built-in commands had to do them exactly the same way as "git"
+   potty does.  It was easy to make mistakes in one-off standalone
+   programs (like test helpers).  A common "main()" function that
+   calls cmd_main() of individual program has been introduced to
+   make it harder to make mistakes.
+   (merge de61ceb jk/common-main later to maint).
+
+ * The test framework learned a new helper test_match_signal to
+   check an exit code from getting killed by an expected signal.
+
+ * General code clean-up around a helper function to write a
+   single-liner to a file.
+   (merge 7eb6e10 jk/write-file later to maint).
+
+ * One part of "git am" had an oddball helper function that called
+   stuff from outside "his" as opposed to calling what we have "ours",
+   which was not gender-neutral and also inconsistent with the rest of
+   the system where outside stuff is usuall called "theirs" in
+   contrast to "ours".
+
+ * "git blame file" allowed the lineage of lines in the uncommitted,
+   unadded contents of "file" to be inspected, but it refused when
+   "file" did not appear in the current commit.  When "file" was
+   created by renaming an existing file (but the change has not been
+   committed), this restriction was unnecessarily tight.
+
+ * "git add -N dir/file && git write-tree" produced an incorrect tree
+   when there are other paths in the same directory that sorts after
+   "file".
+
+ * "git fetch http://user:pass@host/repo..." scrubbed the userinfo
+   part, but "git push" didn't.
+
+ * "git merge" with renormalization did not work well with
+   merge-recursive, due to "safer crlf" conversion kicking in when it
+   shouldn't.
+   (merge 1335d76 jc/renormalize-merge-kill-safer-crlf later to maint).
+
+ * The use of strbuf in "git rm" to build filename to remove was a bit
+   suboptimal, which has been fixed.
+
+ * An age old bug that caused "git diff --ignore-space-at-eol"
+   misbehave has been fixed.
+
+ * "git notes merge" had a code to see if a path exists (and fails if
+   it does) and then open the path for writing (when it doesn't).
+   Replace it with open with O_EXCL.
+
+ * "git pack-objects" and "git index-pack" mostly operate with off_t
+   when talking about the offset of objects in a packfile, but there
+   were a handful of places that used "unsigned long" to hold that
+   value, leading to an unintended truncation.
+
+ * Recent update to "git daemon" tries to enable the socket-level
+   KEEPALIVE, but when it is spawned via inetd, the standard input
+   file descriptor may not necessarily be connected to a socket.
+   Suppress an ENOTSOCK error from setsockopt().
+
+ * Recent FreeBSD stopped making perl available at /usr/bin/perl;
+   switch the default the built-in path to /usr/local/bin/perl on not
+   too ancient FreeBSD releases.
+
+ * "git commit --help" said "--no-verify" is only about skipping the
+   pre-commit hook, and failed to say that it also skipped the
+   commit-msg hook.
+
+ * "git merge" in Git v2.9 was taught to forbid merging an unrelated
+   lines of history by default, but that is exactly the kind of thing
+   the "--rejoin" mode of "git subtree" (in contrib/) wants to do.
+   "git subtree" has been taught to use the "--allow-unrelated-histories"
+   option to override the default.
+
+ * The build procedure for "git persistent-https" helper (in contrib/)
+   has been updated so that it can be built with more recent versions
+   of Go.
+
+ * There is an optimization used in "git diff $treeA $treeB" to borrow
+   an already checked-out copy in the working tree when it is known to
+   be the same as the blob being compared, expecting that open/mmap of
+   such a file is faster than reading it from the object store, which
+   involves inflating and applying delta.  This however kicked in even
+   when the checked-out copy needs to go through the convert-to-git
+   conversion (including the clean filter), which defeats the whole
+   point of the optimization.  The optimization has been disabled when
+   the conversion is necessary.
+
+ * "git -c grep.patternType=extended log --basic-regexp" misbehaved
+   because the internal API to access the grep machinery was not
+   designed well.
+
+ * Windows port was failing some tests in t4130, due to the lack of
+   inum in the returned values by its lstat(2) emulation.
+
+ * The reflog output format is documented better, and a new format
+   --date=unix to report the seconds-since-epoch (without timezone)
+   has been added.
+   (merge 442f6fd jk/reflog-date later to maint).
+
+ * "git difftool <paths>..." started in a subdirectory failed to
+   interpret the paths relative to that directory, which has been
+   fixed.
+
+ * The characters in the label shown for tags/refs for commits in
+   "gitweb" output are now properly escaped for proper HTML output.
+
+ * FreeBSD can lie when asked mtime of a directory, which made the
+   untracked cache code to fall back to a slow-path, which in turn
+   caused tests in t7063 to fail because it wanted to verify the
+   behaviour of the fast-path.
+
+ * Squelch compiler warnings for nedmalloc (in compat/) library.
+
+ * A small memory leak in the command line parsing of "git blame"
+   has been plugged.
+
+ * The API documentation for hashmap was unclear if hashmap_entry
+   can be safely discarded without any other consideration.  State
+   that it is safe to do so.
+
+ * Not-so-recent rewrite of "git am" that started making internal
+   calls into the commit machinery had an unintended regression, in
+   that no matter how many seconds it took to apply many patches, the
+   resulting committer timestamp for the resulting commits were all
+   the same.
+
+ * "git push --force-with-lease" already had enough logic to allow
+   ensuring that such a push results in creation of a ref (i.e. the
+   receiving end did not have another push from sideways that would be
+   discarded by our force-pushing), but didn't expose this possibility
+   to the users.  It does so now.
+   (merge 9eed4f3 jk/push-force-with-lease-creation later to maint).
+
+ * The mechanism to limit the pack window memory size, when packing is
+   done using multiple threads (which is the default), is per-thread,
+   but this was not documented clearly.
+   (merge 954176c ms/document-pack-window-memory-is-per-thread later to maint).
+
+ * "import-tars" fast-import script (in contrib/) used to ignore a
+   hardlink target and replaced it with an empty file, which has been
+   corrected to record the same blob as the other file the hardlink is
+   shared with.
+   (merge 04e0869 js/import-tars-hardlinks later to maint).
+
+ * "git mv dir non-existing-dir/" did not work in some environments
+   the same way as existing mainstream platforms.  The code now moves
+   "dir" to "non-existing-dir", without relying on rename("A", "B/")
+   that strips the trailing slash of '/'.
+   (merge 189d035 js/mv-dir-to-new-directory later to maint).
+
+ * The "t/" hierarchy is prone to get an unusual pathname; "make test"
+   has been taught to make sure they do not contain paths that cannot
+   be checked out on Windows (and the mechanism can be reusable to
+   catch pathnames that are not portable to other platforms as need
+   arises).
+   (merge c2cafd3 js/test-lint-pathname later to maint).
+
+ * When "git merge-recursive" works on history with many criss-cross
+   merges in "verbose" mode, the names the command assigns to the
+   virtual merge bases could have overwritten each other by unintended
+   reuse of the same piece of memory.
+   (merge 5447a76 rs/pull-signed-tag later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout --detach <branch>" used to give the same advice
+   message as that is issued when "git checkout <tag>" (or anything
+   that is not a branch name) is given, but asking with "--detach" is
+   an explicit enough sign that the user knows what is going on.  The
+   advice message has been squelched in this case.
+   (merge 779b88a sb/checkout-explit-detach-no-advice later to maint).
+
+ * "git difftool" by default ignores the error exit from the backend
+   commands it spawns, because often they signal that they found
+   differences by exiting with a non-zero status code just like "diff"
+   does; the exit status codes 126 and above however are special in
+   that they are used to signal that the command is not executable,
+   does not exist, or killed by a signal.  "git difftool" has been
+   taught to notice these exit status codes.
+   (merge 45a4f5d jk/difftool-command-not-found later to maint).
+
+ * On Windows, help.browser configuration variable used to be ignored,
+   which has been corrected.
+   (merge 6db5967 js/no-html-bypass-on-windows later to maint).
+
+ * The "git -c var[=val] cmd" facility to append a configuration
+   variable definition at the end of the search order was described in
+   git(1) manual page, but not in git-config(1), which was more likely
+   place for people to look for when they ask "can I make a one-shot
+   override, and if so how?"
+   (merge ae1f709 dg/document-git-c-in-git-config-doc later to maint).
+
+ * The tempfile (hence its user lockfile) API lets the caller to open
+   a file descriptor to a temporary file, write into it and then
+   finalize it by first closing the filehandle and then either
+   removing or renaming the temporary file.  When the process spawns a
+   subprocess after obtaining the file descriptor, and if the
+   subprocess has not exited when the attempt to remove or rename is
+   made, the last step fails on Windows, because the subprocess has
+   the file descriptor still open.  Open tempfile with O_CLOEXEC flag
+   to avoid this (on Windows, this is mapped to O_NOINHERIT).
+   (merge 05d1ed6 bw/mingw-avoid-inheriting-fd-to-lockfile later to maint).
+
+ * Correct an age-old calco (is that a typo-like word for calc)
+   in the documentation.
+   (merge 7841c48 ls/packet-line-protocol-doc-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor clean-ups and documentation updates
+   (merge 02a8cfa rs/merge-add-strategies-simplification later to maint).
+   (merge af4941d rs/merge-recursive-string-list-init later to maint).
+   (merge 1eb47f1 rs/use-strbuf-add-unique-abbrev later to maint).
+   (merge ddd0bfa jk/tighten-alloc later to maint).
+   (merge ecf30b2 rs/mailinfo-lib later to maint).
+   (merge 0eb75ce sg/reflog-past-root later to maint).
+   (merge 4369523 hv/doc-commit-reference-style later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..73f3b97
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,120 @@
+Git v2.10.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.10
+-----------------
+
+ * Clarify various ways to specify the "revision ranges" in the
+   documentation.
+
+ * "diff-highlight" script (in contrib/) learned to work better with
+   "git log -p --graph" output.
+
+ * The test framework left the number of tests and success/failure
+   count in the t/test-results directory, keyed by the name of the
+   test script plus the process ID.  The latter however turned out not
+   to serve any useful purpose.  The process ID part of the filename
+   has been removed.
+
+ * Having a submodule whose ".git" repository is somehow corrupt
+   caused a few commands that recurse into submodules loop forever.
+
+ * "git symbolic-ref -d HEAD" happily removes the symbolic ref, but
+   the resulting repository becomes an invalid one.  Teach the command
+   to forbid removal of HEAD.
+
+ * A test spawned a short-lived background process, which sometimes
+   prevented the test directory from getting removed at the end of the
+   script on some platforms.
+
+ * Update a few tests that used to use GIT_CURL_VERBOSE to use the
+   newer GIT_TRACE_CURL.
+
+ * Update Japanese translation for "git-gui".
+
+ * "git fetch http::/site/path" did not die correctly and segfaulted
+   instead.
+
+ * "git commit-tree" stopped reading commit.gpgsign configuration
+   variable that was meant for Porcelain "git commit" in Git 2.9; we
+   forgot to update "git gui" to look at the configuration to match
+   this change.
+
+ * "git log --cherry-pick" used to include merge commits as candidates
+   to be matched up with other commits, resulting a lot of wasted time.
+   The patch-id generation logic has been updated to ignore merges to
+   avoid the wastage.
+
+ * The http transport (with curl-multi option, which is the default
+   these days) failed to remove curl-easy handle from a curlm session,
+   which led to unnecessary API failures.
+
+ * "git diff -W" output needs to extend the context backward to
+   include the header line of the current function and also forward to
+   include the body of the entire current function up to the header
+   line of the next one.  This process may have to merge to adjacent
+   hunks, but the code forgot to do so in some cases.
+
+ * Performance tests done via "t/perf" did not use the same set of
+   build configuration if the user relied on autoconf generated
+   configuration.
+
+ * "git format-patch --base=..." feature that was recently added
+   showed the base commit information after "-- " e-mail signature
+   line, which turned out to be inconvenient.  The base information
+   has been moved above the signature line.
+
+ * Even when "git pull --rebase=preserve" (and the underlying "git
+   rebase --preserve") can complete without creating any new commit
+   (i.e. fast-forwards), it still insisted on having a usable ident
+   information (read: user.email is set correctly), which was less
+   than nice.  As the underlying commands used inside "git rebase"
+   would fail with a more meaningful error message and advice text
+   when the bogus ident matters, this extra check was removed.
+
+ * "git gc --aggressive" used to limit the delta-chain length to 250,
+   which is way too deep for gaining additional space savings and is
+   detrimental for runtime performance.  The limit has been reduced to
+   50.
+
+ * Documentation for individual configuration variables to control use
+   of color (like `color.grep`) said that their default value is
+   'false', instead of saying their default is taken from `color.ui`.
+   When we updated the default value for color.ui from 'false' to
+   'auto' quite a while ago, all of them broke.  This has been
+   corrected.
+
+ * A shell script example in check-ref-format documentation has been
+   fixed.
+
+ * "git checkout <word>" does not follow the usual disambiguation
+   rules when the <word> can be both a rev and a path, to allow
+   checking out a branch 'foo' in a project that happens to have a
+   file 'foo' in the working tree without having to disambiguate.
+   This was poorly documented and the check was incorrect when the
+   command was run from a subdirectory.
+
+ * Some codepaths in "git diff" used regexec(3) on a buffer that was
+   mmap(2)ed, which may not have a terminating NUL, leading to a read
+   beyond the end of the mapped region.  This was fixed by introducing
+   a regexec_buf() helper that takes a <ptr,len> pair with REG_STARTEND
+   extension.
+
+ * The procedure to build Git on Mac OS X for Travis CI hardcoded the
+   internal directory structure we assumed HomeBrew uses, which was a
+   no-no.  The procedure has been updated to ask HomeBrew things we
+   need to know to fix this.
+
+ * When "git rebase -i" is given a broken instruction, it told the
+   user to fix it with "--edit-todo", but didn't say what the step
+   after that was (i.e. "--continue").
+
+ * "git add --chmod=+x" added recently lacked documentation, which has
+   been corrected.
+
+ * "git add --chmod=+x <pathspec>" added recently only toggled the
+   executable bit for paths that are either new or modified. This has
+   been corrected to flip the executable bit for all paths that match
+   the given pathspec.
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.10.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.10.txt
index 9d425d8..20c2d2c 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.10.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.10.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
  * xdiff code we use to generate diffs is not prepared to handle
    extremely large files.  It uses "int" in many places, which can
    overflow if we have a very large number of lines or even bytes in
-   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to soemwhere
+   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to somewhere
    around 1GB for now.
 
  * Some protocols (like git-remote-ext) can execute arbitrary code
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.10.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.10.txt
index 8621199..702d8d4 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.10.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.10.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
  * xdiff code we use to generate diffs is not prepared to handle
    extremely large files.  It uses "int" in many places, which can
    overflow if we have a very large number of lines or even bytes in
-   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to soemwhere
+   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to somewhere
    around 1GB for now.
 
  * Some protocols (like git-remote-ext) can execute arbitrary code
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.4.txt
index a5e8477..b8a2f93 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.4.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
  * xdiff code we use to generate diffs is not prepared to handle
    extremely large files.  It uses "int" in many places, which can
    overflow if we have a very large number of lines or even bytes in
-   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to soemwhere
+   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to somewhere
    around 1GB for now.
 
  * Some protocols (like git-remote-ext) can execute arbitrary code
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.1.txt
index 1e51363..f37ea89 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.1.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
  * xdiff code we use to generate diffs is not prepared to handle
    extremely large files.  It uses "int" in many places, which can
    overflow if we have a very large number of lines or even bytes in
-   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to soemwhere
+   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to somewhere
    around 1GB for now.
 
  * Some protocols (like git-remote-ext) can execute arbitrary code
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b61d367
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,512 @@
+Git 2.9 Release Notes
+=====================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+The end-user facing Porcelain level commands in the "git diff" and
+"git log" family by default enable the rename detection; you can still
+use "diff.renames" configuration variable to disable this.
+
+Merging two branches that have no common ancestor with "git merge" is
+by default forbidden now to prevent creating such an unusual merge by
+mistake.
+
+The output formats of "git log" that indents the commit log message by
+4 spaces now expands HT in the log message by default.  You can use
+the "--no-expand-tabs" option to disable this.
+
+"git commit-tree" plumbing command required the user to always sign
+its result when the user sets the commit.gpgsign configuration
+variable, which was an ancient mistake, which this release corrects.
+A script that drives commit-tree, if it relies on this mistake, now
+needs to read commit.gpgsign and pass the -S option as necessary.
+
+
+Updates since v2.8
+------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Comes with git-multimail 1.3.1 (in contrib/).
+
+ * The end-user facing commands like "git diff" and "git log"
+   now enable the rename detection by default.
+
+ * The credential.helper configuration variable is cumulative and
+   there is no good way to override it from the command line.  As
+   a special case, giving an empty string as its value now serves
+   as the signal to clear the values specified in various files.
+
+ * A new "interactive.diffFilter" configuration can be used to
+   customize the diff shown in "git add -i" sessions.
+
+ * "git p4" now allows P4 author names to be mapped to Git author
+   names.
+
+ * "git rebase -x" can be used without passing "-i" option.
+
+ * "git -c credential.<var>=<value> submodule" can now be used to
+   propagate configuration variables related to credential helper
+   down to the submodules.
+
+ * "git tag" can create an annotated tag without explicitly given an
+   "-a" (or "-s") option (i.e. when a tag message is given).  A new
+   configuration variable, tag.forceSignAnnotated, can be used to tell
+   the command to create signed tag in such a situation.
+
+ * "git merge" used to allow merging two branches that have no common
+   base by default, which led to a brand new history of an existing
+   project created and then get pulled by an unsuspecting maintainer,
+   which allowed an unnecessary parallel history merged into the
+   existing project.  The command has been taught not to allow this by
+   default, with an escape hatch "--allow-unrelated-histories" option
+   to be used in a rare event that merges histories of two projects
+   that started their lives independently.
+
+ * "git pull" has been taught to pass the "--allow-unrelated-histories"
+   option to underlying "git merge".
+
+ * "git apply -v" learned to report paths in the patch that were
+   skipped via --include/--exclude mechanism or being outside the
+   current working directory.
+
+ * Shell completion (in contrib/) updates.
+
+ * The commit object name reported when "rebase -i" stops has been
+   shortened.
+
+ * "git worktree add" can be given "--no-checkout" option to only
+   create an empty worktree without checking out the files.
+
+ * "git mergetools" learned to drive ExamDiff.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" learned "--[no-]autostash" option, so that
+   the rebase.autostash configuration variable set to true can be
+   overridden from the command line.
+
+ * When "git log" shows the log message indented by 4-spaces, the
+   remainder of a line after a HT does not align in the way the author
+   originally intended.  The command now expands tabs by default to help
+   such a case, and allows the users to override it with a new option,
+   "--no-expand-tabs".
+
+ * "git send-email" now uses a more readable timestamps when
+   formulating a message ID.
+
+ * "git rerere" can encounter two or more files with the same conflict
+   signature that have to be resolved in different ways, but there was
+   no way to record these separate resolutions.
+
+ * "git p4" learned to record P4 jobs in Git commit that imports from
+   the history in Perforce.
+
+ * "git describe --contains" often made a hard-to-justify choice of
+   tag to name a given commit, because it tried to come up
+   with a name with smallest number of hops from a tag, causing an old
+   commit whose close descendant that is recently tagged were not
+   described with respect to an old tag but with a newer tag.  It did
+   not help that its computation of "hop" count was further tweaked to
+   penalize being on a side branch of a merge.  The logic has been
+   updated to favor using the tag with the oldest tagger date, which
+   is a lot easier to explain to the end users: "We describe a commit
+   in terms of the (chronologically) oldest tag that contains the
+   commit."
+
+ * "git clone" learned the "--shallow-submodules" option.
+
+ * HTTP transport clients learned to throw extra HTTP headers at the
+   server, specified via http.extraHeader configuration variable.
+
+ * The "--compaction-heuristic" option to "git diff" family of
+   commands enables a heuristic to make the patch output more readable
+   by using a blank line as a strong hint that the contents before and
+   after it belong to logically separate units.  It is still
+   experimental.
+
+ * A new configuration variable core.hooksPath allows customizing
+   where the hook directory is.
+
+ * An earlier addition of "sanitize_submodule_env" with 14111fc4 (git:
+   submodule honor -c credential.* from command line, 2016-02-29)
+   turned out to be a convoluted no-op; implement what it wanted to do
+   correctly, and stop filtering settings given via "git -c var=val".
+
+ * "git commit --dry-run" reported "No, no, you cannot commit." in one
+   case where "git commit" would have allowed you to commit, and this
+   improves it a little bit ("git commit --dry-run --short" still does
+   not give you the correct answer, for example).  This is a stop-gap
+   measure in that "commit --short --dry-run" still gives an incorrect
+   result.
+
+ * The experimental "multiple worktree" feature gains more safety to
+   forbid operations on a branch that is checked out or being actively
+   worked on elsewhere, by noticing that e.g. it is being rebased.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned a new "--base" option to record what
+   (public, well-known) commit the original series was built on in
+   its output.
+
+ * "git commit" learned to pay attention to the "commit.verbose"
+   configuration variable and act as if the "--verbose" option
+   was given from the command line.
+
+ * Updated documentation gives hints to GMail users with two-factor
+   auth enabled that they need app-specific-password when using
+   "git send-email".
+
+ * The manpage output of our documentation did not render well in
+   terminal; typeset literals in bold by default to make them stand
+   out more.
+
+ * The mark-up in the top-level README.md file has been updated to
+   typeset CLI command names differently from the body text.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The embedded args argv-array in the child process is used to build
+   the command line to run pack-objects instead of using a separate
+   array of strings.
+
+ * A test for tags has been restructured so that more parts of it can
+   easily be run on a platform without a working GnuPG.
+
+ * The startup_info data, which records if we are working inside a
+   repository (among other things), are now uniformly available to Git
+   subcommand implementations, and Git avoids attempting to touch
+   references when we are not in a repository.
+
+ * The command line argument parser for "receive-pack" has been
+   rewritten to use parse-options.
+
+ * A major part of "git submodule update" has been ported to C to take
+   advantage of the recently added framework to run download tasks in
+   parallel.  Other updates to "git submodule" that move pieces of
+   logic to C continues.
+
+ * Rename bunch of tests on "git clone" for better organization.
+
+ * The tests that involve running httpd leaked the system-wide
+   configuration in /etc/gitconfig to the tested environment.
+
+ * Build updates for MSVC.
+
+ * The repository set-up sequence has been streamlined (the biggest
+   change is that there is no longer git_config_early()), so that we
+   do not attempt to look into refs/* when we know we do not have a
+   Git repository.
+
+ * Code restructuring around the "refs" API to prepare for pluggable
+   refs backends.
+
+ * Sources to many test helper binaries and the generated helpers
+   have been moved to t/helper/ subdirectory to reduce clutter at the
+   top level of the tree.
+
+ * Unify internal logic between "git tag -v" and "git verify-tag"
+   commands by making one directly call into the other.
+
+ * "merge-recursive" strategy incorrectly checked if a path that is
+   involved in its internal merge exists in the working tree.
+
+ * The test scripts for "git p4" (but not "git p4" implementation
+   itself) has been updated so that they would work even on a system
+   where the installed version of Python is python 3.
+
+ * As nobody maintains our in-tree git.spec.in and distros use their
+   own spec file, we stopped pretending that we support "make rpm".
+
+ * Move from "unsigned char[20]" to "struct object_id" continues.
+
+ * The code for warning_errno/die_errno has been refactored and a new
+   error_errno() reporting helper is introduced.
+   (merge 1da045f nd/error-errno later to maint).
+
+ * Running tests with '-x' option to trace the individual command
+   executions is a useful way to debug test scripts, but some tests
+   that capture the standard error stream and check what the command
+   said can be broken with the trace output mixed in.  When running
+   our tests under "bash", however, we can redirect the trace output
+   to another file descriptor to keep the standard error of programs
+   being tested intact.
+
+ * t0040 had too many unnecessary repetitions in its test data.  Teach
+   test-parse-options program so that a caller can tell what it
+   expects in its output, so that these repetitions can be cleaned up.
+
+ * Add perf test for "rebase -i".
+
+ * Common mistakes when writing gitlink: in our documentation are
+   found by "make check-docs".
+
+ * t9xxx series has been updated primarily for readability, while
+   fixing small bugs in it.  A few scripted Porcelain commands have
+   also been updated to fix possible bugs around their use of
+   "test -z" and "test -n".
+
+ * CI test was taught to run git-svn tests.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-all" has been sped up, by taking advantage
+   of the fact that it does not have to read a list of objects, in two
+   ways.
+
+ * test updates to make it more readable and maintainable.
+   (merge e6273f4 es/t1500-modernize later to maint).
+
+ * "make DEVELOPER=1" worked as expected; setting DEVELOPER=1 in
+   config.mak didn't.
+   (merge 51dd3e8 mm/makefile-developer-can-be-in-config-mak later to maint).
+
+ * The way how "submodule--helper list" signals unmatch error to its
+   callers has been updated.
+
+ * A bash-ism "local" has been removed from "git submodule" scripted
+   Porcelain.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.8
+----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.8 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * "git config --get-urlmatch", unlike other variants of the "git
+   config --get" family, did not signal error with its exit status
+   when there was no matching configuration.
+
+ * The "--local-env-vars" and "--resolve-git-dir" options of "git
+   rev-parse" failed to work outside a repository when the command's
+   option parsing was rewritten in 1.8.5 era.
+
+ * "git index-pack --keep[=<msg>] pack-$name.pack" simply did not work.
+
+ * Fetching of history by naming a commit object name directly didn't
+   work across remote-curl transport.
+
+ * A small memory leak in an error codepath has been plugged in xdiff
+   code.
+
+ * strbuf_getwholeline() did not NUL-terminate the buffer on certain
+   corner cases in its error codepath.
+
+ * "git mergetool" did not work well with conflicts that both sides
+   deleted.
+
+ * "git send-email" had trouble parsing alias file in mailrc format
+   when lines in it had trailing whitespaces on them.
+
+ * When "git merge --squash" stopped due to conflict, the concluding
+   "git commit" failed to read in the SQUASH_MSG that shows the log
+   messages from all the squashed commits.
+
+ * "git merge FETCH_HEAD" dereferenced NULL pointer when merging
+   nothing into an unborn history (which is arguably unusual usage,
+   which perhaps was the reason why nobody noticed it).
+
+ * When "git worktree" feature is in use, "git branch -d" allowed
+   deletion of a branch that is checked out in another worktree,
+   which was wrong.
+
+ * When "git worktree" feature is in use, "git branch -m" renamed a
+   branch that is checked out in another worktree without adjusting
+   the HEAD symbolic ref for the worktree.
+
+ * "git diff -M" used to work better when two originally identical
+   files A and B got renamed to X/A and X/B by pairing A to X/A and B
+   to X/B, but this was broken in the 2.0 timeframe.
+
+ * "git send-pack --all <there>" was broken when its command line
+   option parsing was written in the 2.6 timeframe.
+
+ * "git format-patch --help" showed `-s` and `--no-patch` as if these
+   are valid options to the command.  We already hide `--patch` option
+   from the documentation, because format-patch is about showing the
+   diff, and the documentation now hides these options as well.
+
+ * When running "git blame $path" with unnormalized data in the index
+   for the path, the data in the working tree was blamed, even though
+   "git add" would not have changed what is already in the index, due
+   to "safe crlf" that disables the line-end conversion.  It has been
+   corrected.
+
+ * A change back in version 2.7 to "git branch" broke display of a
+   symbolic ref in a non-standard place in the refs/ hierarchy (we
+   expect symbolic refs to appear in refs/remotes/*/HEAD to point at
+   the primary branch the remote has, and as .git/HEAD to point at the
+   branch we locally checked out).
+
+ * A partial rewrite of "git submodule" in the 2.7 timeframe changed
+   the way the gitdir: pointer in the submodules point at the real
+   repository location to use absolute paths by accident.  This has
+   been corrected.
+
+ * "git commit" misbehaved in a few minor ways when an empty message
+   is given via -m '', all of which has been corrected.
+
+ * Support for CRAM-MD5 authentication method in "git imap-send" did
+   not work well.
+
+ * Upcoming OpenSSL 1.1.0 will break compilation by updating a few API
+   elements we use in imap-send, which has been adjusted for the change.
+
+ * The socks5:// proxy support added back in 2.6.4 days was not aware
+   that socks5h:// proxies behave differently from socks5:// proxies.
+
+ * "git config" had a codepath that tried to pass a NULL to
+   printf("%s"), which nobody seems to have noticed.
+
+ * On Cygwin, object creation uses the "create a temporary and then
+   rename it to the final name" pattern, not "create a temporary,
+   hardlink it to the final name and then unlink the temporary"
+   pattern.
+
+   This is necessary to use Git on Windows shared directories, and is
+   already enabled for the MinGW and plain Windows builds.  It also
+   has been used in Cygwin packaged versions of Git for quite a while.
+   See http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/291853
+
+ * "merge-octopus" strategy did not ensure that the index is clean
+   when merge begins.
+
+ * When "git merge" notices that the merge can be resolved purely at
+   the tree level (without having to merge blobs) and the resulting
+   tree happens to already exist in the object store, it forgot to
+   update the index, which left an inconsistent state that would
+   break later operations.
+
+ * "git submodule" reports the paths of submodules the command
+   recurses into, but these paths were incorrectly reported when
+   the command was not run from the root level of the superproject.
+
+ * The "user.useConfigOnly" configuration variable makes it an error
+   if users do not explicitly set user.name and user.email.  However,
+   its check was not done early enough and allowed another error to
+   trigger, reporting that the default value we guessed from the
+   system setting was unusable.  This was a suboptimal end-user
+   experience as we want the users to set user.name/user.email without
+   relying on the auto-detection at all.
+
+ * "git mv old new" did not adjust the path for a submodule that lives
+   as a subdirectory inside old/ directory correctly.
+
+ * "git replace -e" did not honour "core.editor" configuration.
+
+ * "git push" from a corrupt repository that attempts to push a large
+   number of refs deadlocked; the thread to relay rejection notices
+   for these ref updates blocked on writing them to the main thread,
+   after the main thread at the receiving end notices that the push
+   failed and decides not to read these notices and return a failure.
+
+ * mmap emulation on Windows has been optimized and work better without
+   consuming paging store when not needed.
+
+ * A question by "git send-email" to ask the identity of the sender
+   has been updated.
+
+ * UI consistency improvements for "git mergetool".
+
+ * "git rebase -m" could be asked to rebase an entire branch starting
+   from the root, but failed by assuming that there always is a parent
+   commit to the first commit on the branch.
+
+ * Fix a broken "p4 lfs" test.
+
+ * Recent update to Git LFS broke "git p4" by changing the output from
+   its "lfs pointer" subcommand.
+
+ * "git fetch" test t5510 was flaky while running a (forced) automagic
+   garbage collection.
+
+ * Documentation updates to help contributors setting up Travis CI
+   test for their patches.
+
+ * Some multi-byte encoding can have a backslash byte as a later part
+   of one letter, which would confuse "highlight" filter used in
+   gitweb.
+
+ * "git commit-tree" plumbing command required the user to always sign
+   its result when the user sets the commit.gpgsign configuration
+   variable, which was an ancient mistake.  Rework "git rebase" that
+   relied on this mistake so that it reads commit.gpgsign and pass (or
+   not pass) the -S option to "git commit-tree" to keep the end-user
+   expectation the same, while teaching "git commit-tree" to ignore
+   the configuration variable.  This will stop requiring the users to
+   sign commit objects used internally as an implementation detail of
+   "git stash".
+
+ * "http.cookieFile" configuration variable clearly wants a pathname,
+   but we forgot to treat it as such by e.g. applying tilde expansion.
+
+ * Consolidate description of tilde-expansion that is done to
+   configuration variables that take pathname to a single place.
+
+ * Correct faulty recommendation to use "git submodule deinit ." when
+   de-initialising all submodules, which would result in a strange
+   error message in a pathological corner case.
+
+ * Many 'linkgit:<git documentation page>' references were broken,
+   which are all fixed with this.
+
+ * "git rerere" can get confused by conflict markers deliberately left
+   by the inner merge step, because they are indistinguishable from
+   the real conflict markers left by the outermost merge which are
+   what the end user and "rerere" need to look at.  This was fixed by
+   making the conflict markers left by the inner merges a bit longer.
+   (merge 0f9fd5c jc/ll-merge-internal later to maint).
+
+ * CI test was taught to build documentation pages.
+
+ * "git fsck" learned to catch NUL byte in a commit object as
+   potential error and warn.
+
+ * Portability enhancement for "rebase -i" to help platforms whose
+   shell does not like "for i in <empty>" (which is not POSIX-kosher).
+
+ * On Windows, .git and optionally any files whose name starts with a
+   dot are now marked as hidden, with a core.hideDotFiles knob to
+   customize this behaviour.
+
+ * Documentation for "git merge --verify-signatures" has been updated
+   to clarify that the signature of only the commit at the tip is
+   verified.  Also the phrasing used for signature and key validity is
+   adjusted to align with that used by OpenPGP.
+
+ * A couple of bugs around core.autocrlf have been fixed.
+
+ * Many commands normalize command line arguments from NFD to NFC
+   variant of UTF-8 on OSX, but commands in the "diff" family did
+   not, causing "git diff $path" to complain that no such path is
+   known to Git.  They have been taught to do the normalization.
+
+ * "git difftool" learned to handle unmerged paths correctly in
+   dir-diff mode.
+
+ * The "are we talking with TTY, doing an interactive session?"
+   detection has been updated to work better for "Git for Windows".
+
+ * We forgot to add "git log --decorate=auto" to documentation when we
+   added the feature back in v2.1.0 timeframe.
+   (merge 462cbb4 rj/log-decorate-auto later to maint).
+
+ * "git fast-import --export-marks" would overwrite the existing marks
+   file even when it makes a dump from its custom die routine.
+   Prevent it from doing so when we have an import-marks file but
+   haven't finished reading it.
+   (merge f4beed6 fc/fast-import-broken-marks-file later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i", after it fails to auto-resolve the conflict, had
+   an unnecessary call to "git rerere" from its very early days, which
+   was spotted recently; the call has been removed.
+   (merge 7063693 js/rebase-i-dedup-call-to-rerere later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor clean-ups and documentation updates
+   (merge cd82b7a pa/cherry-pick-doc-typo later to maint).
+   (merge 2bb73ae rs/patch-id-use-skip-prefix later to maint).
+   (merge aa20cbc rs/apply-name-terminate later to maint).
+   (merge fe17fc0 jc/t2300-setup later to maint).
+   (merge e256eec jk/shell-portability later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3383940
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,117 @@
+Git v2.9.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.9
+----------------
+
+ * When "git daemon" is run without --[init-]timeout specified, a
+   connection from a client that silently goes offline can hang around
+   for a long time, wasting resources.  The socket-level KEEPALIVE has
+   been enabled to allow the OS to notice such failed connections.
+
+ * The commands in `git log` family take %C(auto) in a custom format
+   string.  This unconditionally turned the color on, ignoring
+   --no-color or with --color=auto when the output is not connected to
+   a tty; this was corrected to make the format truly behave as
+   "auto".
+
+ * "git rev-list --count" whose walk-length is limited with "-n"
+   option did not work well with the counting optimized to look at the
+   bitmap index.
+
+ * "git show -W" (extend hunks to cover the entire function, delimited
+   by lines that match the "funcname" pattern) used to show the entire
+   file when a change added an entire function at the end of the file,
+   which has been fixed.
+
+ * The documentation set has been updated so that literal commands,
+   configuration variables and environment variables are consistently
+   typeset in fixed-width font and bold in manpages.
+
+ * "git svn propset" subcommand that was added in 2.3 days is
+   documented now.
+
+ * The documentation tries to consistently spell "GPG"; when
+   referring to the specific program name, "gpg" is used.
+
+ * "git reflog" stopped upon seeing an entry that denotes a branch
+   creation event (aka "unborn"), which made it appear as if the
+   reflog was truncated.
+
+ * The git-prompt scriptlet (in contrib/) was not friendly with those
+   who uses "set -u", which has been fixed.
+
+ * A codepath that used alloca(3) to place an unbounded amount of data
+   on the stack has been updated to avoid doing so.
+
+ * "git update-index --add --chmod=+x file" may be usable as an escape
+   hatch, but not a friendly thing to force for people who do need to
+   use it regularly.  "git add --chmod=+x file" can be used instead.
+
+ * Build improvements for gnome-keyring (in contrib/)
+
+ * "git status" used to say "working directory" when it meant "working
+   tree".
+
+ * Comments about misbehaving FreeBSD shells have been clarified with
+   the version number (9.x and before are broken, newer ones are OK).
+
+ * "git cherry-pick A" worked on an unborn branch, but "git
+   cherry-pick A..B" didn't.
+
+ * "git add -i/-p" learned to honor diff.compactionHeuristic
+   experimental knob, so that the user can work on the same hunk split
+   as "git diff" output.
+
+ * "log --graph --format=" learned that "%>|(N)" specifies the width
+   relative to the terminal's left edge, not relative to the area to
+   draw text that is to the right of the ancestry-graph section.  It
+   also now accepts negative N that means the column limit is relative
+   to the right border.
+
+ * The ownership rule for the piece of memory that hold references to
+   be fetched in "git fetch" was screwy, which has been cleaned up.
+
+ * "git bisect" makes an internal call to "git diff-tree" when
+   bisection finds the culprit, but this call did not initialize the
+   data structure to pass to the diff-tree API correctly.
+
+ * Formats of the various data (and how to validate them) where we use
+   GPG signature have been documented.
+
+ * Fix an unintended regression in v2.9 that breaks "clone --depth"
+   that recurses down to submodules by forcing the submodules to also
+   be cloned shallowly, which many server instances that host upstream
+   of the submodules are not prepared for.
+
+ * Fix unnecessarily waste in the idiomatic use of ': ${VAR=default}'
+   to set the default value, without enclosing it in double quotes.
+
+ * Some platform-specific code had non-ANSI strict declarations of C
+   functions that do not take any parameters, which has been
+   corrected.
+
+ * The internal code used to show local timezone offset is not
+   prepared to handle timestamps beyond year 2100, and gave a
+   bogus offset value to the caller.  Use a more benign looking
+   +0000 instead and let "git log" going in such a case, instead
+   of aborting.
+
+ * One among four invocations of readlink(1) in our test suite has
+   been rewritten so that the test can run on systems without the
+   command (others are in valgrind test framework and t9802).
+
+ * t/perf needs /usr/bin/time with GNU extension; the invocation of it
+   is updated to "gtime" on Darwin.
+
+ * A bug, which caused "git p4" while running under verbose mode to
+   report paths that are omitted due to branch prefix incorrectly, has
+   been fixed; the command said "Ignoring file outside of prefix" for
+   paths that are _inside_.
+
+ * The top level documentation "git help git" still pointed at the
+   documentation set hosted at now-defunct google-code repository.
+   Update it to point to https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html
+   instead.
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2620003
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,13 @@
+Git v2.9.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.9.1
+------------------
+
+ * A fix merged to v2.9.1 had a few tests that are not meant to be
+   run on platforms without 64-bit long, which caused unnecessary
+   test failures on them because we didn't detect the platform and
+   skip them.  These tests are now skipped on platforms that they
+   are not applicable to.
+
+No other change is included in this update.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..695b86f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,170 @@
+Git v2.9.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.9.2
+------------------
+
+ * A helper function that takes the contents of a commit object and
+   finds its subject line did not ignore leading blank lines, as is
+   commonly done by other codepaths.  Make it ignore leading blank
+   lines to match.
+
+ * Git does not know what the contents in the index should be for a
+   path added with "git add -N" yet, so "git grep --cached" should not
+   show hits (or show lack of hits, with -L) in such a path, but that
+   logic does not apply to "git grep", i.e. searching in the working
+   tree files.  But we did so by mistake, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rebase -i --autostash" did not restore the auto-stashed change
+   when the operation was aborted.
+
+ * "git commit --amend --allow-empty-message -S" for a commit without
+   any message body could have misidentified where the header of the
+   commit object ends.
+
+ * More mark-up updates to typeset strings that are expected to
+   literally typed by the end user in fixed-width font.
+
+ * For a long time, we carried an in-code comment that said our
+   colored output would work only when we use fprintf/fputs on
+   Windows, which no longer is the case for the past few years.
+
+ * "gc.autoPackLimit" when set to 1 should not trigger a repacking
+   when there is only one pack, but the code counted poorly and did
+   so.
+
+ * One part of "git am" had an oddball helper function that called
+   stuff from outside "his" as opposed to calling what we have "ours",
+   which was not gender-neutral and also inconsistent with the rest of
+   the system where outside stuff is usuall called "theirs" in
+   contrast to "ours".
+
+ * The test framework learned a new helper test_match_signal to
+   check an exit code from getting killed by an expected signal.
+
+ * "git blame -M" missed a single line that was moved within the file.
+
+ * Fix recently introduced codepaths that are involved in parallel
+   submodule operations, which gave up on reading too early, and
+   could have wasted CPU while attempting to write under a corner
+   case condition.
+
+ * "git grep -i" has been taught to fold case in non-ascii locales
+   correctly.
+
+ * A test that unconditionally used "mktemp" learned that the command
+   is not necessarily available everywhere.
+
+ * "git blame file" allowed the lineage of lines in the uncommitted,
+   unadded contents of "file" to be inspected, but it refused when
+   "file" did not appear in the current commit.  When "file" was
+   created by renaming an existing file (but the change has not been
+   committed), this restriction was unnecessarily tight.
+
+ * "git add -N dir/file && git write-tree" produced an incorrect tree
+   when there are other paths in the same directory that sorts after
+   "file".
+
+ * "git fetch http://user:pass@host/repo..." scrubbed the userinfo
+   part, but "git push" didn't.
+
+ * An age old bug that caused "git diff --ignore-space-at-eol"
+   misbehave has been fixed.
+
+ * "git notes merge" had a code to see if a path exists (and fails if
+   it does) and then open the path for writing (when it doesn't).
+   Replace it with open with O_EXCL.
+
+ * "git pack-objects" and "git index-pack" mostly operate with off_t
+   when talking about the offset of objects in a packfile, but there
+   were a handful of places that used "unsigned long" to hold that
+   value, leading to an unintended truncation.
+
+ * Recent update to "git daemon" tries to enable the socket-level
+   KEEPALIVE, but when it is spawned via inetd, the standard input
+   file descriptor may not necessarily be connected to a socket.
+   Suppress an ENOTSOCK error from setsockopt().
+
+ * Recent FreeBSD stopped making perl available at /usr/bin/perl;
+   switch the default the built-in path to /usr/local/bin/perl on not
+   too ancient FreeBSD releases.
+
+ * "git status" learned to suggest "merge --abort" during a conflicted
+   merge, just like it already suggests "rebase --abort" during a
+   conflicted rebase.
+
+ * The .c/.h sources are marked as such in our .gitattributes file so
+   that "git diff -W" and friends would work better.
+
+ * Existing autoconf generated test for the need to link with pthread
+   library did not check all the functions from pthread libraries;
+   recent FreeBSD has some functions in libc but not others, and we
+   mistakenly thought linking with libc is enough when it is not.
+
+ * Allow http daemon tests in Travis CI tests.
+
+ * Users of the parse_options_concat() API function need to allocate
+   extra slots in advance and fill them with OPT_END() when they want
+   to decide the set of supported options dynamically, which makes the
+   code error-prone and hard to read.  This has been corrected by tweaking
+   the API to allocate and return a new copy of "struct option" array.
+
+ * The use of strbuf in "git rm" to build filename to remove was a bit
+   suboptimal, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "git commit --help" said "--no-verify" is only about skipping the
+   pre-commit hook, and failed to say that it also skipped the
+   commit-msg hook.
+
+ * "git merge" in Git v2.9 was taught to forbid merging an unrelated
+   lines of history by default, but that is exactly the kind of thing
+   the "--rejoin" mode of "git subtree" (in contrib/) wants to do.
+   "git subtree" has been taught to use the "--allow-unrelated-histories"
+   option to override the default.
+
+ * The build procedure for "git persistent-https" helper (in contrib/)
+   has been updated so that it can be built with more recent versions
+   of Go.
+
+ * There is an optimization used in "git diff $treeA $treeB" to borrow
+   an already checked-out copy in the working tree when it is known to
+   be the same as the blob being compared, expecting that open/mmap of
+   such a file is faster than reading it from the object store, which
+   involves inflating and applying delta.  This however kicked in even
+   when the checked-out copy needs to go through the convert-to-git
+   conversion (including the clean filter), which defeats the whole
+   point of the optimization.  The optimization has been disabled when
+   the conversion is necessary.
+
+ * "git -c grep.patternType=extended log --basic-regexp" misbehaved
+   because the internal API to access the grep machinery was not
+   designed well.
+
+ * Windows port was failing some tests in t4130, due to the lack of
+   inum in the returned values by its lstat(2) emulation.
+
+ * The characters in the label shown for tags/refs for commits in
+   "gitweb" output are now properly escaped for proper HTML output.
+
+ * FreeBSD can lie when asked mtime of a directory, which made the
+   untracked cache code to fall back to a slow-path, which in turn
+   caused tests in t7063 to fail because it wanted to verify the
+   behaviour of the fast-path.
+
+ * Squelch compiler warnings for netmalloc (in compat/) library.
+
+ * The API documentation for hashmap was unclear if hashmap_entry
+   can be safely discarded without any other consideration.  State
+   that it is safe to do so.
+
+ * Not-so-recent rewrite of "git am" that started making internal
+   calls into the commit machinery had an unintended regression, in
+   that no matter how many seconds it took to apply many patches, the
+   resulting committer timestamp for the resulting commits were all
+   the same.
+
+ * "git difftool <paths>..." started in a subdirectory failed to
+   interpret the paths relative to that directory, which has been
+   fixed.
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..01e8642
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,83 @@
+Git v2.9.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.9.3
+------------------
+
+ * There are certain house-keeping tasks that need to be performed at
+   the very beginning of any Git program, and programs that are not
+   built-in commands had to do them exactly the same way as "git"
+   potty does.  It was easy to make mistakes in one-off standalone
+   programs (like test helpers).  A common "main()" function that
+   calls cmd_main() of individual program has been introduced to
+   make it harder to make mistakes.
+
+ * "git merge" with renormalization did not work well with
+   merge-recursive, due to "safer crlf" conversion kicking in when it
+   shouldn't.
+
+ * The reflog output format is documented better, and a new format
+   --date=unix to report the seconds-since-epoch (without timezone)
+   has been added.
+
+ * "git push --force-with-lease" already had enough logic to allow
+   ensuring that such a push results in creation of a ref (i.e. the
+   receiving end did not have another push from sideways that would be
+   discarded by our force-pushing), but didn't expose this possibility
+   to the users.  It does so now.
+
+ * "import-tars" fast-import script (in contrib/) used to ignore a
+   hardlink target and replaced it with an empty file, which has been
+   corrected to record the same blob as the other file the hardlink is
+   shared with.
+
+ * "git mv dir non-existing-dir/" did not work in some environments
+   the same way as existing mainstream platforms.  The code now moves
+   "dir" to "non-existing-dir", without relying on rename("A", "B/")
+   that strips the trailing slash of '/'.
+
+ * The "t/" hierarchy is prone to get an unusual pathname; "make test"
+   has been taught to make sure they do not contain paths that cannot
+   be checked out on Windows (and the mechanism can be reusable to
+   catch pathnames that are not portable to other platforms as need
+   arises).
+
+ * When "git merge-recursive" works on history with many criss-cross
+   merges in "verbose" mode, the names the command assigns to the
+   virtual merge bases could have overwritten each other by unintended
+   reuse of the same piece of memory.
+
+ * "git checkout --detach <branch>" used to give the same advice
+   message as that is issued when "git checkout <tag>" (or anything
+   that is not a branch name) is given, but asking with "--detach" is
+   an explicit enough sign that the user knows what is going on.  The
+   advice message has been squelched in this case.
+
+ * "git difftool" by default ignores the error exit from the backend
+   commands it spawns, because often they signal that they found
+   differences by exiting with a non-zero status code just like "diff"
+   does; the exit status codes 126 and above however are special in
+   that they are used to signal that the command is not executable,
+   does not exist, or killed by a signal.  "git difftool" has been
+   taught to notice these exit status codes.
+
+ * On Windows, help.browser configuration variable used to be ignored,
+   which has been corrected.
+
+ * The "git -c var[=val] cmd" facility to append a configuration
+   variable definition at the end of the search order was described in
+   git(1) manual page, but not in git-config(1), which was more likely
+   place for people to look for when they ask "can I make a one-shot
+   override, and if so how?"
+
+ * The tempfile (hence its user lockfile) API lets the caller to open
+   a file descriptor to a temporary file, write into it and then
+   finalize it by first closing the filehandle and then either
+   removing or renaming the temporary file.  When the process spawns a
+   subprocess after obtaining the file descriptor, and if the
+   subprocess has not exited when the attempt to remove or rename is
+   made, the last step fails on Windows, because the subprocess has
+   the file descriptor still open.  Open tempfile with O_CLOEXEC flag
+   to avoid this (on Windows, this is mapped to O_NOINHERIT).
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index e8ad978..08352de 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -121,6 +121,16 @@
 without external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
 archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
 
+If you want to reference a previous commit in the history of a stable
+branch, use the format "abbreviated sha1 (subject, date)",
+with the subject enclosed in a pair of double-quotes, like this:
+
+    Commit f86a374 ("pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak", 2015-03-30)
+    noticed that ...
+
+The "Copy commit summary" command of gitk can be used to obtain this
+format.
+
 
 (3) Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 0269620..a077c64 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -140,7 +140,7 @@
        false;; Boolean false can be spelled as `no`, `off`,
 		`false`, or `0`.
 +
-When converting value to the canonical form using '--bool' type
+When converting value to the canonical form using `--bool` type
 specifier; 'git config' will ensure that the output is "true" or
 "false" (spelled in lowercase).
 
@@ -150,27 +150,34 @@
        1024", "by 1024x1024", etc.
 
 color::
-       The value for a variables that takes a color is a list of
-       colors (at most two) and attributes (at most one), separated
-       by spaces.  The colors accepted are `normal`, `black`,
-       `red`, `green`, `yellow`, `blue`, `magenta`, `cyan` and
-       `white`; the attributes are `bold`, `dim`, `ul`, `blink` and
-       `reverse`.  The first color given is the foreground; the
-       second is the background.  The position of the attribute, if
-       any, doesn't matter. Attributes may be turned off specifically
-       by prefixing them with `no` (e.g., `noreverse`, `noul`, etc).
+       The value for a variable that takes a color is a list of
+       colors (at most two, one for foreground and one for background)
+       and attributes (as many as you want), separated by spaces.
 +
-Colors (foreground and background) may also be given as numbers between
-0 and 255; these use ANSI 256-color mode (but note that not all
-terminals may support this).  If your terminal supports it, you may also
-specify 24-bit RGB values as hex, like `#ff0ab3`.
+The basic colors accepted are `normal`, `black`, `red`, `green`, `yellow`,
+`blue`, `magenta`, `cyan` and `white`.  The first color given is the
+foreground; the second is the background.
 +
-The attributes are meant to be reset at the beginning of each item
-in the colored output, so setting color.decorate.branch to `black`
-will paint that branch name in a plain `black`, even if the previous
-thing on the same output line (e.g. opening parenthesis before the
-list of branch names in `log --decorate` output) is set to be
-painted with `bold` or some other attribute.
+Colors may also be given as numbers between 0 and 255; these use ANSI
+256-color mode (but note that not all terminals may support this).  If
+your terminal supports it, you may also specify 24-bit RGB values as
+hex, like `#ff0ab3`.
++
+The accepted attributes are `bold`, `dim`, `ul`, `blink`, `reverse`,
+`italic`, and `strike` (for crossed-out or "strikethrough" letters).
+The position of any attributes with respect to the colors
+(before, after, or in between), doesn't matter. Specific attributes may
+be turned off by prefixing them with `no` or `no-` (e.g., `noreverse`,
+`no-ul`, etc).
++
+For git's pre-defined color slots, the attributes are meant to be reset
+at the beginning of each item in the colored output. So setting
+`color.decorate.branch` to `black` will paint that branch name in a
+plain `black`, even if the previous thing on the same output line (e.g.
+opening parenthesis before the list of branch names in `log --decorate`
+output) is set to be painted with `bold` or some other attribute.
+However, custom log formats may do more complicated and layered
+coloring, and the negated forms may be useful there.
 
 pathname::
 	A variable that takes a pathname value can be given a
@@ -405,13 +412,11 @@
 mechanism.
 
 core.autocrlf::
-	Setting this variable to "true" is almost the same as setting
-	the `text` attribute to "auto" on all files except that text
-	files are not guaranteed to be normalized: files that contain
-	`CRLF` in the repository will not be touched.  Use this
-	setting if you want to have `CRLF` line endings in your
-	working directory even though the repository does not have
-	normalized line endings.  This variable can be set to 'input',
+	Setting this variable to "true" is the same as setting
+	the `text` attribute to "auto" on all files and core.eol to "crlf".
+	Set to true if you want to have `CRLF` line endings in your
+	working directory and the repository has LF line endings.
+	This variable can be set to 'input',
 	in which case no output conversion is performed.
 
 core.symlinks::
@@ -434,7 +439,7 @@
 	may be set multiple times and is matched in the given order;
 	the first match wins.
 +
-Can be overridden by the 'GIT_PROXY_COMMAND' environment variable
+Can be overridden by the `GIT_PROXY_COMMAND` environment variable
 (which always applies universally, without the special "for"
 handling).
 +
@@ -443,6 +448,13 @@
 This is useful for excluding servers inside a firewall from
 proxy use, while defaulting to a common proxy for external domains.
 
+core.sshCommand::
+	If this variable is set, `git fetch` and `git push` will
+	use the specified command instead of `ssh` when they need to
+	connect to a remote system. The command is in the same form as
+	the `GIT_SSH_COMMAND` environment variable and is overridden
+	when the environment variable is set.
+
 core.ignoreStat::
 	If true, Git will avoid using lstat() calls to detect if files have
 	changed by setting the "assume-unchanged" bit for those tracked files
@@ -478,10 +490,10 @@
 
 core.worktree::
 	Set the path to the root of the working tree.
-	If GIT_COMMON_DIR environment variable is set, core.worktree
+	If `GIT_COMMON_DIR` environment variable is set, core.worktree
 	is ignored and not used for determining the root of working tree.
-	This can be overridden by the GIT_WORK_TREE environment
-	variable and the '--work-tree' command-line option.
+	This can be overridden by the `GIT_WORK_TREE` environment
+	variable and the `--work-tree` command-line option.
 	The value can be an absolute path or relative to the path to
 	the .git directory, which is either specified by --git-dir
 	or GIT_DIR, or automatically discovered.
@@ -545,7 +557,7 @@
 	-1 is the zlib default. 0 means no compression,
 	and 1..9 are various speed/size tradeoffs, 9 being slowest.
 	If set, this provides a default to other compression variables,
-	such as 'core.looseCompression' and 'pack.compression'.
+	such as `core.looseCompression` and `pack.compression`.
 
 core.looseCompression::
 	An integer -1..9, indicating the compression level for objects that
@@ -619,9 +631,9 @@
 core.askPass::
 	Some commands (e.g. svn and http interfaces) that interactively
 	ask for a password can be told to use an external program given
-	via the value of this variable. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_ASKPASS'
+	via the value of this variable. Can be overridden by the `GIT_ASKPASS`
 	environment variable. If not set, fall back to the value of the
-	'SSH_ASKPASS' environment variable or, failing that, a simple password
+	`SSH_ASKPASS` environment variable or, failing that, a simple password
 	prompt. The external program shall be given a suitable prompt as
 	command-line argument and write the password on its STDOUT.
 
@@ -633,6 +645,23 @@
 	`$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/attributes`. If `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` is either not
 	set or empty, `$HOME/.config/git/attributes` is used instead.
 
+core.hooksPath::
+	By default Git will look for your hooks in the
+	'$GIT_DIR/hooks' directory. Set this to different path,
+	e.g. '/etc/git/hooks', and Git will try to find your hooks in
+	that directory, e.g. '/etc/git/hooks/pre-receive' instead of
+	in '$GIT_DIR/hooks/pre-receive'.
++
+The path can be either absolute or relative. A relative path is
+taken as relative to the directory where the hooks are run (see
+the "DESCRIPTION" section of linkgit:githooks[5]).
++
+This configuration variable is useful in cases where you'd like to
+centrally configure your Git hooks instead of configuring them on a
+per-repository basis, or as a more flexible and centralized
+alternative to having an `init.templateDir` where you've changed
+default hooks.
+
 core.editor::
 	Commands such as `commit` and `tag` that lets you edit
 	messages by launching an editor uses the value of this
@@ -747,7 +776,7 @@
 	notes should be printed.
 +
 This setting defaults to "refs/notes/commits", and it can be overridden by
-the 'GIT_NOTES_REF' environment variable.  See linkgit:git-notes[1].
+the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable.  See linkgit:git-notes[1].
 
 core.sparseCheckout::
 	Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
@@ -762,7 +791,7 @@
 add.ignoreErrors::
 add.ignore-errors (deprecated)::
 	Tells 'git add' to continue adding files when some files cannot be
-	added due to indexing errors. Equivalent to the '--ignore-errors'
+	added due to indexing errors. Equivalent to the `--ignore-errors`
 	option of linkgit:git-add[1].  `add.ignore-errors` is deprecated,
 	as it does not follow the usual naming convention for configuration
 	variables.
@@ -783,14 +812,14 @@
 "gitk --all --not ORIG_HEAD".  Note that shell commands will be
 executed from the top-level directory of a repository, which may
 not necessarily be the current directory.
-'GIT_PREFIX' is set as returned by running 'git rev-parse --show-prefix'
+`GIT_PREFIX` is set as returned by running 'git rev-parse --show-prefix'
 from the original current directory. See linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
 
 am.keepcr::
 	If true, git-am will call git-mailsplit for patches in mbox format
-	with parameter '--keep-cr'. In this case git-mailsplit will
+	with parameter `--keep-cr`. In this case git-mailsplit will
 	not remove `\r` from lines ending with `\r\n`. Can be overridden
-	by giving '--no-keep-cr' from the command line.
+	by giving `--no-keep-cr` from the command line.
 	See linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-mailsplit[1].
 
 am.threeWay::
@@ -803,7 +832,7 @@
 
 apply.ignoreWhitespace::
 	When set to 'change', tells 'git apply' to ignore changes in
-	whitespace, in the same way as the '--ignore-space-change'
+	whitespace, in the same way as the `--ignore-space-change`
 	option.
 	When set to one of: no, none, never, false tells 'git apply' to
 	respect all whitespace differences.
@@ -811,7 +840,7 @@
 
 apply.whitespace::
 	Tells 'git apply' how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
-	as the '--whitespace' option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
+	as the `--whitespace` option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
 
 branch.autoSetupMerge::
 	Tells 'git branch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
@@ -913,7 +942,7 @@
 
 browser.<tool>.path::
 	Override the path for the given tool that may be used to
-	browse HTML help (see '-w' option in linkgit:git-help[1]) or a
+	browse HTML help (see `-w` option in linkgit:git-help[1]) or a
 	working repository in gitweb (see linkgit:git-instaweb[1]).
 
 clean.requireForce::
@@ -924,7 +953,8 @@
 	A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
 	linkgit:git-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
 	`false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which case colors are used
-	only when the output is to a terminal. Defaults to false.
+	only when the output is to a terminal. If unset, then the
+	value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
 
 color.branch.<slot>::
 	Use customized color for branch coloration. `<slot>` is one of
@@ -939,7 +969,8 @@
 	linkgit:git-log[1], and linkgit:git-show[1] will use color
 	for all patches.  If it is set to `true` or `auto`, those
 	commands will only use color when output is to the terminal.
-	Defaults to false.
+	If unset, then the value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by
+	default).
 +
 This does not affect linkgit:git-format-patch[1] or the
 'git-diff-{asterisk}' plumbing commands.  Can be overridden on the
@@ -962,7 +993,8 @@
 color.grep::
 	When set to `always`, always highlight matches.  When `false` (or
 	`never`), never.  When set to `true` or `auto`, use color only
-	when the output is written to the terminal.  Defaults to `false`.
+	when the output is written to the terminal.  If unset, then the
+	value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
 
 color.grep.<slot>::
 	Use customized color for grep colorization.  `<slot>` specifies which
@@ -995,7 +1027,8 @@
 	and displays (such as those used by "git-add --interactive" and
 	"git-clean --interactive"). When false (or `never`), never.
 	When set to `true` or `auto`, use colors only when the output is
-	to the terminal. Defaults to false.
+	to the terminal. If unset, then the value of `color.ui` is
+	used (`auto` by default).
 
 color.interactive.<slot>::
 	Use customized color for 'git add --interactive' and 'git clean
@@ -1011,13 +1044,15 @@
 	A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
 	linkgit:git-show-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
 	`false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which case colors are used
-	only when the output is to a terminal. Defaults to false.
+	only when the output is to a terminal. If unset, then the
+	value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
 
 color.status::
 	A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
 	linkgit:git-status[1]. May be set to `always`,
 	`false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which case colors are used
-	only when the output is to a terminal. Defaults to false.
+	only when the output is to a terminal. If unset, then the
+	value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
 
 color.status.<slot>::
 	Use customized color for status colorization. `<slot>` is
@@ -1124,11 +1159,16 @@
 	Specify the pathname of a file to use as the template for
 	new commit messages.
 
+commit.verbose::
+	A boolean or int to specify the level of verbose with `git commit`.
+	See linkgit:git-commit[1].
+
 credential.helper::
 	Specify an external helper to be called when a username or
 	password credential is needed; the helper may consult external
-	storage to avoid prompting the user for the credentials. See
-	linkgit:gitcredentials[7] for details.
+	storage to avoid prompting the user for the credentials. Note
+	that multiple helpers may be defined. See linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
+	for details.
 
 credential.useHttpPath::
 	When acquiring credentials, consider the "path" component of an http
@@ -1167,6 +1207,15 @@
 difftool.prompt::
 	Prompt before each invocation of the diff tool.
 
+fastimport.unpackLimit::
+	If the number of objects imported by linkgit:git-fast-import[1]
+	is below this limit, then the objects will be unpacked into
+	loose object files.  However if the number of imported objects
+	equals or exceeds this limit then the pack will be stored as a
+	pack.  Storing the pack from a fast-import can make the import
+	operation complete faster, especially on slow filesystems.  If
+	not set, the value of `transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
+
 fetch.recurseSubmodules::
 	This option can be either set to a boolean value or to 'on-demand'.
 	Setting it to a boolean changes the behavior of fetch and pull to
@@ -1198,6 +1247,11 @@
 	If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the `--prune`
 	option was given on the command line.  See also `remote.<name>.prune`.
 
+fetch.output::
+	Control how ref update status is printed. Valid values are
+	`full` and `compact`. Default value is `full`. See section
+	OUTPUT in linkgit:git-fetch[1] for detail.
+
 format.attach::
 	Enable multipart/mixed attachments as the default for
 	'format-patch'.  The value can also be a double quoted string
@@ -1205,6 +1259,16 @@
 	value as the boundary.  See the --attach option in
 	linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
 
+format.from::
+	Provides the default value for the `--from` option to format-patch.
+	Accepts a boolean value, or a name and email address.  If false,
+	format-patch defaults to `--no-from`, using commit authors directly in
+	the "From:" field of patch mails.  If true, format-patch defaults to
+	`--from`, using your committer identity in the "From:" field of patch
+	mails and including a "From:" field in the body of the patch mail if
+	different.  If set to a non-boolean value, format-patch uses that
+	value instead of your committer identity.  Defaults to false.
+
 format.numbered::
 	A boolean which can enable or disable sequence numbers in patch
 	subjects.  It defaults to "auto" which enables it only if there
@@ -1272,6 +1336,10 @@
 	Set a custom directory to store the resulting files instead of the
 	current working directory.
 
+format.useAutoBase::
+	A boolean value which lets you enable the `--base=auto` option of
+	format-patch by default.
+
 filter.<driver>.clean::
 	The command which is used to convert the content of a worktree
 	file to a blob upon checkin.  See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for
@@ -1304,7 +1372,7 @@
 gc.aggressiveDepth::
 	The depth parameter used in the delta compression
 	algorithm used by 'git gc --aggressive'.  This defaults
-	to 250.
+	to 50.
 
 gc.aggressiveWindow::
 	The window size parameter used in the delta compression
@@ -1394,24 +1462,24 @@
 
 gitcvs.usecrlfattr::
 	If true, the server will look up the end-of-line conversion
-	attributes for files to determine the '-k' modes to use. If
+	attributes for files to determine the `-k` modes to use. If
 	the attributes force Git to treat a file as text,
-	the '-k' mode will be left blank so CVS clients will
+	the `-k` mode will be left blank so CVS clients will
 	treat it as text. If they suppress text conversion, the file
 	will be set with '-kb' mode, which suppresses any newline munging
 	the client might otherwise do. If the attributes do not allow
-	the file type to be determined, then 'gitcvs.allBinary' is
+	the file type to be determined, then `gitcvs.allBinary` is
 	used. See linkgit:gitattributes[5].
 
 gitcvs.allBinary::
-	This is used if 'gitcvs.usecrlfattr' does not resolve
+	This is used if `gitcvs.usecrlfattr` does not resolve
 	the correct '-kb' mode to use. If true, all
 	unresolved files are sent to the client in
 	mode '-kb'. This causes the client to treat them
 	as binary files, which suppresses any newline munging it
 	otherwise might do. Alternatively, if it is set to "guess",
 	then the contents of the file are examined to decide if
-	it is binary, similar to 'core.autocrlf'.
+	it is binary, similar to `core.autocrlf`.
 
 gitcvs.dbName::
 	Database used by git-cvsserver to cache revision information
@@ -1430,7 +1498,7 @@
 	See linkgit:git-cvsserver[1].
 
 gitcvs.dbUser, gitcvs.dbPass::
-	Database user and password. Only useful if setting 'gitcvs.dbDriver',
+	Database user and password. Only useful if setting `gitcvs.dbDriver`,
 	since SQLite has no concept of database users and/or passwords.
 	'gitcvs.dbUser' supports variable substitution (see
 	linkgit:git-cvsserver[1] for details).
@@ -1442,8 +1510,8 @@
 	linkgit:git-cvsserver[1] for details).  Any non-alphabetic
 	characters will be replaced with underscores.
 
-All gitcvs variables except for 'gitcvs.usecrlfattr' and
-'gitcvs.allBinary' can also be specified as
+All gitcvs variables except for `gitcvs.usecrlfattr` and
+`gitcvs.allBinary` can also be specified as
 'gitcvs.<access_method>.<varname>' (where 'access_method'
 is one of "ext" and "pserver") to make them apply only for the given
 access method.
@@ -1466,17 +1534,17 @@
 	See linkgit:gitweb.conf[5] for description.
 
 grep.lineNumber::
-	If set to true, enable '-n' option by default.
+	If set to true, enable `-n` option by default.
 
 grep.patternType::
 	Set the default matching behavior. Using a value of 'basic', 'extended',
-	'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the '--basic-regexp', '--extended-regexp',
-	'--fixed-strings', or '--perl-regexp' option accordingly, while the
+	'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the `--basic-regexp`, `--extended-regexp`,
+	`--fixed-strings`, or `--perl-regexp` option accordingly, while the
 	value 'default' will return to the default matching behavior.
 
 grep.extendedRegexp::
-	If set to true, enable '--extended-regexp' option by default. This
-	option is ignored when the 'grep.patternType' option is set to a value
+	If set to true, enable `--extended-regexp` option by default. This
+	option is ignored when the `grep.patternType` option is set to a value
 	other than 'default'.
 
 grep.threads::
@@ -1561,7 +1629,7 @@
 	of the linkgit:git-gui[1] `Tools` menu is invoked. This option is
 	mandatory for every tool. The command is executed from the root of
 	the working directory, and in the environment it receives the name of
-	the tool as 'GIT_GUITOOL', the name of the currently selected file as
+	the tool as `GIT_GUITOOL`, the name of the currently selected file as
 	'FILENAME', and the name of the current branch as 'CUR_BRANCH' (if
 	the head is detached, 'CUR_BRANCH' is empty).
 
@@ -1582,7 +1650,7 @@
 
 guitool.<name>.argPrompt::
 	Request a string argument from the user, and pass it to the tool
-	through the 'ARGS' environment variable. Since requesting an
+	through the `ARGS` environment variable. Since requesting an
 	argument implies confirmation, the 'confirm' option has no effect
 	if this is enabled. If the option is set to 'true', 'yes', or '1',
 	the dialog uses a built-in generic prompt; otherwise the exact
@@ -1590,7 +1658,7 @@
 
 guitool.<name>.revPrompt::
 	Request a single valid revision from the user, and set the
-	'REVISION' environment variable. In other aspects this option
+	`REVISION` environment variable. In other aspects this option
 	is similar to 'argPrompt', and can be used together with it.
 
 guitool.<name>.revUnmerged::
@@ -1646,7 +1714,7 @@
 	only takes effect if the configured proxy string contains a user name part
 	(i.e. is of the form 'user@host' or 'user@host:port'). This can be
 	overridden on a per-remote basis; see `remote.<name>.proxyAuthMethod`.
-	Both can be overridden by the 'GIT_HTTP_PROXY_AUTHMETHOD' environment
+	Both can be overridden by the `GIT_HTTP_PROXY_AUTHMETHOD` environment
 	variable.  Possible values are:
 +
 --
@@ -1668,6 +1736,12 @@
 	a username in the URL, as libcurl normally requires a username for
 	authentication.
 
+http.extraHeader::
+	Pass an additional HTTP header when communicating with a server.  If
+	more than one such entry exists, all of them are added as extra
+	headers.  To allow overriding the settings inherited from the system
+	config, an empty value will reset the extra headers to the empty list.
+
 http.cookieFile::
 	The pathname of a file containing previously stored cookie lines,
 	which should be used
@@ -1699,9 +1773,9 @@
 	- tlsv1.2
 
 +
-Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_VERSION' environment variable.
+Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_VERSION` environment variable.
 To force git to use libcurl's default ssl version and ignore any
-explicit http.sslversion option, set 'GIT_SSL_VERSION' to the
+explicit http.sslversion option, set `GIT_SSL_VERSION` to the
 empty string.
 
 http.sslCipherList::
@@ -1712,41 +1786,41 @@
   option; see the libcurl documentation for more details on the format
   of this list.
 +
-Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_CIPHER_LIST' environment variable.
+Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_CIPHER_LIST` environment variable.
 To force git to use libcurl's default cipher list and ignore any
-explicit http.sslCipherList option, set 'GIT_SSL_CIPHER_LIST' to the
+explicit http.sslCipherList option, set `GIT_SSL_CIPHER_LIST` to the
 empty string.
 
 http.sslVerify::
 	Whether to verify the SSL certificate when fetching or pushing
-	over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY' environment
+	over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY` environment
 	variable.
 
 http.sslCert::
 	File containing the SSL certificate when fetching or pushing
-	over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_CERT' environment
+	over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_CERT` environment
 	variable.
 
 http.sslKey::
 	File containing the SSL private key when fetching or pushing
-	over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_KEY' environment
+	over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_KEY` environment
 	variable.
 
 http.sslCertPasswordProtected::
 	Enable Git's password prompt for the SSL certificate.  Otherwise
 	OpenSSL will prompt the user, possibly many times, if the
 	certificate or private key is encrypted.  Can be overridden by the
-	'GIT_SSL_CERT_PASSWORD_PROTECTED' environment variable.
+	`GIT_SSL_CERT_PASSWORD_PROTECTED` environment variable.
 
 http.sslCAInfo::
 	File containing the certificates to verify the peer with when
 	fetching or pushing over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the
-	'GIT_SSL_CAINFO' environment variable.
+	`GIT_SSL_CAINFO` environment variable.
 
 http.sslCAPath::
 	Path containing files with the CA certificates to verify the peer
 	with when fetching or pushing over HTTPS. Can be overridden
-	by the 'GIT_SSL_CAPATH' environment variable.
+	by the `GIT_SSL_CAPATH` environment variable.
 
 http.pinnedpubkey::
 	Public key of the https service. It may either be the filename of
@@ -1766,7 +1840,7 @@
 
 http.maxRequests::
 	How many HTTP requests to launch in parallel. Can be overridden
-	by the 'GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUESTS' environment variable. Default is 5.
+	by the `GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUESTS` environment variable. Default is 5.
 
 http.minSessions::
 	The number of curl sessions (counted across slots) to be kept across
@@ -1785,13 +1859,13 @@
 http.lowSpeedLimit, http.lowSpeedTime::
 	If the HTTP transfer speed is less than 'http.lowSpeedLimit'
 	for longer than 'http.lowSpeedTime' seconds, the transfer is aborted.
-	Can be overridden by the 'GIT_HTTP_LOW_SPEED_LIMIT' and
-	'GIT_HTTP_LOW_SPEED_TIME' environment variables.
+	Can be overridden by the `GIT_HTTP_LOW_SPEED_LIMIT` and
+	`GIT_HTTP_LOW_SPEED_TIME` environment variables.
 
 http.noEPSV::
 	A boolean which disables using of EPSV ftp command by curl.
 	This can helpful with some "poor" ftp servers which don't
-	support EPSV mode. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_CURL_FTP_NO_EPSV'
+	support EPSV mode. Can be overridden by the `GIT_CURL_FTP_NO_EPSV`
 	environment variable. Default is false (curl will use EPSV).
 
 http.userAgent::
@@ -1801,7 +1875,7 @@
 	such as Mozilla/4.0.  This may be necessary, for instance, if
 	connecting through a firewall that restricts HTTP connections to a set
 	of common USER_AGENT strings (but not including those like git/1.7.1).
-	Can be overridden by the 'GIT_HTTP_USER_AGENT' environment variable.
+	Can be overridden by the `GIT_HTTP_USER_AGENT` environment variable.
 
 http.<url>.*::
 	Any of the http.* options above can be applied selectively to some URLs.
@@ -1901,6 +1975,14 @@
 	setting is silently ignored if portable keystroke input
 	is not available; requires the Perl module Term::ReadKey.
 
+interactive.diffFilter::
+	When an interactive command (such as `git add --patch`) shows
+	a colorized diff, git will pipe the diff through the shell
+	command defined by this configuration variable. The command may
+	mark up the diff further for human consumption, provided that it
+	retains a one-to-one correspondence with the lines in the
+	original diff. Defaults to disabled (no filtering).
+
 log.abbrevCommit::
 	If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
 	linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--abbrev-commit`. You may
@@ -1916,7 +1998,10 @@
 	command. If 'short' is specified, the ref name prefixes 'refs/heads/',
 	'refs/tags/' and 'refs/remotes/' will not be printed. If 'full' is
 	specified, the full ref name (including prefix) will be printed.
-	This is the same as the log commands '--decorate' option.
+	If 'auto' is specified, then if the output is going to a terminal,
+	the ref names are shown as if 'short' were given, otherwise no ref
+	names are shown. This is the same as the `--decorate` option
+	of the `git log`.
 
 log.follow::
 	If `true`, `git log` will act as if the `--follow` option was used when
@@ -2298,16 +2383,16 @@
 --
 
 push.followTags::
-	If set to true enable '--follow-tags' option by default.  You
+	If set to true enable `--follow-tags` option by default.  You
 	may override this configuration at time of push by specifying
-	'--no-follow-tags'.
+	`--no-follow-tags`.
 
 push.gpgSign::
 	May be set to a boolean value, or the string 'if-asked'. A true
-	value causes all pushes to be GPG signed, as if '--signed' is
+	value causes all pushes to be GPG signed, as if `--signed` is
 	passed to linkgit:git-push[1]. The string 'if-asked' causes
 	pushes to be signed if the server supports it, as if
-	'--signed=if-asked' is passed to 'git push'. A false value may
+	`--signed=if-asked` is passed to 'git push'. A false value may
 	override a value from a lower-priority config file. An explicit
 	command-line flag always overrides this config option.
 
@@ -2330,7 +2415,7 @@
 	rebase. False by default.
 
 rebase.autoSquash::
-	If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
+	If set to true enable `--autosquash` option by default.
 
 rebase.autoStash::
 	When set to true, automatically create a temporary stash
@@ -2358,8 +2443,13 @@
 
 receive.advertiseAtomic::
 	By default, git-receive-pack will advertise the atomic push
-	capability to its clients. If you don't want to this capability
-	to be advertised, set this variable to false.
+	capability to its clients. If you don't want to advertise this
+	capability, set this variable to false.
+
+receive.advertisePushOptions::
+	By default, git-receive-pack will advertise the push options
+	capability to its clients. If you don't want to advertise this
+	capability, set this variable to false.
 
 receive.autogc::
 	By default, git-receive-pack will run "git-gc --auto" after
@@ -2414,6 +2504,15 @@
 	can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
 	Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
 
+receive.keepAlive::
+	After receiving the pack from the client, `receive-pack` may
+	produce no output (if `--quiet` was specified) while processing
+	the pack, causing some networks to drop the TCP connection.
+	With this option set, if `receive-pack` does not transmit
+	any data in this phase for `receive.keepAlive` seconds, it will
+	send a short keepalive packet.  The default is 5 seconds; set
+	to 0 to disable keepalives entirely.
+
 receive.unpackLimit::
 	If the number of objects received in a push is below this
 	limit then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
@@ -2587,7 +2686,7 @@
 	A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
 	'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
 	values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
-	the value of 'sendemail.identity'.
+	the value of `sendemail.identity`.
 
 sendemail.smtpEncryption::
 	See linkgit:git-send-email[1] for description.  Note that this
@@ -2604,7 +2703,7 @@
 	Identity-specific versions of the 'sendemail.*' parameters
 	found below, taking precedence over those when the this
 	identity is selected, through command-line or
-	'sendemail.identity'.
+	`sendemail.identity`.
 
 sendemail.aliasesFile::
 sendemail.aliasFileType::
@@ -2634,7 +2733,7 @@
 	See linkgit:git-send-email[1] for description.
 
 sendemail.signedoffcc (deprecated)::
-	Deprecated alias for 'sendemail.signedoffbycc'.
+	Deprecated alias for `sendemail.signedoffbycc`.
 
 showbranch.default::
 	The default set of branches for linkgit:git-show-branch[1].
@@ -2748,6 +2847,17 @@
 	"--ignore-submodules" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
 	affected by this setting.
 
+submodule.fetchJobs::
+	Specifies how many submodules are fetched/cloned at the same time.
+	A positive integer allows up to that number of submodules fetched
+	in parallel. A value of 0 will give some reasonable default.
+	If unset, it defaults to 1.
+
+tag.forceSignAnnotated::
+	A boolean to specify whether annotated tags created should be GPG signed.
+	If `--annotate` is specified on the command line, it takes
+	precedence over this option.
+
 tag.sort::
 	This variable controls the sort ordering of tags when displayed by
 	linkgit:git-tag[1]. Without the "--sort=<value>" option provided, the
@@ -2829,6 +2939,21 @@
 	`uploadpack.keepAlive` seconds. Setting this option to 0
 	disables keepalive packets entirely. The default is 5 seconds.
 
+uploadpack.packObjectsHook::
+	If this option is set, when `upload-pack` would run
+	`git pack-objects` to create a packfile for a client, it will
+	run this shell command instead.  The `pack-objects` command and
+	arguments it _would_ have run (including the `git pack-objects`
+	at the beginning) are appended to the shell command. The stdin
+	and stdout of the hook are treated as if `pack-objects` itself
+	was run. I.e., `upload-pack` will feed input intended for
+	`pack-objects` to the hook, and expects a completed packfile on
+	stdout.
++
+Note that this configuration variable is ignored if it is seen in the
+repository-level config (this is a safety measure against fetching from
+untrusted repositories).
+
 url.<base>.insteadOf::
 	Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
 	start, instead, with <base>. In cases where some site serves a
@@ -2855,17 +2980,17 @@
 
 user.email::
 	Your email address to be recorded in any newly created commits.
-	Can be overridden by the 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL', 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL', and
-	'EMAIL' environment variables.  See linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
+	Can be overridden by the `GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL`, `GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL`, and
+	`EMAIL` environment variables.  See linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
 
 user.name::
 	Your full name to be recorded in any newly created commits.
-	Can be overridden by the 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME' and 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'
+	Can be overridden by the `GIT_AUTHOR_NAME` and `GIT_COMMITTER_NAME`
 	environment variables.  See linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
 
 user.useConfigOnly::
-	Instruct Git to avoid trying to guess defaults for 'user.email'
-	and 'user.name', and instead retrieve the values only from the
+	Instruct Git to avoid trying to guess defaults for `user.email`
+	and `user.name`, and instead retrieve the values only from the
 	configuration. For example, if you have multiple email addresses
 	and would like to use a different one for each repository, then
 	with this configuration option set to `true` in the global config
diff --git a/Documentation/date-formats.txt b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
index ccd1fc8..35e8da2 100644
--- a/Documentation/date-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 DATE FORMATS
 ------------
 
-The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables
+The `GIT_AUTHOR_DATE`, `GIT_COMMITTER_DATE` environment variables
 ifdef::git-commit[]
 and the `--date` option
 endif::git-commit[]
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 6eaa452..d5a5b17 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@
 	commands such as 'git diff-files'. 'git checkout' also honors
 	this setting when reporting uncommitted changes. Setting it to
 	'all' disables the submodule summary normally shown by 'git commit'
-	and 'git status' when 'status.submoduleSummary' is set unless it is
+	and 'git status' when `status.submoduleSummary` is set unless it is
 	overridden by using the --ignore-submodules command-line option.
 	The 'git submodule' commands are not affected by this setting.
 
@@ -105,12 +105,16 @@
 
 diff.renameLimit::
 	The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
-	detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option '-l'.
+	detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option `-l`.
 
 diff.renames::
-	Tells Git to detect renames.  If set to any boolean value, it
-	will enable basic rename detection.  If set to "copies" or
-	"copy", it will detect copies, as well.
+	Whether and how Git detects renames.  If set to "false",
+	rename detection is disabled. If set to "true", basic rename
+	detection is enabled.  If set to "copies" or "copy", Git will
+	detect copies, as well.  Defaults to true.  Note that this
+	affects only 'git diff' Porcelain like linkgit:git-diff[1] and
+	linkgit:git-log[1], and not lower level commands such as
+	linkgit:git-diff-files[1].
 
 diff.suppressBlankEmpty::
 	A boolean to inhibit the standard behavior of printing a space
@@ -166,6 +170,11 @@
 
 include::mergetools-diff.txt[]
 
+diff.compactionHeuristic::
+	Set this option to `true` to enable an experimental heuristic that
+	shifts the hunk boundary in an attempt to make the resulting
+	patch easier to read.
+
 diff.algorithm::
 	Choose a diff algorithm.  The variants are as follows:
 +
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
index 85b0890..cf52626 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -46,11 +46,11 @@
 . sha1 for "dst"; 0\{40\} if creation, unmerged or "look at work tree".
 . a space.
 . status, followed by optional "score" number.
-. a tab or a NUL when '-z' option is used.
+. a tab or a NUL when `-z` option is used.
 . path for "src"
-. a tab or a NUL when '-z' option is used; only exists for C or R.
+. a tab or a NUL when `-z` option is used; only exists for C or R.
 . path for "dst"; only exists for C or R.
-. an LF or a NUL when '-z' option is used, to terminate the record.
+. an LF or a NUL when `-z` option is used, to terminate the record.
 
 Possible status letters are:
 
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@
 ----------------------
 
 "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff --raw"
-can take '-c' or '--cc' option
+can take `-c` or `--cc` option
 to generate diff output also for merge commits.  The output differs
 from the format described above in the following way:
 
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
index bcf54da..d2a7ff5 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
@@ -2,11 +2,11 @@
 --------------------------
 
 When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
-with a '-p' option, "git diff" without the '--raw' option, or
+with a `-p` option, "git diff" without the `--raw` option, or
 "git log" with the "-p" option, they
 do not produce the output described above; instead they produce a
 patch file.  You can customize the creation of such patches via the
-GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables.
+`GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` and the `GIT_DIFF_OPTS` environment variables.
 
 What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
 diff format:
@@ -114,11 +114,11 @@
 ------------
 
 1.   It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
-     this (when '-c' option is used):
+     this (when `-c` option is used):
 
        diff --combined file
 +
-or like this (when '--cc' option is used):
+or like this (when `--cc` option is used):
 
        diff --cc file
 
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 3cb3015..705a873 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -63,6 +63,13 @@
 	Synonym for `-p --raw`.
 endif::git-format-patch[]
 
+--compaction-heuristic::
+--no-compaction-heuristic::
+	These are to help debugging and tuning an experimental
+	heuristic (which is off by default) that shifts the hunk
+	boundary in an attempt to make the resulting patch easier
+	to read.
+
 --minimal::
 	Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
 	diff is produced.
@@ -412,6 +419,9 @@
 	paths are selected if there is any file that matches
 	other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
 	that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
++
+Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude.  E.g.
+`--diff-filter=ad` excludes added and deleted paths.
 
 -S<string>::
 	Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 036edfb..9eab1f5 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@
 
 -p::
 --prune::
-	After fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
+	Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
 	longer exist on the remote.  Tags are not subject to pruning
 	if they are fetched only because of the default tag
 	auto-following or due to a --tags option.  However, if tags
@@ -88,7 +88,7 @@
 	to whatever else would otherwise be fetched.  Using this
 	option alone does not subject tags to pruning, even if --prune
 	is used (though tags may be pruned anyway if they are also the
-	destination of an explicit refspec; see '--prune').
+	destination of an explicit refspec; see `--prune`).
 
 --recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]::
 	This option controls if and under what conditions new commits of
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@
 
 --no-recurse-submodules::
 	Disable recursive fetching of submodules (this has the same effect as
-	using the '--recurse-submodules=no' option).
+	using the `--recurse-submodules=no` option).
 
 --submodule-prefix=<path>::
 	Prepend <path> to paths printed in informative messages
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@
 
 --upload-pack <upload-pack>::
 	When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled
-	by 'git fetch-pack', '--exec=<upload-pack>' is passed to
+	by 'git fetch-pack', `--exec=<upload-pack>` is passed to
 	the command to specify non-default path for the command
 	run on the other end.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 6a96a66..7ed63dc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 'git add' [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
 	  [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
 	  [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing]
-	  [--] [<pathspec>...]
+	  [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -165,6 +165,11 @@
 	be ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work
 	tree or not.
 
+--chmod=(+|-)x::
+	Override the executable bit of the added files.  The executable
+	bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
+	unchanged.
+
 \--::
 	This option can be used to separate command-line options from
 	the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 13cdd7f..12879e4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -116,7 +116,8 @@
 	By default the command will try to detect the patch format
 	automatically. This option allows the user to bypass the automatic
 	detection and specify the patch format that the patch(es) should be
-	interpreted as. Valid formats are mbox, stgit, stgit-series and hg.
+	interpreted as. Valid formats are mbox, mboxrd,
+	stgit, stgit-series and hg.
 
 -i::
 --interactive::
@@ -198,12 +199,12 @@
 to process.  Upon seeing the first patch that does not apply, it
 aborts in the middle.  You can recover from this in one of two ways:
 
-. skip the current patch by re-running the command with the '--skip'
+. skip the current patch by re-running the command with the `--skip`
   option.
 
 . hand resolve the conflict in the working directory, and update
   the index file to bring it into a state that the patch should
-  have produced.  Then run the command with the '--continue' option.
+  have produced.  Then run the command with the `--continue` option.
 
 The command refuses to process new mailboxes until the current
 operation is finished, so if you decide to start over from scratch,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index c06efbd..e015f5b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -366,7 +366,7 @@
 
 Or if you want more control, you can inspect the current state using
 for example "git bisect visualize". It will launch gitk (or "git log"
-if the DISPLAY environment variable is not set) to help you find a
+if the `DISPLAY` environment variable is not set) to help you find a
 better bisection point.
 
 Either way, if you have a string of untestable commits, it might
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 7e79aae..2bb9a57 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -205,7 +205,7 @@
 
 `view` may also be used as a synonym for `visualize`.
 
-If the 'DISPLAY' environment variable is not set, 'git log' is used
+If the `DISPLAY` environment variable is not set, 'git log' is used
 instead.  You can also give command-line options such as `-p` and
 `--stat`.
 
@@ -358,7 +358,7 @@
 --no-checkout::
 +
 Do not checkout the new working tree at each iteration of the bisection
-process. Instead just update a special reference named 'BISECT_HEAD' to make
+process. Instead just update a special reference named `BISECT_HEAD` to make
 it point to the commit that should be tested.
 +
 This option may be useful when the test you would perform in each step
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 4a7037f..1fe7344 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -39,10 +39,10 @@
 commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are reachable from the named
 commit) will be listed.  With `--no-merged` only branches not merged into
 the named commit will be listed.  If the <commit> argument is missing it
-defaults to 'HEAD' (i.e. the tip of the current branch).
+defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the tip of the current branch).
 
 The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
-which points to the current 'HEAD', or <start-point> if given.
+which points to the current `HEAD`, or <start-point> if given.
 
 Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
 working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
@@ -172,7 +172,7 @@
 +
 This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking branch.
 Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable to `false` if you
-want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if '--no-track'
+want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if `--no-track`
 were given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
 start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index eb3d694..18d03d8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,8 @@
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 In its first form, the command provides the content or the type of an object in
-the repository. The type is required unless '-t' or '-p' is used to find the
-object type, or '-s' is used to find the object size, or '--textconv' is used
+the repository. The type is required unless `-t` or `-p` is used to find the
+object type, or `-s` is used to find the object size, or `--textconv` is used
 (which implies type "blob").
 
 In the second form, a list of objects (separated by linefeeds) is provided on
@@ -144,13 +144,13 @@
 
 OUTPUT
 ------
-If '-t' is specified, one of the <type>.
+If `-t` is specified, one of the <type>.
 
-If '-s' is specified, the size of the <object> in bytes.
+If `-s` is specified, the size of the <object> in bytes.
 
-If '-e' is specified, no output.
+If `-e` is specified, no output.
 
-If '-p' is specified, the contents of <object> are pretty-printed.
+If `-p` is specified, the contents of <object> are pretty-printed.
 
 If <type> is specified, the raw (though uncompressed) contents of the <object>
 will be returned.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index 91a3622..8611a99 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -118,8 +118,8 @@
 * Determine the reference name to use for a new branch:
 +
 ------------
-$ ref=$(git check-ref-format --normalize "refs/heads/$newbranch") ||
-die "we do not like '$newbranch' as a branch name."
+$ ref=$(git check-ref-format --normalize "refs/heads/$newbranch")||
+{ echo "we do not like '$newbranch' as a branch name." >&2 ; exit 1 ; }
 ------------
 
 GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 5e5273e..8e2c066 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -157,7 +157,7 @@
 	When creating a new branch, set up "upstream" configuration. See
 	"--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
 +
-If no '-b' option is given, the name of the new branch will be
+If no `-b` option is given, the name of the new branch will be
 derived from the remote-tracking branch, by looking at the local part of
 the refspec configured for the corresponding remote, and then stripping
 the initial part up to the "*".
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@
 off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
 "refs/remotes/origin/hack").  If the given name has no slash, or the above
 guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted.  You can
-explicitly give a name with '-b' in such a case.
+explicitly give a name with `-b` in such a case.
 
 --no-track::
 	Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
@@ -419,6 +419,18 @@
 $ git log -g -2 HEAD
 ------------
 
+ARGUMENT DISAMBIGUATION
+-----------------------
+
+When there is only one argument given and it is not `--` (e.g. "git
+checkout abc"), and when the argument is both a valid `<tree-ish>`
+(e.g. a branch "abc" exists) and a valid `<pathspec>` (e.g. a file
+or a directory whose name is "abc" exists), Git would usually ask
+you to disambiguate.  Because checking out a branch is so common an
+operation, however, "git checkout abc" takes "abc" as a `<tree-ish>`
+in such a situation.  Use `git checkout -- <pathspec>` if you want
+to checkout these paths out of the index.
+
 EXAMPLES
 --------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index 6154e57..d35d771 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
 	For a more complete list of ways to spell commits, see
 	linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
 	Sets of commits can be passed but no traversal is done by
-	default, as if the '--no-walk' option was specified, see
+	default, as if the `--no-walk` option was specified, see
 	linkgit:git-rev-list[1]. Note that specifying a range will
 	feed all <commit>... arguments to a single revision walk
 	(see a later example that uses 'maint master..next').
@@ -128,7 +128,7 @@
 
 --allow-empty-message::
 	By default, cherry-picking a commit with an empty message will fail.
-	This option overrides that behaviour, allowing commits with empty
+	This option overrides that behavior, allowing commits with empty
 	messages to be cherry picked.
 
 --keep-redundant-commits::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index 51a7e26..03056da 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
 Cleans the working tree by recursively removing files that are not
 under version control, starting from the current directory.
 
-Normally, only files unknown to Git are removed, but if the '-x'
+Normally, only files unknown to Git are removed, but if the `-x`
 option is specified, ignored files are also removed. This can, for
 example, be useful to remove all build products.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index b7c467a..ec41d3d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,8 @@
 	  [-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
 	  [--dissociate] [--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
 	  [--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch]
-	  [--recursive | --recurse-submodules] [--] <repository>
-	  [<directory>]
+	  [--recursive | --recurse-submodules] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
+	  [--jobs <n>] [--] <repository> [<directory>]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -191,7 +191,8 @@
 	Create a 'shallow' clone with a history truncated to the
 	specified number of commits. Implies `--single-branch` unless
 	`--no-single-branch` is given to fetch the histories near the
-	tips of all branches.
+	tips of all branches. If you want to clone submodules shallowly,
+	also pass `--shallow-submodules`.
 
 --[no-]single-branch::
 	Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
@@ -212,6 +213,9 @@
 	repository does not have a worktree/checkout (i.e. if any of
 	`--no-checkout`/`-n`, `--bare`, or `--mirror` is given)
 
+--[no-]shallow-submodules::
+	All submodules which are cloned will be shallow with a depth of 1.
+
 --separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
 	Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
 	to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
@@ -219,6 +223,10 @@
 	The result is Git repository can be separated from working
 	tree.
 
+-j <n>::
+--jobs <n>::
+	The number of submodules fetched at the same time.
+	Defaults to the `submodule.fetchJobs` option.
 
 <repository>::
 	The (possibly remote) repository to clone from.  See the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index 48c33d7..002dae6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@
 	An existing tree object
 
 -p <parent>::
-	Each '-p' indicates the id of a parent commit object.
+	Each `-p` indicates the id of a parent commit object.
 
 -m <message>::
 	A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than
@@ -61,8 +61,8 @@
 	stuck to the option without a space.
 
 --no-gpg-sign::
-	Countermand `commit.gpgSign` configuration variable that is
-	set to force each and every commit to be signed.
+	Do not GPG-sign commit, to countermand a `--gpg-sign` option
+	given earlier on the command line.
 
 
 Commit Information
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 9ec6b3c..b0a294d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@
 
 -c <commit>::
 --reedit-message=<commit>::
-	Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
+	Like '-C', but with `-c` the editor is invoked, so that
 	the user can further edit the commit message.
 
 --fixup=<commit>::
@@ -201,7 +201,7 @@
 	Otherwise `whitespace`.
 --
 +
-The default can be changed by the 'commit.cleanup' configuration
+The default can be changed by the `commit.cleanup` configuration
 variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
 
 -e::
@@ -260,7 +260,7 @@
 	staged for other paths. This is the default mode of operation of
 	'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
 	in which case this option can be omitted.
-	If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
+	If this option is specified together with `--amend`, then
 	no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
 	the last commit without committing changes that have
 	already been staged.
@@ -290,7 +290,8 @@
 	what changes the commit has.
 	Note that this diff output doesn't have its
 	lines prefixed with '#'. This diff will not be a part
-	of the commit message.
+	of the commit message. See the `commit.verbose` configuration
+	variable in linkgit:git-config[1].
 +
 If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between
 what would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged
@@ -449,8 +450,8 @@
 ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
 ---------------------------------------
 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
-GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
-VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
+`GIT_EDITOR` environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
+`VISUAL` environment variable, or the `EDITOR` environment variable (in that
 order).  See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
 
 HOOKS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 6843114..83f86b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -31,29 +31,29 @@
 actually the section and the key separated by a dot, and the value will be
 escaped.
 
-Multiple lines can be added to an option by using the '--add' option.
+Multiple lines can be added to an option by using the `--add` option.
 If you want to update or unset an option which can occur on multiple
 lines, a POSIX regexp `value_regex` needs to be given.  Only the
 existing values that match the regexp are updated or unset.  If
 you want to handle the lines that do *not* match the regex, just
 prepend a single exclamation mark in front (see also <<EXAMPLES>>).
 
-The type specifier can be either '--int' or '--bool', to make
+The type specifier can be either `--int` or `--bool`, to make
 'git config' ensure that the variable(s) are of the given type and
 convert the value to the canonical form (simple decimal number for int,
-a "true" or "false" string for bool), or '--path', which does some
-path expansion (see '--path' below).  If no type specifier is passed, no
+a "true" or "false" string for bool), or `--path`, which does some
+path expansion (see `--path` below).  If no type specifier is passed, no
 checks or transformations are performed on the value.
 
 When reading, the values are read from the system, global and
 repository local configuration files by default, and options
-'--system', '--global', '--local' and '--file <filename>' can be
+`--system`, `--global`, `--local` and `--file <filename>` can be
 used to tell the command to read from only that location (see <<FILES>>).
 
 When writing, the new value is written to the repository local
-configuration file by default, and options '--system', '--global',
-'--file <filename>' can be used to tell the command to write to
-that location (you can say '--local' but that is the default).
+configuration file by default, and options `--system`, `--global`,
+`--file <filename>` can be used to tell the command to write to
+that location (you can say `--local` but that is the default).
 
 This command will fail with non-zero status upon error.  Some exit
 codes are:
@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@
 	Use the given config file instead of the one specified by GIT_CONFIG.
 
 --blob blob::
-	Similar to '--file' but use the given blob instead of a file. E.g.
+	Similar to `--file` but use the given blob instead of a file. E.g.
 	you can use 'master:.gitmodules' to read values from the file
 	'.gitmodules' in the master branch. See "SPECIFYING REVISIONS"
 	section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7] for a more complete list of
@@ -220,7 +220,7 @@
 -e::
 --edit::
 	Opens an editor to modify the specified config file; either
-	'--system', '--global', or repository (default).
+	`--system`, `--global`, or repository (default).
 
 --[no-]includes::
 	Respect `include.*` directives in config files when looking up
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@
 FILES
 -----
 
-If not set explicitly with '--file', there are four files where
+If not set explicitly with `--file`, there are four files where
 'git config' will search for configuration options:
 
 $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig::
@@ -263,13 +263,16 @@
 precedence over values read earlier.  When multiple values are taken then all
 values of a key from all files will be used.
 
+You may override individual configuration parameters when running any git
+command by using the `-c` option. See linkgit:git[1] for details.
+
 All writing options will per default write to the repository specific
-configuration file. Note that this also affects options like '--replace-all'
-and '--unset'. *'git config' will only ever change one file at a time*.
+configuration file. Note that this also affects options like `--replace-all`
+and `--unset`. *'git config' will only ever change one file at a time*.
 
 You can override these rules either by command-line options or by environment
-variables. The '--global' and the '--system' options will limit the file used
-to the global or system-wide file respectively. The GIT_CONFIG environment
+variables. The `--global` and the `--system` options will limit the file used
+to the global or system-wide file respectively. The `GIT_CONFIG` environment
 variable has a similar effect, but you can specify any filename you want.
 
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
index e3c8f27..25fb963 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@
 FILES
 -----
 
-If not set explicitly with '--file', there are two files where
+If not set explicitly with `--file`, there are two files where
 git-credential-store will search for credentials in order of precedence:
 
 ~/.git-credentials::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
index 00a0679..de1ebed 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
 deprecated; it does not work with cvsps version 3 and later.  If you are
 performing a one-shot import of a CVS repository consider using
 http://cvs2svn.tigris.org/cvs2git.html[cvs2git] or
-https://github.com/BartMassey/parsecvs[parsecvs].
+http://www.catb.org/esr/cvs-fast-export/[cvs-fast-export].
 
 Imports a CVS repository into Git. It will either create a new
 repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
@@ -74,10 +74,10 @@
 	akin to the way 'git clone' uses 'origin' by default.
 
 -o <branch-for-HEAD>::
-	When no remote is specified (via -r) the 'HEAD' branch
+	When no remote is specified (via -r) the `HEAD` branch
 	from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within the Git
-	repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for Git.
-	When a remote is specified the 'HEAD' branch is named
+	repository, as `HEAD` already has a special meaning for Git.
+	When a remote is specified the `HEAD` branch is named
 	remotes/<remote>/master mirroring 'git clone' behaviour.
 	Use this option if you want to import into a different
 	branch.
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@
 
 -p <options-for-cvsps>::
 	Additional options for cvsps.
-	The options '-u' and '-A' are implicit and should not be used here.
+	The options `-u` and '-A' are implicit and should not be used here.
 +
 If you need to pass multiple options, separate them with a comma.
 
@@ -122,7 +122,7 @@
 
 -M <regex>::
 	Attempt to detect merges based on the commit message with a custom
-	regex. It can be used with '-m' to enable the default regexes
+	regex. It can be used with `-m` to enable the default regexes
 	as well. You must escape forward slashes.
 +
 The regex must capture the source branch name in $1.
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@
 
 OUTPUT
 ------
-If '-v' is specified, the script reports what it is doing.
+If `-v` is specified, the script reports what it is doing.
 
 Otherwise, success is indicated the Unix way, i.e. by simply exiting with
 a zero exit status.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index db4d7a9..a336ae5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
 You can specify a list of allowed directories. If no directories
 are given, all are allowed. This is an additional restriction, gitcvs
 access still needs to be enabled by the `gitcvs.enabled` config option
-unless '--export-all' was given, too.
+unless `--export-all` was given, too.
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -332,7 +332,7 @@
 3. Browse the 'modules' available. It will give you a list of the heads in
    the repository. You will not be able to browse the tree from there. Only
    the heads.
-4. Pick 'HEAD' when it asks what branch/tag to check out. Untick the
+4. Pick `HEAD` when it asks what branch/tag to check out. Untick the
    "launch commit wizard" to avoid committing the .project file.
 
 Protocol notes: If you are using anonymous access via pserver, just select that.
@@ -402,12 +402,12 @@
 CRLF Line Ending Conversions
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-By default the server leaves the '-k' mode blank for all files,
+By default the server leaves the `-k` mode blank for all files,
 which causes the CVS client to treat them as a text files, subject
 to end-of-line conversion on some platforms.
 
 You can make the server use the end-of-line conversion attributes to
-set the '-k' modes for files by setting the `gitcvs.usecrlfattr`
+set the `-k` modes for files by setting the `gitcvs.usecrlfattr`
 config variable.  See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for more information
 about end-of-line conversion.
 
@@ -415,9 +415,9 @@
 or the attributes do not allow automatic detection for a filename, then
 the server uses the `gitcvs.allBinary` config for the default setting.
 If `gitcvs.allBinary` is set, then file not otherwise
-specified will default to '-kb' mode. Otherwise the '-k' mode
+specified will default to '-kb' mode. Otherwise the `-k` mode
 is left blank. But if `gitcvs.allBinary` is set to "guess", then
-the correct '-k' mode will be guessed based on the contents of
+the correct `-k` mode will be guessed based on the contents of
 the file.
 
 For best consistency with 'cvs', it is probably best to override the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index a69b361..3c91db7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@
 
 It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and
 it will refuse to export any Git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
-for export this way (unless the '--export-all' parameter is specified). If you
+for export this way (unless the `--export-all` parameter is specified). If you
 pass some directory paths as 'git daemon' arguments, you can further restrict
 the offers to a whitelist comprising of those.
 
@@ -90,10 +90,10 @@
 	is not supported, then --listen=hostname is also not supported and
 	--listen must be given an IPv4 address.
 	Can be given more than once.
-	Incompatible with '--inetd' option.
+	Incompatible with `--inetd` option.
 
 --port=<n>::
-	Listen on an alternative port.  Incompatible with '--inetd' option.
+	Listen on an alternative port.  Incompatible with `--inetd` option.
 
 --init-timeout=<n>::
 	Timeout (in seconds) between the moment the connection is established
@@ -188,7 +188,7 @@
 	arguments. The external command can decide to decline the
 	service by exiting with a non-zero status (or to allow it by
 	exiting with a zero status).  It can also look at the $REMOTE_ADDR
-	and $REMOTE_PORT environment variables to learn about the
+	and `$REMOTE_PORT` environment variables to learn about the
 	requestor when making this decision.
 +
 The external command can optionally write a single line to its
@@ -296,7 +296,7 @@
 selectively enable/disable services per repository::
 	To enable 'git archive --remote' and disable 'git fetch' against
 	a repository, have the following in the configuration file in the
-	repository (that is the file 'config' next to 'HEAD', 'refs' and
+	repository (that is the file 'config' next to `HEAD`, 'refs' and
 	'objects').
 +
 ----------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index c8f28c8..e4ac448 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -154,7 +154,7 @@
 If an exact match was not found, 'git describe' will walk back
 through the commit history to locate an ancestor commit which
 has been tagged.  The ancestor's tag will be output along with an
-abbreviation of the input commit-ish's SHA-1. If '--first-parent' was
+abbreviation of the input commit-ish's SHA-1. If `--first-parent` was
 specified then the walk will only consider the first parent of each
 commit.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index a86cf62..a171506 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -40,13 +40,13 @@
 Operating Modes
 ---------------
 You can choose whether you want to trust the index file entirely
-(using the '--cached' flag) or ask the diff logic to show any files
+(using the `--cached` flag) or ask the diff logic to show any files
 that don't match the stat state as being "tentatively changed".  Both
 of these operations are very useful indeed.
 
 Cached Mode
 -----------
-If '--cached' is specified, it allows you to ask:
+If `--cached` is specified, it allows you to ask:
 
 	show me the differences between HEAD and the current index
 	contents (the ones I'd write using 'git write-tree')
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
index 1439486..7870e17 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
@@ -43,11 +43,11 @@
 	show tree entry itself as well as subtrees.  Implies -r.
 
 --root::
-	When '--root' is specified the initial commit will be shown as a big
+	When `--root` is specified the initial commit will be shown as a big
 	creation event. This is equivalent to a diff against the NULL tree.
 
 --stdin::
-	When '--stdin' is specified, the command does not take
+	When `--stdin` is specified, the command does not take
 	<tree-ish> arguments from the command line.  Instead, it
 	reads lines containing either two <tree>, one <commit>, or a
 	list of <commit> from its standard input.  (Use a single space
@@ -70,13 +70,13 @@
 	By default, 'git diff-tree --stdin' does not show
 	differences for merge commits.  With this flag, it shows
 	differences to that commit from all of its parents. See
-	also '-c'.
+	also `-c`.
 
 -s::
 	By default, 'git diff-tree --stdin' shows differences,
-	either in machine-readable form (without '-p') or in patch
-	form (with '-p').  This output can be suppressed.  It is
-	only useful with '-v' flag.
+	either in machine-readable form (without `-p`) or in patch
+	form (with `-p`).  This output can be suppressed.  It is
+	only useful with `-v` flag.
 
 -v::
 	This flag causes 'git diff-tree --stdin' to also show
@@ -91,17 +91,17 @@
 -c::
 	This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed
 	(which means it is useful only when the command is given
-	one <tree-ish>, or '--stdin').  It shows the differences
+	one <tree-ish>, or `--stdin`).  It shows the differences
 	from each of the parents to the merge result simultaneously
 	instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent and the
-	result one at a time (which is what the '-m' option does).
+	result one at a time (which is what the `-m` option does).
 	Furthermore, it lists only files which were modified
 	from all parents.
 
 --cc::
 	This flag changes the way a merge commit patch is displayed,
-	in a similar way to the '-c' option. It implies the '-c'
-	and '-p' options and further compresses the patch output
+	in a similar way to the `-c` option. It implies the `-c`
+	and `-p` options and further compresses the patch output
 	by omitting uninteresting hunks whose the contents in the parents
 	have only two variants and the merge result picks one of them
 	without modification.  When all hunks are uninteresting, the commit
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index 333cf6f..224fb30 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -98,7 +98,7 @@
 	invoked diff tool returns a non-zero exit code.
 +
 'git-difftool' will forward the exit code of the invoked tool when
-'--trust-exit-code' is used.
+`--trust-exit-code` is used.
 
 See linkgit:git-diff[1] for the full list of supported options.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index 66910aa..2b76265 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -136,6 +136,8 @@
 	Maximum size of each output packfile.
 	The default is unlimited.
 
+fastimport.unpackLimit::
+	See linkgit:git-config[1]
 
 Performance
 -----------
@@ -1054,7 +1056,7 @@
 no-relative-marks::
 force::
 	Act as though the corresponding command-line option with
-	a leading '--' was passed on the command line
+	a leading `--` was passed on the command line
 	(see OPTIONS, above).
 
 import-marks::
@@ -1105,7 +1107,7 @@
 
 The `<option>` part of the command may contain any of the options
 listed in the OPTIONS section that do not change import semantics,
-without the leading '--' and is treated in the same way.
+without the leading `--` and is treated in the same way.
 
 Option commands must be the first commands on the input (not counting
 feature commands), to give an option command after any non-option
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index 239623c..24417ee 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -41,13 +41,13 @@
 	option, then the refs from stdin are processed after those
 	on the command line.
 +
-If '--stateless-rpc' is specified together with this option then
+If `--stateless-rpc` is specified together with this option then
 the list of refs must be in packet format (pkt-line). Each ref must
 be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
 
 -q::
 --quiet::
-	Pass '-q' flag to 'git unpack-objects'; this makes the
+	Pass `-q` flag to 'git unpack-objects'; this makes the
 	cloning process less verbose.
 
 -k::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index efe56e0..9e42169 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -99,6 +99,57 @@
 overridden by giving the `--refmap=<refspec>` parameter(s) on the
 command line.
 
+OUTPUT
+------
+
+The output of "git fetch" depends on the transport method used; this
+section describes the output when fetching over the Git protocol
+(either locally or via ssh) and Smart HTTP protocol.
+
+The status of the fetch is output in tabular form, with each line
+representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
+
+-------------------------------
+ <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> [<reason>]
+-------------------------------
+
+The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if the --verbose option is
+used.
+
+In compact output mode, specified with configuration variable
+fetch.output, if either entire `<from>` or `<to>` is found in the
+other string, it will be substituted with `*` in the other string. For
+example, `master -> origin/master` becomes `master -> origin/*`.
+
+flag::
+	A single character indicating the status of the ref:
+(space);; for a successfully fetched fast-forward;
+`+`;; for a successful forced update;
+`-`;; for a successfully pruned ref;
+`t`;; for a successful tag update;
+`*`;; for a successfully fetched new ref;
+`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to update; and
+`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need fetching.
+
+summary::
+	For a successfully fetched ref, the summary shows the old and new
+	values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
+	`git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
+	`<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
+
+from::
+	The name of the remote ref being fetched from, minus its
+	`refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of
+	the remote ref is "(none)".
+
+to::
+	The name of the local ref being updated, minus its
+	`refs/<type>/` prefix.
+
+reason::
+	A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully fetched
+	refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
+	failure is described.
 
 EXAMPLES
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 003731f..0a09698 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@
 
 Note that since this operation is very I/O expensive, it might
 be a good idea to redirect the temporary directory off-disk with the
-'-d' option, e.g. on tmpfs.  Reportedly the speedup is very noticeable.
+`-d` option, e.g. on tmpfs.  Reportedly the speedup is very noticeable.
 
 
 Filters
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@
 The filters are applied in the order as listed below.  The <command>
 argument is always evaluated in the shell context using the 'eval' command
 (with the notable exception of the commit filter, for technical reasons).
-Prior to that, the $GIT_COMMIT environment variable will be set to contain
+Prior to that, the `$GIT_COMMIT` environment variable will be set to contain
 the id of the commit being rewritten.  Also, GIT_AUTHOR_NAME,
 GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL,
 and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE are taken from the current commit and exported to
@@ -171,7 +171,7 @@
 	untouched.  This switch allow git-filter-branch to ignore such
 	commits.  Though, this switch only applies for commits that have one
 	and only one parent, it will hence keep merges points. Also, this
-	option is not compatible with the use of '--commit-filter'. Though you
+	option is not compatible with the use of `--commit-filter`. Though you
 	just need to use the function 'git_commit_non_empty_tree "$@"' instead
 	of the `git commit-tree "$@"` idiom in your commit filter to make that
 	happen.
@@ -197,7 +197,7 @@
 <rev-list options>...::
 	Arguments for 'git rev-list'.  All positive refs included by
 	these options are rewritten.  You may also specify options
-	such as '--all', but you must use '--' to separate them from
+	such as `--all`, but you must use `--` to separate them from
 	the 'git filter-branch' options. Implies <<Remap_to_ancestor>>.
 
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index d9d406d..f57e69b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@
 	<width> and <position> used instead.  For instance,
 	`%(align:<width>,<position>)`. If the contents length is more
 	than the width then no alignment is performed. If used with
-	'--quote' everything in between %(align:...) and %(end) is
+	`--quote` everything in between %(align:...) and %(end) is
 	quoted, but if nested then only the topmost level performs
 	quoting.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 6821441..9624c84 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@
 
 If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>.  Otherwise
 they are created in the current working directory. The default path
-can be set with the 'format.outputDirectory' configuration option.
+can be set with the `format.outputDirectory` configuration option.
 The `-o` option takes precedence over `format.outputDirectory`.
 To store patches in the current working directory even when
 `format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`.
@@ -146,9 +146,9 @@
 `--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order.  'deep'
 threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
 +
-The default is `--no-thread`, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
+The default is `--no-thread`, unless the `format.thread` configuration
 is set.  If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
-style specified by 'format.thread' if any, or else `shallow`.
+style specified by `format.thread` if any, or else `shallow`.
 +
 Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
 itself.  If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
@@ -265,6 +265,11 @@
   Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
   of the hash of the commit.
 
+--base=<commit>::
+	Record the base tree information to identify the state the
+	patch series applies to.  See the BASE TREE INFORMATION section
+	below for details.
+
 --root::
 	Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
 	is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
@@ -520,6 +525,61 @@
 5. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
    message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
 
+BASE TREE INFORMATION
+---------------------
+
+The base tree information block is used for maintainers or third party
+testers to know the exact state the patch series applies to. It consists
+of the 'base commit', which is a well-known commit that is part of the
+stable part of the project history everybody else works off of, and zero
+or more 'prerequisite patches', which are well-known patches in flight
+that is not yet part of the 'base commit' that need to be applied on top
+of 'base commit' in topological order before the patches can be applied.
+
+The 'base commit' is shown as "base-commit: " followed by the 40-hex of
+the commit object name.  A 'prerequisite patch' is shown as
+"prerequisite-patch-id: " followed by the 40-hex 'patch id', which can
+be obtained by passing the patch through the `git patch-id --stable`
+command.
+
+Imagine that on top of the public commit P, you applied well-known
+patches X, Y and Z from somebody else, and then built your three-patch
+series A, B, C, the history would be like:
+
+................................................
+---P---X---Y---Z---A---B---C
+................................................
+
+With `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` (or variants thereof, e.g. with
+`--cover-letter` of using `Z..C` instead of `-3 C` to specify the
+range), the base tree information block is shown at the end of the
+first message the command outputs (either the first patch, or the
+cover letter), like this:
+
+------------
+base-commit: P
+prerequisite-patch-id: X
+prerequisite-patch-id: Y
+prerequisite-patch-id: Z
+------------
+
+For non-linear topology, such as
+
+................................................
+---P---X---A---M---C
+    \         /
+     Y---Z---B
+................................................
+
+You can also use `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` to generate patches
+for A, B and C, and the identifiers for P, X, Y, Z are appended at the
+end of the first message.
+
+If set `--base=auto` in cmdline, it will track base commit automatically,
+the base commit will be the merge base of tip commit of the remote-tracking
+branch and revision-range specified in cmdline.
+For a local branch, you need to track a remote branch by `git branch
+--set-upstream-to` before using this option.
 
 EXAMPLES
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index 84ee92e..b9f060e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,8 @@
 [verse]
 'git fsck' [--tags] [--root] [--unreachable] [--cache] [--no-reflogs]
 	 [--[no-]full] [--strict] [--verbose] [--lost-found]
-	 [--[no-]dangling] [--[no-]progress] [--connectivity-only] [<object>*]
+	 [--[no-]dangling] [--[no-]progress] [--connectivity-only]
+	 [--[no-]name-objects] [<object>*]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -82,6 +83,12 @@
 	a blob, the contents are written into the file, rather than
 	its object name.
 
+--name-objects::
+	When displaying names of reachable objects, in addition to the
+	SHA-1 also display a name that describes *how* they are reachable,
+	compatible with linkgit:git-rev-parse[1], e.g.
+	`HEAD@{1234567890}~25^2:src/`.
+
 --[no-]progress::
 	Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
 	default when it is attached to a terminal, unless
@@ -95,7 +102,7 @@
 git-fsck tests SHA-1 and general object sanity, and it does full tracking
 of the resulting reachability and everything else. It prints out any
 corruption it finds (missing or bad objects), and if you use the
-'--unreachable' flag it will also print out objects that exist but that
+`--unreachable` flag it will also print out objects that exist but that
 aren't reachable from any of the specified head nodes (or the default
 set, as mentioned above).
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index fa15104..bed60f4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -82,13 +82,13 @@
 Configuration
 -------------
 
-The optional configuration variable 'gc.reflogExpire' can be
+The optional configuration variable `gc.reflogExpire` can be
 set to indicate how long historical entries within each branch's
 reflog should remain available in this repository.  The setting is
 expressed as a length of time, for example '90 days' or '3 months'.
 It defaults to '90 days'.
 
-The optional configuration variable 'gc.reflogExpireUnreachable'
+The optional configuration variable `gc.reflogExpireUnreachable`
 can be set to indicate how long historical reflog entries which
 are not part of the current branch should remain available in
 this repository.  These types of entries are generally created as
@@ -107,30 +107,30 @@
 	reflogExpireUnreachable = 3 days
 ------------
 
-The optional configuration variable 'gc.rerereResolved' indicates
+The optional configuration variable `gc.rerereResolved` indicates
 how long records of conflicted merge you resolved earlier are
 kept.  This defaults to 60 days.
 
-The optional configuration variable 'gc.rerereUnresolved' indicates
+The optional configuration variable `gc.rerereUnresolved` indicates
 how long records of conflicted merge you have not resolved are
 kept.  This defaults to 15 days.
 
-The optional configuration variable 'gc.packRefs' determines if
+The optional configuration variable `gc.packRefs` determines if
 'git gc' runs 'git pack-refs'. This can be set to "notbare" to enable
 it within all non-bare repos or it can be set to a boolean value.
 This defaults to true.
 
-The optional configuration variable 'gc.aggressiveWindow' controls how
+The optional configuration variable `gc.aggressiveWindow` controls how
 much time is spent optimizing the delta compression of the objects in
 the repository when the --aggressive option is specified.  The larger
 the value, the more time is spent optimizing the delta compression.  See
 the documentation for the --window' option in linkgit:git-repack[1] for
 more details.  This defaults to 250.
 
-Similarly, the optional configuration variable 'gc.aggressiveDepth'
+Similarly, the optional configuration variable `gc.aggressiveDepth`
 controls --depth option in linkgit:git-repack[1]. This defaults to 250.
 
-The optional configuration variable 'gc.pruneExpire' controls how old
+The optional configuration variable `gc.pruneExpire` controls how old
 the unreferenced loose objects have to be before they are pruned.  The
 default is "2 weeks ago".
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index cb0f6cf..0ecea6e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -41,17 +41,17 @@
 -------------
 
 grep.lineNumber::
-	If set to true, enable '-n' option by default.
+	If set to true, enable `-n` option by default.
 
 grep.patternType::
 	Set the default matching behavior. Using a value of 'basic', 'extended',
-	'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the '--basic-regexp', '--extended-regexp',
-	'--fixed-strings', or '--perl-regexp' option accordingly, while the
+	'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the `--basic-regexp`, `--extended-regexp`,
+	`--fixed-strings`, or `--perl-regexp` option accordingly, while the
 	value 'default' will return to the default matching behavior.
 
 grep.extendedRegexp::
-	If set to true, enable '--extended-regexp' option by default. This
-	option is ignored when the 'grep.patternType' option is set to a value
+	If set to true, enable `--extended-regexp` option by default. This
+	option is ignored when the `grep.patternType` option is set to a value
 	other than 'default'.
 
 grep.threads::
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@
 	8 threads are used by default (for now).
 
 grep.fullName::
-	If set to true, enable '--full-name' option by default.
+	If set to true, enable `--full-name` option by default.
 
 grep.fallbackToNoIndex::
 	If set to true, fall back to git grep --no-index if git grep
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gui.txt b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
index 8144527..c1a3e8b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gui.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@
 
 browser::
 	Start a tree browser showing all files in the specified
-	commit (or 'HEAD' by default).  Files selected through the
+	commit (or `HEAD` by default).  Files selected through the
 	browser are opened in the blame viewer.
 
 citool::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index 3956525..40d328a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -18,10 +18,10 @@
 command and a list of the most commonly used Git commands are printed
 on the standard output.
 
-If the option '--all' or '-a' is given, all available commands are
+If the option `--all` or `-a` is given, all available commands are
 printed on the standard output.
 
-If the option '--guide' or '-g' is given, a list of the useful
+If the option `--guide` or `-g` is given, a list of the useful
 Git guides is also printed on the standard output.
 
 If a command, or a guide, is given, a manual page for that command or
@@ -57,10 +57,10 @@
 --man::
 	Display manual page for the command in the 'man' format. This
 	option may be used to override a value set in the
-	'help.format' configuration variable.
+	`help.format` configuration variable.
 +
 By default the 'man' program will be used to display the manual page,
-but the 'man.viewer' configuration variable may be used to choose
+but the `man.viewer` configuration variable may be used to choose
 other display programs (see below).
 
 -w::
@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@
 	format. A web browser will be used for that purpose.
 +
 The web browser can be specified using the configuration variable
-'help.browser', or 'web.browser' if the former is not set. If none of
+`help.browser`, or `web.browser` if the former is not set. If none of
 these config variables is set, the 'git web{litdd}browse' helper script
 (called by 'git help') will pick a suitable default. See
 linkgit:git-web{litdd}browse[1] for more information about this.
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@
 help.format
 ~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-If no command-line option is passed, the 'help.format' configuration
+If no command-line option is passed, the `help.format` configuration
 variable will be checked. The following values are supported for this
 variable; they make 'git help' behave as their corresponding command-
 line option:
@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@
 help.browser, web.browser and browser.<tool>.path
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-The 'help.browser', 'web.browser' and 'browser.<tool>.path' will also
+The `help.browser`, `web.browser` and `browser.<tool>.path` will also
 be checked if the 'web' format is chosen (either by command-line
 option or configuration variable). See '-w|--web' in the OPTIONS
 section above and linkgit:git-web{litdd}browse[1].
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@
 man.viewer
 ~~~~~~~~~~
 
-The 'man.viewer' configuration variable will be checked if the 'man'
+The `man.viewer` configuration variable will be checked if the 'man'
 format is chosen. The following values are currently supported:
 
 * "man": use the 'man' program as usual,
@@ -110,9 +110,9 @@
 tab (see 'Note about konqueror' below).
 
 Values for other tools can be used if there is a corresponding
-'man.<tool>.cmd' configuration entry (see below).
+`man.<tool>.cmd` configuration entry (see below).
 
-Multiple values may be given to the 'man.viewer' configuration
+Multiple values may be given to the `man.viewer` configuration
 variable. Their corresponding programs will be tried in the order
 listed in the configuration file.
 
@@ -128,14 +128,14 @@
 DISPLAY is not set) and in that case emacs' woman mode will be tried.
 
 If everything fails, or if no viewer is configured, the viewer specified
-in the GIT_MAN_VIEWER environment variable will be tried.  If that
+in the `GIT_MAN_VIEWER` environment variable will be tried.  If that
 fails too, the 'man' program will be tried anyway.
 
 man.<tool>.path
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 You can explicitly provide a full path to your preferred man viewer by
-setting the configuration variable 'man.<tool>.path'. For example, you
+setting the configuration variable `man.<tool>.path`. For example, you
 can configure the absolute path to konqueror by setting
 'man.konqueror.path'. Otherwise, 'git help' assumes the tool is
 available in PATH.
@@ -143,9 +143,9 @@
 man.<tool>.cmd
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-When the man viewer, specified by the 'man.viewer' configuration
+When the man viewer, specified by the `man.viewer` configuration
 variables, is not among the supported ones, then the corresponding
-'man.<tool>.cmd' configuration variable will be looked up. If this
+`man.<tool>.cmd` configuration variable will be looked up. If this
 variable exists then the specified tool will be treated as a custom
 command and a shell eval will be used to run the command with the man
 page passed as arguments.
@@ -153,7 +153,7 @@
 Note about konqueror
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-When 'konqueror' is specified in the 'man.viewer' configuration
+When 'konqueror' is specified in the `man.viewer` configuration
 variable, we launch 'kfmclient' to try to open the man page on an
 already opened konqueror in a new tab if possible.
 
@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 Note that all these configuration variables should probably be set
-using the '--global' flag, for example like this:
+using the `--global` flag, for example like this:
 
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git config --global help.format web
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
index 9268fb6..bb0db19 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@
 It verifies that the directory has the magic file
 "git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to export any Git directory
 that hasn't explicitly been marked for export this way (unless the
-GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable is set).
+`GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL` environmental variable is set).
 
 By default, only the `upload-pack` service is enabled, which serves
 'git fetch-pack' and 'git ls-remote' clients, which are invoked from
@@ -241,7 +241,7 @@
 
 ENVIRONMENT
 -----------
-'git http-backend' relies upon the CGI environment variables set
+'git http-backend' relies upon the `CGI` environment variables set
 by the invoking web server, including:
 
 * PATH_INFO (if GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is set, otherwise PATH_TRANSLATED)
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@
 * QUERY_STRING
 * REQUEST_METHOD
 
-The GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable may be passed to
+The `GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL` environmental variable may be passed to
 'git-http-backend' to bypass the check for the "git-daemon-export-ok"
 file in each repository before allowing export of that repository.
 
@@ -269,7 +269,7 @@
 ensuring that any reflogs created by 'git-receive-pack' contain some
 identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.
 
-All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks
+All `CGI` environment variables are available to each of the hooks
 invoked by the 'git-receive-pack'.
 
 GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
index 2e67362..2aceb6f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
@@ -81,13 +81,13 @@
      exist in the set of remote refs; the ref matched <src>
      locally is used as the name of the destination.
 
-Without '--force', the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
+Without `--force`, the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
 <dst> does not exist, or <dst> is a proper subset (i.e. an
 ancestor) of <src>.  This check, known as "fast-forward check",
 is performed in order to avoid accidentally overwriting the
 remote ref and lose other peoples' commits from there.
 
-With '--force', the fast-forward check is disabled for all refs.
+With `--force`, the fast-forward check is disabled for all refs.
 
 Optionally, a <ref> parameter can be prefixed with a plus '+' sign
 to disable the fast-forward check only on that ref.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init.txt b/Documentation/git-init.txt
index 8174d27..9d27197 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init.txt
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
 
 --bare::
 
-Create a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment is not set, it is set to the
+Create a bare repository. If `GIT_DIR` environment is not set, it is set to the
 current working directory.
 
 --template=<template_directory>::
@@ -130,7 +130,12 @@
  - the default template directory: `/usr/share/git-core/templates`.
 
 The default template directory includes some directory structure, suggested
-"exclude patterns" (see linkgit:gitignore[5]), and sample hook files (see linkgit:githooks[5]).
+"exclude patterns" (see linkgit:gitignore[5]), and sample hook files.
+
+The sample hooks are all disabled by default, To enable one of the
+sample hooks rename it by removing its `.sample` suffix.
+
+See linkgit:githooks[5] for more general info on hook execution.
 
 EXAMPLES
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-instaweb.txt b/Documentation/git-instaweb.txt
index cc75b25..e8ecdbf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-instaweb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-instaweb.txt
@@ -80,8 +80,8 @@
 
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
-If the configuration variable 'instaweb.browser' is not set,
-'web.browser' will be used instead if it is defined. See
+If the configuration variable `instaweb.browser` is not set,
+`web.browser` will be used instead if it is defined. See
 linkgit:git-web{litdd}browse[1] for more information about this.
 
 SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
index a77b901..93d1db6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -219,7 +219,7 @@
 Signed-off-by: Bob <bob@example.com>
 ------------
 
-* Use the '--in-place' option to edit a message file in place:
+* Use the `--in-place` option to edit a message file in place:
 +
 ------------
 $ cat msg.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 03f9580..32246fd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -29,12 +29,14 @@
 	(works only for a single file).
 
 --no-decorate::
---decorate[=short|full|no]::
+--decorate[=short|full|auto|no]::
 	Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If 'short' is
 	specified, the ref name prefixes 'refs/heads/', 'refs/tags/' and
 	'refs/remotes/' will not be printed. If 'full' is specified, the
-	full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. The default option
-	is 'short'.
+	full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. If 'auto' is
+	specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names
+	are shown as if 'short' were given, otherwise no ref names are
+	shown. The default option is 'short'.
 
 --source::
 	Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
@@ -196,12 +198,16 @@
 	`git log -p` output would be shown without a diff attached.
 	The default is `true`.
 
+log.showSignature::
+	If `true`, `git log` and related commands will act as if the
+	`--show-signature` option was passed to them.
+
 mailmap.*::
 	See linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
 
 notes.displayRef::
 	Which refs, in addition to the default set by `core.notesRef`
-	or 'GIT_NOTES_REF', to read notes from when showing commit
+	or `GIT_NOTES_REF`, to read notes from when showing commit
 	messages with the `log` family of commands.  See
 	linkgit:git-notes[1].
 +
@@ -210,7 +216,7 @@
 but a glob that does not match any refs is silently ignored.
 +
 This setting can be disabled by the `--no-notes` option,
-overridden by the 'GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF' environment variable,
+overridden by the `GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF` environment variable,
 and overridden by the `--notes=<ref>` option.
 
 GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 75c3f41..0d933ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -159,8 +159,7 @@
 +
 <eolattr> is the attribute that is used when checking out or committing,
 it is either "", "-text", "text", "text=auto", "text eol=lf", "text eol=crlf".
-Note: Currently Git does not support "text=auto eol=lf" or "text=auto eol=crlf",
-that may change in the future.
+Since Git 2.10 "text=auto eol=lf" and "text=auto eol=crlf" are supported.
 +
 Both the <eolinfo> in the index ("i/<eolinfo>")
 and in the working tree ("w/<eolinfo>") are shown for regular files,
@@ -175,7 +174,7 @@
 
 Output
 ------
-'git ls-files' just outputs the filenames unless '--stage' is specified in
+'git ls-files' just outputs the filenames unless `--stage` is specified in
 which case it outputs:
 
         [<tag> ]<mode> <object> <stage> <file>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
index 16e87fd..dbc91f9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
@@ -20,16 +20,16 @@
 
  - the behaviour is slightly different from that of "/bin/ls" in that the
    '<path>' denotes just a list of patterns to match, e.g. so specifying
-   directory name (without '-r') will behave differently, and order of the
+   directory name (without `-r`) will behave differently, and order of the
    arguments does not matter.
 
  - the behaviour is similar to that of "/bin/ls" in that the '<path>' is
    taken as relative to the current working directory.  E.g. when you are
    in a directory 'sub' that has a directory 'dir', you can run 'git
    ls-tree -r HEAD dir' to list the contents of the tree (that is
-   'sub/dir' in 'HEAD').  You don't want to give a tree that is not at the
+   'sub/dir' in `HEAD`).  You don't want to give a tree that is not at the
    root level (e.g. `git ls-tree -r HEAD:sub dir`) in this case, as that
-   would result in asking for 'sub/sub/dir' in the 'HEAD' commit.
+   would result in asking for 'sub/sub/dir' in the `HEAD` commit.
    However, the current working directory can be ignored by passing
    --full-tree option.
 
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@
 
 -t::
 	Show tree entries even when going to recurse them. Has no effect
-	if '-r' was not passed. '-d' implies '-t'.
+	if `-r` was not passed. `-d` implies `-t`.
 
 -l::
 --long::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt b/Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt
index 4d1b871..e3b2a88 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,8 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git mailsplit' [-b] [-f<nn>] [-d<prec>] [--keep-cr] -o<directory> [--] [(<mbox>|<Maildir>)...]
+'git mailsplit' [-b] [-f<nn>] [-d<prec>] [--keep-cr] [--mboxrd]
+		-o<directory> [--] [(<mbox>|<Maildir>)...]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -47,6 +48,10 @@
 --keep-cr::
 	Do not remove `\r` from lines ending with `\r\n`.
 
+--mboxrd::
+	Input is of the "mboxrd" format and "^>+From " line escaping is
+	reversed.
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 07f7295..b758d55 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 [verse]
 'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
 	[-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
+	[--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories]
 	[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
 'git merge' <msg> HEAD <commit>...
 'git merge' --abort
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktree.txt b/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
index 5c6ebdf..c3616e7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@
 --batch::
 	Allow building of more than one tree object before exiting.  Each
 	tree is separated by as single blank line. The final new-line is
-	optional.  Note - if the '-z' option is used, lines are terminated
+	optional.  Note - if the `-z` option is used, lines are terminated
 	with NUL.
 
 GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mv.txt b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
index e453132..79449bf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mv.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
@@ -32,10 +32,10 @@
 --force::
 	Force renaming or moving of a file even if the target exists
 -k::
-        Skip move or rename actions which would lead to an error
+	Skip move or rename actions which would lead to an error
 	condition. An error happens when a source is neither existing nor
 	controlled by Git, or when it would overwrite an existing
-        file unless '-f' is given.
+	file unless `-f` is given.
 -n::
 --dry-run::
 	Do nothing; only show what would happen
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index 9c4fd68..be7db30 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -152,7 +152,7 @@
 
 -c <object>::
 --reedit-message=<object>::
-	Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
+	Like '-C', but with `-c` the editor is invoked, so that
 	the user can further edit the note message.
 
 --allow-empty::
@@ -161,7 +161,7 @@
 
 --ref <ref>::
 	Manipulate the notes tree in <ref>.  This overrides
-	'GIT_NOTES_REF' and the "core.notesRef" configuration.  The ref
+	`GIT_NOTES_REF` and the "core.notesRef" configuration.  The ref
 	specifies the full refname when it begins with `refs/notes/`; when it
 	begins with `notes/`, `refs/` and otherwise `refs/notes/` is prefixed
 	to form a full name of the ref.
@@ -333,10 +333,10 @@
 notes.displayRef::
 	Which ref (or refs, if a glob or specified more than once), in
 	addition to the default set by `core.notesRef` or
-	'GIT_NOTES_REF', to read notes from when showing commit
+	`GIT_NOTES_REF`, to read notes from when showing commit
 	messages with the 'git log' family of commands.
 	This setting can be overridden on the command line or by the
-	'GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF' environment variable.
+	`GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF` environment variable.
 	See linkgit:git-log[1].
 
 notes.rewrite.<command>::
@@ -345,7 +345,7 @@
 	notes from the original to the rewritten commit.  Defaults to
 	`true`.  See also "`notes.rewriteRef`" below.
 +
-This setting can be overridden by the 'GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF'
+This setting can be overridden by the `GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF`
 environment variable.
 
 notes.rewriteMode::
@@ -366,33 +366,33 @@
 Does not have a default value; you must configure this variable to
 enable note rewriting.
 +
-Can be overridden with the 'GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF' environment variable.
+Can be overridden with the `GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF` environment variable.
 
 
 ENVIRONMENT
 -----------
 
-'GIT_NOTES_REF'::
+`GIT_NOTES_REF`::
 	Which ref to manipulate notes from, instead of `refs/notes/commits`.
 	This overrides the `core.notesRef` setting.
 
-'GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF'::
+`GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF`::
 	Colon-delimited list of refs or globs indicating which refs,
 	in addition to the default from `core.notesRef` or
-	'GIT_NOTES_REF', to read notes from when showing commit
+	`GIT_NOTES_REF`, to read notes from when showing commit
 	messages.
 	This overrides the `notes.displayRef` setting.
 +
 A warning will be issued for refs that do not exist, but a glob that
 does not match any refs is silently ignored.
 
-'GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE'::
+`GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE`::
 	When copying notes during a rewrite, what to do if the target
 	commit already has a note.
 	Must be one of `overwrite`, `concatenate`, `cat_sort_uniq`, or `ignore`.
 	This overrides the `core.rewriteMode` setting.
 
-'GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF'::
+`GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF`::
 	When rewriting commits, which notes to copy from the original
 	to the rewritten commit.  Must be a colon-delimited list of
 	refs or globs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index 35e3170..c83aaf3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@
 ------------
 This imports the specified depot into
 'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing Git repository.  The
-'--branch' option can be used to specify a different branch to
+`--branch` option can be used to specify a different branch to
 be used for the p4 content.
 
 If a Git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
@@ -114,7 +114,7 @@
 
 If there are multiple branches, doing 'git p4 sync' will automatically
 use the "BRANCH DETECTION" algorithm to try to partition new changes
-into the right branch.  This can be overridden with the '--branch'
+into the right branch.  This can be overridden with the `--branch`
 option to specify just a single branch to update.
 
 
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@
 ~~~~~~
 Submitting changes from a Git repository back to the p4 repository
 requires a separate p4 client workspace.  This should be specified
-using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the Git configuration
+using the `P4CLIENT` environment variable or the Git configuration
 variable 'git-p4.client'.  The p4 client must exist, but the client root
 will be created and populated if it does not already exist.
 
@@ -150,10 +150,10 @@
 ------------
 
 The upstream reference is generally 'refs/remotes/p4/master', but can
-be overridden using the '--origin=' command-line option.
+be overridden using the `--origin=` command-line option.
 
 The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
-'--preserve-user' option will cause ownership to be modified
+`--preserve-user` option will cause ownership to be modified
 according to the author of the Git commit.  This option requires admin
 privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
 
@@ -166,7 +166,7 @@
 All commands except clone accept these options.
 
 --git-dir <dir>::
-	Set the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable.  See linkgit:git[1].
+	Set the `GIT_DIR` environment variable.  See linkgit:git[1].
 
 -v::
 --verbose::
@@ -221,7 +221,7 @@
 	where they will be treated as remote-tracking branches by
 	linkgit:git-branch[1] and other commands.  This option instead
 	puts p4 branches in 'refs/heads/p4/'.  Note that future
-	sync operations must specify '--import-local' as well so that
+	sync operations must specify `--import-local` as well so that
 	they can find the p4 branches in refs/heads.
 
 --max-changes <n>::
@@ -245,7 +245,7 @@
 	default, involves removing the entire depot path.  With this
 	option, the full p4 depot path is retained in Git.  For example,
 	path '//depot/main/foo/bar.c', when imported from
-	'//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'.  With '--keep-path', the
+	'//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'.  With `--keep-path`, the
 	Git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
 
 --use-client-spec::
@@ -275,7 +275,7 @@
 --origin <commit>::
 	Upstream location from which commits are identified to submit to
 	p4.  By default, this is the most recent p4 commit reachable
-	from 'HEAD'.
+	from `HEAD`.
 
 -M::
 	Detect renames.  See linkgit:git-diff[1].  Renames will be
@@ -341,7 +341,7 @@
     Import all changes from both named depot paths into a single
     repository.  Only files below these directories are included.
     There is not a subdirectory in Git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
-    You must use the '--destination' option when specifying more
+    You must use the `--destination` option when specifying more
     than one depot path.  The revision specifier must be specified
     identically on each depot path.  If there are files in the
     depot paths with the same name, the path with the most recently
@@ -355,7 +355,7 @@
 The p4 client specification is maintained with the 'p4 client' command
 and contains among other fields, a View that specifies how the depot
 is mapped into the client repository.  The 'clone' and 'sync' commands
-can consult the client spec when given the '--use-client-spec' option or
+can consult the client spec when given the `--use-client-spec` option or
 when the useClientSpec variable is true.  After 'git p4 clone', the
 useClientSpec variable is automatically set in the repository
 configuration file.  This allows future 'git p4 submit' commands to
@@ -390,7 +390,7 @@
 can use these mappings to determine branch relationships.
 
 If you have a repository where all the branches of interest exist as
-subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use '--detect-branches'
+subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use `--detect-branches`
 when cloning or syncing to have 'git p4' automatically find
 subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in Git.
 
@@ -507,7 +507,7 @@
 git-p4.useClientSpec::
 	Specify that the p4 client spec should be used to identify p4
 	depot paths of interest.  This is equivalent to specifying the
-	option '--use-client-spec'.  See the "CLIENT SPEC" section above.
+	option `--use-client-spec`.  See the "CLIENT SPEC" section above.
 	This variable is a boolean, not the name of a p4 client.
 
 git-p4.pathEncoding::
@@ -551,6 +551,17 @@
 	A changelist that contains only excluded files will be imported
 	as an empty commit if this boolean option is set to true.
 
+git-p4.mapUser::
+	Map a P4 user to a name and email address in Git. Use a string
+	with the following format to create a mapping:
++
+-------------
+git config --add git-p4.mapUser "p4user = First Last <mail@address.com>"
+-------------
++
+A mapping will override any user information from P4. Mappings for
+multiple P4 user can be defined.
+
 Submit variables
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 git-p4.detectRenames::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 19cdcd0..8973510 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -104,8 +104,8 @@
 	out of memory with a large window, but still be able to take
 	advantage of the large window for the smaller objects.  The
 	size can be suffixed with "k", "m", or "g".
-	`--window-memory=0` makes memory usage unlimited, which is the
-	default.
+	`--window-memory=0` makes memory usage unlimited.  The default
+	is taken from the `pack.windowMemory` configuration variable.
 
 --max-pack-size=<n>::
 	Maximum size of each output pack file. The size can be suffixed with
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index a62a2a6..d033b25 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -128,6 +128,15 @@
 --no-rebase::
 	Override earlier --rebase.
 
+--autostash::
+--no-autostash::
+	Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see
+	linkgit:git-stash[1]) if needed, and apply the stash when
+	done. `--no-autostash` is useful to override the `rebase.autoStash`
+	configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
++
+This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.
+
 Options related to fetching
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index cf6ee4a..47b77e6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 [verse]
 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
 	   [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
-	   [-u | --set-upstream]
+	   [-u | --set-upstream] [--push-option=<string>]
 	   [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
 	   [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
 	   [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
@@ -137,8 +137,8 @@
 	and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
 	from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
 	reachable from the refs being pushed.  This can also be specified
-	with configuration variable 'push.followTags'.  For more
-	information, see 'push.followTags' in linkgit:git-config[1].
+	with configuration variable `push.followTags`.  For more
+	information, see `push.followTags` in linkgit:git-config[1].
 
 --[no-]signed::
 --sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
@@ -156,6 +156,12 @@
 	Either all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
 	If the server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.
 
+-o::
+--push-option::
+	Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to
+	the pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string
+	must not contain a NUL or LF character.
+
 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
 	Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
@@ -198,10 +204,11 @@
 +
 `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
 if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
-the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
+the same as the specified value `<expect>` (which is allowed to be
 different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
 or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
-this form is used).
+this form is used).  If `<expect>` is the empty string, then the named ref
+must not already exist.
 +
 Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
 that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
@@ -240,7 +247,7 @@
 	For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
 	upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
 	linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
-	see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
+	see `branch.<name>.merge` in linkgit:git-config[1].
 
 --[no-]thin::
 	These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
@@ -275,7 +282,7 @@
 	all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will be
 	pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions
 	it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. A value of
-	'no' or using '--no-recurse-submodules' can be used to override the
+	'no' or using `--no-recurse-submodules` can be used to override the
 	push.recurseSubmodules configuration variable when no submodule
 	recursion is required.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
index ff633b0..8cf952b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
@@ -46,14 +46,14 @@
 	The directory to find the quilt patches.
 +
 The default for the patch directory is patches
-or the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment
+or the value of the `$QUILT_PATCHES` environment
 variable.
 
 --series <file>::
 	The quilt series file.
 +
 The default for the series file is <patches>/series
-or the value of the $QUILT_SERIES environment
+or the value of the `$QUILT_SERIES` environment
 variable.
 
 GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 6ed610a..de222c8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -208,10 +208,10 @@
 	rebase. False by default.
 
 rebase.autoSquash::
-	If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
+	If set to true enable `--autosquash` option by default.
 
 rebase.autoStash::
-	If set to true enable '--autostash' option by default.
+	If set to true enable `--autostash` option by default.
 
 rebase.missingCommitsCheck::
 	If set to "warn", print warnings about removed commits in
@@ -220,7 +220,7 @@
 	done. "ignore" by default.
 
 rebase.instructionFormat::
-	Custom commit list format to use during an '--interactive' rebase.
+	Custom commit list format to use during an `--interactive` rebase.
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
@@ -391,9 +391,6 @@
 	final history. <cmd> will be interpreted as one or more shell
 	commands.
 +
-This option can only be used with the `--interactive` option
-(see INTERACTIVE MODE below).
-+
 You may execute several commands by either using one instance of `--exec`
 with several commands:
 +
@@ -406,6 +403,9 @@
 If `--autosquash` is used, "exec" lines will not be appended for
 the intermediate commits, and will only appear at the end of each
 squash/fixup series.
++
+This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but it can be run
+without an explicit `--interactive`.
 
 --root::
 	Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
@@ -428,9 +428,9 @@
 	"fixup! " or "squash! " after the first, in case you referred to an
 	earlier fixup/squash with `git commit --fixup/--squash`.
 +
-This option is only valid when the '--interactive' option is used.
+This option is only valid when the `--interactive` option is used.
 +
-If the '--autosquash' option is enabled by default using the
+If the `--autosquash` option is enabled by default using the
 configuration variable `rebase.autoSquash`, this option can be
 used to override and disable this setting.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
index e700baf..80afca8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@
 
 If only <infd> is given, it is assumed to be a bidirectional socket connected
 to remote Git server (git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack or
-git-upload-achive). If both <infd> and <outfd> are given, they are assumed
+git-upload-archive). If both <infd> and <outfd> are given, they are assumed
 to be pipes connected to a remote Git server (<infd> being the inbound pipe
 and <outfd> being the outbound pipe.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index 1d7ecea..577b969 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -137,9 +137,9 @@
 Retrieves the URLs for a remote. Configurations for `insteadOf` and
 `pushInsteadOf` are expanded here. By default, only the first URL is listed.
 +
-With '--push', push URLs are queried rather than fetch URLs.
+With `--push`, push URLs are queried rather than fetch URLs.
 +
-With '--all', all URLs for the remote will be listed.
+With `--all`, all URLs for the remote will be listed.
 
 'set-url'::
 
@@ -147,11 +147,11 @@
 regex <oldurl> (first URL if no <oldurl> is given) to <newurl>. If
 <oldurl> doesn't match any URL, an error occurs and nothing is changed.
 +
-With '--push', push URLs are manipulated instead of fetch URLs.
+With `--push`, push URLs are manipulated instead of fetch URLs.
 +
-With '--add', instead of changing existing URLs, new URL is added.
+With `--add`, instead of changing existing URLs, new URL is added.
 +
-With '--delete', instead of changing existing URLs, all URLs matching
+With `--delete`, instead of changing existing URLs, all URLs matching
 regex <url> are deleted for remote <name>.  Trying to delete all
 non-push URLs is an error.
 +
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index b9c02ce..26afe6e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
 	pack everything referenced into a single pack.
 	Especially useful when packing a repository that is used
 	for private development. Use
-	with '-d'.  This will clean up the objects that `git prune`
+	with `-d`.  This will clean up the objects that `git prune`
 	leaves behind, but `git fsck --full --dangling` shows as
 	dangling.
 +
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@
 other objects in that pack they already have locally.
 
 -A::
-	Same as `-a`, unless '-d' is used.  Then any unreachable
+	Same as `-a`, unless `-d` is used.  Then any unreachable
 	objects in a previous pack become loose, unpacked objects,
 	instead of being left in the old pack.  Unreachable objects
 	are never intentionally added to a pack, even when repacking.
@@ -100,8 +100,10 @@
 	out of memory with a large window, but still be able to take
 	advantage of the large window for the smaller objects.  The
 	size can be suffixed with "k", "m", or "g".
-	`--window-memory=0` makes memory usage unlimited, which is the
-	default.
+	`--window-memory=0` makes memory usage unlimited.  The default
+	is taken from the `pack.windowMemory` configuration variable.
+	Note that the actual memory usage will be the limit multiplied
+	by the number of threads used by linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
 
 --max-pack-size=<n>::
 	Maximum size of each output pack file. The size can be suffixed with
@@ -128,6 +130,19 @@
 	with `-b` or `repack.writeBitmaps`, as it ensures that the
 	bitmapped packfile has the necessary objects.
 
+--unpack-unreachable=<when>::
+	When loosening unreachable objects, do not bother loosening any
+	objects older than `<when>`. This can be used to optimize out
+	the write of any objects that would be immediately pruned by
+	a follow-up `git prune`.
+
+-k::
+--keep-unreachable::
+	When used with `-ad`, any unreachable objects from existing
+	packs will be appended to the end of the packfile instead of
+	being removed. In addition, any unreachable loose objects will
+	be packed (and their loose counterparts removed).
+
 Configuration
 -------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index 8fff598..e5c57ae 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
 
 shows information about commit 'bar'.
 
-The 'GIT_NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS' environment variable can be set to
+The `GIT_NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS` environment variable can be set to
 achieve the same effect as the `--no-replace-objects` option.
 
 OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index 573616a..837707a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@
 Note: 'git revert' is used to record some new commits to reverse the
 effect of some earlier commits (often only a faulty one).  If you want to
 throw away all uncommitted changes in your working directory, you
-should see linkgit:git-reset[1], particularly the '--hard' option.  If
+should see linkgit:git-reset[1], particularly the `--hard` option.  If
 you want to extract specific files as they were in another commit, you
 should see linkgit:git-checkout[1], specifically the `git checkout
 <commit> -- <filename>` syntax.  Take care with these alternatives as
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
 	For a more complete list of ways to spell commit names, see
 	linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
 	Sets of commits can also be given but no traversal is done by
-	default, see linkgit:git-rev-list[1] and its '--no-walk'
+	default, see linkgit:git-rev-list[1] and its `--no-walk`
 	option.
 
 -e::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 771a7b5..642d0ef 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -47,18 +47,18 @@
 
 --annotate::
 	Review and edit each patch you're about to send. Default is the value
-	of 'sendemail.annotate'. See the CONFIGURATION section for
-	'sendemail.multiEdit'.
+	of `sendemail.annotate`. See the CONFIGURATION section for
+	`sendemail.multiEdit`.
 
 --bcc=<address>,...::
 	Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
-	'sendemail.bcc'.
+	`sendemail.bcc`.
 +
 This option may be specified multiple times.
 
 --cc=<address>,...::
 	Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email.
-	Default is the value of 'sendemail.cc'.
+	Default is the value of `sendemail.cc`.
 +
 This option may be specified multiple times.
 
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@
 	Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in linkgit:git-var[1])
 	to edit an introductory message for the patch series.
 +
-When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
+When `--compose` is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
 In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
 (what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
 (or Git: prefixed) lines, the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
@@ -74,12 +74,12 @@
 +
 Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
 +
-See the CONFIGURATION section for 'sendemail.multiEdit'.
+See the CONFIGURATION section for `sendemail.multiEdit`.
 
 --from=<address>::
 	Specify the sender of the emails.  If not specified on the command line,
-	the value of the 'sendemail.from' configuration option is used.  If
-	neither the command-line option nor 'sendemail.from' are set, then the
+	the value of the `sendemail.from` configuration option is used.  If
+	neither the command-line option nor `sendemail.from` are set, then the
 	user will be prompted for the value.  The default for the prompt will be
 	the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not
 	set, as returned by "git var -l".
@@ -114,7 +114,7 @@
 --to=<address>,...::
 	Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally, this
 	will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved. Default is the
-	value of the 'sendemail.to' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
+	value of the `sendemail.to` configuration value; if that is unspecified,
 	and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be prompted for.
 +
 This option may be specified multiple times.
@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@
 	can be useful when the repository contains files that contain carriage
 	returns, but makes the raw patch email file (as saved from a MUA) much
 	harder to inspect manually.  base64 is even more fool proof, but also
-	even more opaque.  Default is the value of the 'sendemail.transferEncoding'
+	even more opaque.  Default is the value of the `sendemail.transferEncoding`
 	configuration value; if that is unspecified, git will use 8bit and not
 	add a Content-Transfer-Encoding header.
 
@@ -157,20 +157,20 @@
 	subscribed to a list. In order to use the 'From' address, set the
 	value to "auto". If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
 	suitable privileges for the -f parameter.  Default is the value of the
-	'sendemail.envelopeSender' configuration variable; if that is
+	`sendemail.envelopeSender` configuration variable; if that is
 	unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
 
 --smtp-encryption=<encryption>::
 	Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'.  Any other
 	value reverts to plain SMTP.  Default is the value of
-	'sendemail.smtpEncryption'.
+	`sendemail.smtpEncryption`.
 
 --smtp-domain=<FQDN>::
 	Specifies the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used in the
 	HELO/EHLO command to the SMTP server.  Some servers require the
 	FQDN to match your IP address.  If not set, git send-email attempts
 	to determine your FQDN automatically.  Default is the value of
-	'sendemail.smtpDomain'.
+	`sendemail.smtpDomain`.
 
 --smtp-auth=<mechanisms>::
 	Whitespace-separated list of allowed SMTP-AUTH mechanisms. This setting
@@ -182,19 +182,19 @@
 +
 If at least one of the specified mechanisms matches the ones advertised by the
 SMTP server and if it is supported by the utilized SASL library, the mechanism
-is used for authentication. If neither 'sendemail.smtpAuth' nor '--smtp-auth'
+is used for authentication. If neither 'sendemail.smtpAuth' nor `--smtp-auth`
 is specified, all mechanisms supported by the SASL library can be used.
 
 --smtp-pass[=<password>]::
 	Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
 	argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
-	the password. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpPass',
-	however '--smtp-pass' always overrides this value.
+	the password. Default is the value of `sendemail.smtpPass`,
+	however `--smtp-pass` always overrides this value.
 +
 Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
 or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
-'--smtp-user' or a 'sendemail.smtpUser'), but no password has been
-specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtpPass'), then
+`--smtp-user` or a `sendemail.smtpUser`), but no password has been
+specified (with `--smtp-pass` or `sendemail.smtpPass`), then
 a password is obtained using 'git-credential'.
 
 --smtp-server=<host>::
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@
 	`smtp.example.com` or a raw IP address).  Alternatively it can
 	specify a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead;
 	the program must support the `-i` option.  Default value can
-	be specified by the 'sendemail.smtpServer' configuration
+	be specified by the `sendemail.smtpServer` configuration
 	option; the built-in default is `/usr/sbin/sendmail` or
 	`/usr/lib/sendmail` if such program is available, or
 	`localhost` otherwise.
@@ -213,11 +213,11 @@
 	submission port 587, or the common SSL smtp port 465);
 	symbolic port names (e.g. "submission" instead of 587)
 	are also accepted. The port can also be set with the
-	'sendemail.smtpServerPort' configuration variable.
+	`sendemail.smtpServerPort` configuration variable.
 
 --smtp-server-option=<option>::
 	If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server option to use.
-	Default value can be specified by the 'sendemail.smtpServerOption'
+	Default value can be specified by the `sendemail.smtpServerOption`
 	configuration option.
 +
 The --smtp-server-option option must be repeated for each option you want
@@ -234,13 +234,13 @@
 	certificates concatenated together: see verify(1) -CAfile and
 	-CApath for more information on these). Set it to an empty string
 	to disable certificate verification. Defaults to the value of the
-	'sendemail.smtpsslcertpath' configuration variable, if set, or the
+	`sendemail.smtpsslcertpath` configuration variable, if set, or the
 	backing SSL library's compiled-in default otherwise (which should
 	be the best choice on most platforms).
 
 --smtp-user=<user>::
-	Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpUser';
-	if a username is not specified (with '--smtp-user' or 'sendemail.smtpUser'),
+	Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of `sendemail.smtpUser`;
+	if a username is not specified (with `--smtp-user` or `sendemail.smtpUser`),
 	then authentication is not attempted.
 
 --smtp-debug=0|1::
@@ -261,25 +261,25 @@
 	Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
 	should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
 	Output of this command must be single email address per line.
-	Default is the value of 'sendemail.ccCmd' configuration value.
+	Default is the value of `sendemail.ccCmd` configuration value.
 
 --[no-]chain-reply-to::
 	If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
 	email sent.  If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
 	the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent.  When using
 	this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
-	entire patch series. Disabled by default, but the 'sendemail.chainReplyTo'
+	entire patch series. Disabled by default, but the `sendemail.chainReplyTo`
 	configuration variable can be used to enable it.
 
 --identity=<identity>::
 	A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
 	'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
 	values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
-	the value of 'sendemail.identity'.
+	the value of `sendemail.identity`.
 
 --[no-]signed-off-by-cc::
 	If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to the
-	cc list. Default is the value of 'sendemail.signedoffbycc' configuration
+	cc list. Default is the value of `sendemail.signedoffbycc` configuration
 	value; if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
 
 --[no-]cc-cover::
@@ -312,13 +312,13 @@
 - 'all' will suppress all auto cc values.
 --
 +
-Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppresscc' configuration value; if
+Default is the value of `sendemail.suppresscc` configuration value; if
 that is unspecified, default to 'self' if --suppress-from is
 specified, as well as 'body' if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
 
 --[no-]suppress-from::
 	If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
-	Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppressFrom' configuration
+	Default is the value of `sendemail.suppressFrom` configuration
 	value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
 
 --[no-]thread::
@@ -330,7 +330,7 @@
 +
 If disabled with "--no-thread", those headers will not be added
 (unless specified with --in-reply-to).  Default is the value of the
-'sendemail.thread' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
+`sendemail.thread` configuration value; if that is unspecified,
 default to --thread.
 +
 It is up to the user to ensure that no In-Reply-To header already
@@ -355,7 +355,7 @@
 - 'auto' is equivalent to 'cc' + 'compose'
 --
 +
-Default is the value of 'sendemail.confirm' configuration value; if that
+Default is the value of `sendemail.confirm` configuration value; if that
 is unspecified, default to 'auto' unless any of the suppress options
 have been specified, in which case default to 'compose'.
 
@@ -364,8 +364,8 @@
 
 --[no-]format-patch::
 	When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a file name,
-	choose to understand it as a format-patch argument ('--format-patch')
-	or as a file name ('--no-format-patch'). By default, when such a conflict
+	choose to understand it as a format-patch argument (`--format-patch`)
+	or as a file name (`--no-format-patch`). By default, when such a conflict
 	occurs, git send-email will fail.
 
 --quiet::
@@ -381,8 +381,8 @@
 			is due to SMTP limits as described by http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt.
 --
 +
-Default is the value of 'sendemail.validate'; if this is not set,
-default to '--validate'.
+Default is the value of `sendemail.validate`; if this is not set,
+default to `--validate`.
 
 --force::
 	Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.
@@ -403,7 +403,7 @@
 
 sendemail.aliasesFile::
 	To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one or more
-	email aliases files.  You must also supply 'sendemail.aliasFileType'.
+	email aliases files.  You must also supply `sendemail.aliasFileType`.
 
 sendemail.aliasFileType::
 	Format of the file(s) specified in sendemail.aliasesFile. Must be
@@ -428,13 +428,13 @@
 
 sendemail.multiEdit::
 	If true (default), a single editor instance will be spawned to edit
-	files you have to edit (patches when '--annotate' is used, and the
-	summary when '--compose' is used). If false, files will be edited one
+	files you have to edit (patches when `--annotate` is used, and the
+	summary when `--compose` is used). If false, files will be edited one
 	after the other, spawning a new editor each time.
 
 sendemail.confirm::
 	Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending. Must be
-	one of 'always', 'never', 'cc', 'compose', or 'auto'. See '--confirm'
+	one of 'always', 'never', 'cc', 'compose', or 'auto'. See `--confirm`
 	in the previous section for the meaning of these values.
 
 EXAMPLE
@@ -450,6 +450,19 @@
 		smtpUser = yourname@gmail.com
 		smtpServerPort = 587
 
+If you have multifactor authentication setup on your gmail account, you will
+need to generate an app-specific password for use with 'git send-email'. Visit
+https://security.google.com/settings/security/apppasswords to setup an
+app-specific password.  Once setup, you can store it with the credentials
+helper:
+
+	$ git credential fill
+	protocol=smtp
+	host=smtp.gmail.com
+	username=youname@gmail.com
+	password=app-password
+
+
 Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
 following commands:
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index 6aa91e8..a831dd0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@
 	option, then the refs from stdin are processed after those
 	on the command line.
 +
-If '--stateless-rpc' is specified together with this option then
+If `--stateless-rpc` is specified together with this option then
 the list of refs must be in packet format (pkt-line). Each ref must
 be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
 
@@ -99,11 +99,11 @@
 There are three ways to specify which refs to update on the
 remote end.
 
-With '--all' flag, all refs that exist locally are transferred to
+With `--all` flag, all refs that exist locally are transferred to
 the remote side.  You cannot specify any '<ref>' if you use
 this flag.
 
-Without '--all' and without any '<ref>', the heads that exist
+Without `--all` and without any '<ref>', the heads that exist
 both on the local side and on the remote side are updated.
 
 When one or more '<ref>' are specified explicitly (whether on the
@@ -134,13 +134,13 @@
      exist in the set of remote refs; the ref matched <src>
      locally is used as the name of the destination.
 
-Without '--force', the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
+Without `--force`, the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
 <dst> does not exist, or <dst> is a proper subset (i.e. an
 ancestor) of <src>.  This check, known as "fast-forward check",
 is performed in order to avoid accidentally overwriting the
 remote ref and lose other peoples' commits from there.
 
-With '--force', the fast-forward check is disabled for all refs.
+With `--force`, the fast-forward check is disabled for all refs.
 
 Optionally, a <ref> parameter can be prefixed with a plus '+' sign
 to disable the fast-forward check only on that ref.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
index 4f67c4c..8632612 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@
 	die with the usage message.
 
 set_reflog_action::
-	Set GIT_REFLOG_ACTION environment to a given string (typically
+	Set `GIT_REFLOG_ACTION` environment to a given string (typically
 	the name of the program) unless it is already set.  Whenever
 	the script runs a `git` command that updates refs, a reflog
 	entry is created using the value of this string to leave the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
index e4bdd22..2e30a3e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shell.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@
 COMMANDS
 --------
 
-'git shell' accepts the following commands after the '-c' option:
+'git shell' accepts the following commands after the `-c` option:
 
 'git receive-pack <argument>'::
 'git upload-pack <argument>'::
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@
 INTERACTIVE USE
 ---------------
 
-By default, the commands above can be executed only with the '-c'
+By default, the commands above can be executed only with the `-c`
 option; the shell is not interactive.
 
 If a `~/git-shell-commands` directory is present, 'git shell'
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index b91d4e5..7818e0f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@
         are shown before their parents).
 
 --date-order::
-	This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
+	This option is similar to `--topo-order` in the sense that no
 	parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise commits
 	are ordered according to their commit date.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index 3a32451..c0aa871 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@
 
 	Enable stricter reference checking by requiring an exact ref path.
 	Aside from returning an error code of 1, it will also print an error
-	message if '--quiet' was not specified.
+	message if `--quiet` was not specified.
 
 --abbrev[=<n>]::
 
@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@
 -q::
 --quiet::
 
-	Do not print any results to stdout. When combined with '--verify' this
+	Do not print any results to stdout. When combined with `--verify` this
 	can be used to silently check if a reference exists.
 
 --exclude-existing[=<pattern>]::
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@
 This will show "refs/heads/master" but also "refs/remote/other-repo/master",
 if such references exists.
 
-When using the '--verify' flag, the command requires an exact path:
+When using the `--verify` flag, the command requires an exact path:
 
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 	git show-ref --verify refs/heads/master
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index ad85183..bf3bb37 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,9 @@
 'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] (--all|[--] <path>...)
 'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch]
-	      [-f|--force] [--rebase|--merge] [--reference <repository>]
-	      [--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
+	      [--[no-]recommend-shallow] [-f|--force] [--rebase|--merge]
+	      [--reference <repository>] [--depth <depth>] [--recursive]
+	      [--jobs <n>] [--] [<path>...]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>]
 	      [commit] [--] [<path>...]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
@@ -384,6 +385,17 @@
 	clone with a history truncated to the specified number of revisions.
 	See linkgit:git-clone[1]
 
+--[no-]recommend-shallow::
+	This option is only valid for the update command.
+	The initial clone of a submodule will use the recommended
+	`submodule.<name>.shallow` as provided by the .gitmodules file
+	by default. To ignore the suggestions use `--no-recommend-shallow`.
+
+-j <n>::
+--jobs <n>::
+	This option is only valid for the update command.
+	Clone new submodules in parallel with as many jobs.
+	Defaults to the `submodule.fetchJobs` option.
 
 <path>...::
 	Paths to submodule(s). When specified this will restrict the command
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index fb23a98..5f9e65b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -98,11 +98,11 @@
 --ignore-paths=<regex>;;
 	When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
 	be preserved as a config key.  See 'fetch' for a description
-	of '--ignore-paths'.
+	of `--ignore-paths`.
 --include-paths=<regex>;;
 	When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
 	be preserved as a config key.  See 'fetch' for a description
-	of '--include-paths'.
+	of `--include-paths`.
 --no-minimize-url;;
 	When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout,
 	--branches, or --tags options), git svn will attempt to connect
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@
 	repository.  This default allows better tracking of history if
 	entire projects are moved within a repository, but may cause
 	issues on repositories where read access restrictions are in
-	place.  Passing '--no-minimize-url' will allow git svn to
+	place.  Passing `--no-minimize-url` will allow git svn to
 	accept URLs as-is without attempting to connect to a higher
 	level directory.  This option is off by default when only
 	one URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@
 --ignore-paths=<regex>;;
 	This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
 	cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout from SVN.
-	The '--ignore-paths' option should match for every 'fetch'
+	The `--ignore-paths` option should match for every 'fetch'
 	(including automatic fetches due to 'clone', 'dcommit',
 	'rebase', etc) on a given repository.
 +
@@ -170,10 +170,10 @@
 --include-paths=<regex>;;
 	This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
 	cause the inclusion of only matching paths from checkout from SVN.
-	The '--include-paths' option should match for every 'fetch'
+	The `--include-paths` option should match for every 'fetch'
 	(including automatic fetches due to 'clone', 'dcommit',
-	'rebase', etc) on a given repository. '--ignore-paths' takes
-	precedence over '--include-paths'.
+	'rebase', etc) on a given repository. `--ignore-paths` takes
+	precedence over `--include-paths`.
 +
 [verse]
 config key: svn-remote.<name>.include-paths
@@ -191,7 +191,7 @@
 	or if a second argument is passed; it will create a directory
 	and work within that.  It accepts all arguments that the
 	'init' and 'fetch' commands accept; with the exception of
-	'--fetch-all' and '--parent'.  After a repository is cloned,
+	`--fetch-all` and `--parent`.  After a repository is cloned,
 	the 'fetch' command will be able to update revisions without
 	affecting the working tree; and the 'rebase' command will be
 	able to update the working tree with the latest changes.
@@ -216,7 +216,7 @@
 'git merge' for ease of dcommitting with 'git svn'.
 +
 This accepts all options that 'git svn fetch' and 'git rebase'
-accept.  However, '--fetch-all' only fetches from the current
+accept.  However, `--fetch-all` only fetches from the current
 [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote] definitions.
 +
 Like 'git rebase'; this requires that the working tree be clean
@@ -459,6 +459,20 @@
 	Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a
 	file.  A specific revision can be specified with -r/--revision.
 
+'propset'::
+	Sets the Subversion property given as the first argument, to the
+	value given as the second argument for the file given as the
+	third argument.
++
+Example:
++
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+git svn propset svn:keywords "FreeBSD=%H" devel/py-tipper/Makefile
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
++
+This will set the property 'svn:keywords' to 'FreeBSD=%H' for the file
+'devel/py-tipper/Makefile'.
+
 'show-externals'::
 	Shows the Subversion externals.  Use -r/--revision to specify a
 	specific revision.
@@ -611,6 +625,9 @@
 	with the committer name as the first argument.  The program is
 	expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>",
 	which will be treated as if included in the authors file.
++
+[verse]
+config key: svn.authorsProg
 
 -q::
 --quiet::
@@ -748,7 +765,7 @@
 
 svn-remote.<name>.pushurl::
 
-	Similar to Git's 'remote.<name>.pushurl', this key is designed
+	Similar to Git's `remote.<name>.pushurl`, this key is designed
 	to be used in cases where 'url' points to an SVN repository
 	via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write
 	transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same
@@ -905,7 +922,7 @@
 Git commit to serve as parent.  This will happen, among other reasons,
 if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by 'git
 svn' (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with
-'--revision'), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked
+`--revision`), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked
 by 'git svn' (such as a branch that is not tracked at all, or a
 subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases, 'git svn' will still
 create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
@@ -982,12 +999,12 @@
 copy of a complete repository, for projects with many branches it will
 lead to a working copy many times larger than just the trunk. Thus for
 projects using the standard directory structure (trunk/branches/tags),
-it is recommended to clone with option '--stdlayout'. If the project
+it is recommended to clone with option `--stdlayout`. If the project
 uses a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not
 required, it is easiest to only clone one directory (typically trunk),
 without giving any repository layout options.  If the full history with
-branches and tags is required, the options '--trunk' / '--branches' /
-'--tags' must be used.
+branches and tags is required, the options `--trunk` / `--branches` /
+`--tags` must be used.
 
 When using multiple --branches or --tags, 'git svn' does not automatically
 handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index abab481..7ecca8e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@
 
 -v::
 --verify::
-	Verify the gpg signature of the given tag names.
+	Verify the GPG signature of the given tag names.
 
 -n<num>::
 	<num> specifies how many lines from the annotation, if any,
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@
 	order can also be affected by the
 	"versionsort.prereleaseSuffix" configuration variable.
 	The keys supported are the same as those in `git for-each-ref`.
-	Sort order defaults to the value configured for the 'tag.sort'
+	Sort order defaults to the value configured for the `tag.sort`
 	variable if it exists, or lexicographic order otherwise. See
 	linkgit:git-config[1].
 
@@ -167,7 +167,7 @@
 
 --[no-]merged [<commit>]::
 	Only list tags whose tips are reachable, or not reachable
-	if '--no-merged' is used, from the specified commit ('HEAD'
+	if `--no-merged` is used, from the specified commit (`HEAD`
 	if not specified).
 
 CONFIGURATION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index c6cbed1..7386c93 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@
 you will need to handle the situation manually.
 
 --really-refresh::
-	Like '--refresh', but checks stat information unconditionally,
+	Like `--refresh`, but checks stat information unconditionally,
 	without regard to the "assume unchanged" setting.
 
 --[no-]skip-worktree::
@@ -211,7 +211,7 @@
 
 Using --refresh
 ---------------
-'--refresh' does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
+`--refresh` does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
 up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
 "re-match" the stat information of a file with the index, so that you
 can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
@@ -222,7 +222,7 @@
 
 Using --cacheinfo or --info-only
 --------------------------------
-'--cacheinfo' is used to register a file that is not in the
+`--cacheinfo` is used to register a file that is not in the
 current working directory.  This is useful for minimum-checkout
 merging.
 
@@ -232,12 +232,12 @@
 $ git update-index --cacheinfo <mode>,<sha1>,<path>
 ----------------
 
-'--info-only' is used to register files without placing them in the object
+`--info-only` is used to register files without placing them in the object
 database.  This is useful for status-only repositories.
 
-Both '--cacheinfo' and '--info-only' behave similarly: the index is updated
-but the object database isn't.  '--cacheinfo' is useful when the object is
-in the database but the file isn't available locally.  '--info-only' is
+Both `--cacheinfo` and `--info-only` behave similarly: the index is updated
+but the object database isn't.  `--cacheinfo` is useful when the object is
+in the database but the file isn't available locally.  `--info-only` is
 useful when the file is available, but you do not wish to update the
 object database.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
index 0abc806..822ad59 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git-upload-pack' [--strict] [--timeout=<n>] <directory>
-
+'git-upload-pack' [--[no-]strict] [--timeout=<n>] [--stateless-rpc]
+		  [--advertise-refs] <directory>
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 Invoked by 'git fetch-pack', learns what
@@ -25,12 +25,22 @@
 OPTIONS
 -------
 
---strict::
+--[no-]strict::
 	Do not try <directory>/.git/ if <directory> is no Git directory.
 
 --timeout=<n>::
 	Interrupt transfer after <n> seconds of inactivity.
 
+--stateless-rpc::
+	Perform only a single read-write cycle with stdin and stdout.
+	This fits with the HTTP POST request processing model where
+	a program may read the request, write a response, and must exit.
+
+--advertise-refs::
+	Only the initial ref advertisement is output, and the program exits
+	immediately. This fits with the HTTP GET request model, where
+	no request content is received but a response must be produced.
+
 <directory>::
 	The repository to sync from.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt
index ecf4da1..92097f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-Validates the gpg signature created by 'git commit -S'.
+Validates the GPG signature created by 'git commit -S'.
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index 16ede5b..2d6b09a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -62,14 +62,14 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 The web browser can be specified using a configuration variable passed
-with the -c (or --config) command-line option, or the 'web.browser'
+with the -c (or --config) command-line option, or the `web.browser`
 configuration variable if the former is not used.
 
 browser.<tool>.path
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 You can explicitly provide a full path to your preferred browser by
-setting the configuration variable 'browser.<tool>.path'. For example,
+setting the configuration variable `browser.<tool>.path`. For example,
 you can configure the absolute path to firefox by setting
 'browser.firefox.path'. Otherwise, 'git web{litdd}browse' assumes the tool
 is available in PATH.
@@ -79,7 +79,7 @@
 
 When the browser, specified by options or configuration variables, is
 not among the supported ones, then the corresponding
-'browser.<tool>.cmd' configuration variable will be looked up. If this
+`browser.<tool>.cmd` configuration variable will be looked up. If this
 variable exists then 'git web{litdd}browse' will treat the specified tool
 as a custom command and will use a shell eval to run the command with
 the URLs passed as arguments.
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 Note that these configuration variables should probably be set using
-the '--global' flag, for example like this:
+the `--global` flag, for example like this:
 
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git config --global web.browser firefox
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index 62c76c1..0aeb020 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,11 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
-'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
+'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
 'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
+'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
+'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
+'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -38,9 +40,8 @@
 
 If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
 which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
-being pruned by creating a file named 'locked' alongside the other
-administrative files, optionally containing a plain text reason that
-pruning should be suppressed. See section "DETAILS" for more information.
+being pruned by issuing the `git worktree lock` command, optionally
+specifying `--reason` to explain why the working tree is locked.
 
 COMMANDS
 --------
@@ -48,16 +49,13 @@
 
 Create `<path>` and checkout `<branch>` into it. The new working directory
 is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
-directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc.
+directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. `-` may also be
+specified as `<branch>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
 +
 If `<branch>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detached` used,
 then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
 as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
 
-prune::
-
-Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
-
 list::
 
 List details of each worktree.  The main worktree is listed first, followed by
@@ -65,6 +63,22 @@
 bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out
 (or 'detached HEAD' if none).
 
+lock::
+
+If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which
+is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative
+files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from
+being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock
+with `--reason`.
+
+prune::
+
+Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
+
+unlock::
+
+Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
+
 OPTIONS
 -------
 
@@ -87,6 +101,12 @@
 	With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
 	in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
 
+--[no-]checkout::
+	By default, `add` checks out `<branch>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
+	be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
+	such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
+	in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
+
 -n::
 --dry-run::
 	With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
@@ -104,6 +124,18 @@
 --expire <time>::
 	With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
 
+--reason <string>::
+	With `lock`, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
+
+<worktree>::
+	Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or
+	absolute.
++
+If the last path components in the working tree's path is unique among
+working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if
+you only have to working trees at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg",
+then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.
+
 DETAILS
 -------
 Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository's
@@ -144,7 +176,8 @@
 
 To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
 can be useful in some situations, such as when the
-entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), add a file named
+entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
+`git worktree lock` command, which adds a file named
 'locked' to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
 plain text. For example, if a linked working tree's `.git` file points
 to `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` then a file named
@@ -220,8 +253,6 @@
 - `remove` to remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and
   warn if the working tree is dirty)
 - `mv` to move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files
-- `lock` to prevent automatic pruning of administrative files (for instance,
-  for a working tree on a portable device)
 
 GIT
 ---
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 5a10e9b..7913fc2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -31,8 +31,8 @@
 individual Git commands with "git help command".  linkgit:gitcli[7]
 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
 
-Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
-can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
+A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation
+can be viewed at `https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html`.
 
 ifdef::stalenotes[]
 [NOTE]
@@ -43,6 +43,19 @@
 branch of the `git.git` repository.
 Documentation for older releases are available here:
 
+* link:v2.10.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.10]
+
+* release notes for
+  link:RelNotes/2.10.0.txt[2.10].
+
+* link:v2.9.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.9.3]
+
+* release notes for
+  link:RelNotes/2.9.3.txt[2.9.3],
+  link:RelNotes/2.9.2.txt[2.9.2],
+  link:RelNotes/2.9.1.txt[2.9.1],
+  link:RelNotes/2.9.0.txt[2.9].
+
 * link:v2.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.8.4]
 
 * release notes for
@@ -508,7 +521,7 @@
 
 --help::
 	Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
-	commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
+	commands. If the option `--all` or `-a` is given then all
 	available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
 	option will bring up the manual page for that command.
 +
@@ -572,7 +585,7 @@
 
 --git-dir=<path>::
 	Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
-	setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
+	setting the `GIT_DIR` environment variable. It can be an absolute
 	path or relative path to current working directory.
 
 --work-tree=<path>::
@@ -822,46 +835,46 @@
 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
 
-'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
+`GIT_INDEX_FILE`::
 	This environment allows the specification of an alternate
 	index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
 	is used.
 
-'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
+`GIT_INDEX_VERSION`::
 	This environment variable allows the specification of an index
 	version for new repositories.  It won't affect existing index
 	files.  By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
 	linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
 
-'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
+`GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY`::
 	If the object storage directory is specified via this
 	environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
 	underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
 	directory is used.
 
-'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
+`GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES`::
 	Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
 	archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
 	specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
 	of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
 	objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
 
-'GIT_DIR'::
-	If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
+`GIT_DIR`::
+	If the `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it
 	specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
 	for the base of the repository.
-	The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
+	The `--git-dir` command-line option also sets this value.
 
-'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
+`GIT_WORK_TREE`::
 	Set the path to the root of the working tree.
-	This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
+	This can also be controlled by the `--work-tree` command-line
 	option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
 
-'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
+`GIT_NAMESPACE`::
 	Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
-	The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
+	The `--namespace` command-line option also sets this value.
 
-'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
+`GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`::
 	This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.  If
 	set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
 	into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
@@ -874,19 +887,19 @@
 	can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
 	subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
 	e.g.,
-	'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
+	`GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink`.
 
-'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
+`GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM`::
 	When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
 	directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
 	directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
 	does not cross filesystem boundaries.  This environment variable
 	can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
-	boundaries.  Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
-	an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
+	boundaries.  Like `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`, this will not affect
+	an explicit repository directory set via `GIT_DIR` or on the
 	command line.
 
-'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
+`GIT_COMMON_DIR`::
 	If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
 	normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
 	instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
@@ -897,28 +910,28 @@
 
 Git Commits
 ~~~~~~~~~~~
-'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
-'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
-'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
-'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
-'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
-'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
+`GIT_AUTHOR_NAME`::
+`GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL`::
+`GIT_AUTHOR_DATE`::
+`GIT_COMMITTER_NAME`::
+`GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL`::
+`GIT_COMMITTER_DATE`::
 'EMAIL'::
 	see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
 
 Git Diffs
 ~~~~~~~~~
-'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
+`GIT_DIFF_OPTS`::
 	Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
 	number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
 	This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
 	value passed on the Git diff command line.
 
-'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
-	When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
+`GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF`::
+	When the environment variable `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is set, the
 	program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
 	described above.  For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
-        'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
+	`GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 7 parameters:
 
 	path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
 +
@@ -932,49 +945,49 @@
 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
-index).  'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
-temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
+index).  `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` should not worry about unlinking the
+temporary file --- it is removed when `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` exits.
 +
-For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
+For a path that is unmerged, `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 1
 parameter, <path>.
 +
-For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
-'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
+For each path `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called, two environment variables,
+`GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER` and `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL` are set.
 
-'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
+`GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER`::
 	A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
 
-'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
+`GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL`::
 	The total number of paths.
 
 other
 ~~~~~
-'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
+`GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY`::
 	A number controlling the amount of output shown by
 	the recursive merge strategy.  Overrides merge.verbosity.
 	See linkgit:git-merge[1]
 
-'GIT_PAGER'::
+`GIT_PAGER`::
 	This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
 	to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
 	a pager.  See also the `core.pager` option in
 	linkgit:git-config[1].
 
-'GIT_EDITOR'::
+`GIT_EDITOR`::
 	This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
 	It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
 	an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
 	and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
 
-'GIT_SSH'::
-'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
+`GIT_SSH`::
+`GIT_SSH_COMMAND`::
 	If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
 	and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
 	when they need to connect to a remote system.
 	The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
 	'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
 	command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
-	'-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
+	`-p` (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
 	something other than the default SSH port.
 +
 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
@@ -987,18 +1000,18 @@
 personal `.ssh/config` file.  Please consult your ssh documentation
 for further details.
 
-'GIT_ASKPASS'::
+`GIT_ASKPASS`::
 	If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
 	acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
 	will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
-	and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
+	and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the `core.askPass`
 	option in linkgit:git-config[1].
 
-'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
+`GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT`::
 	If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
 	on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
 
-'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
+`GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM`::
 	Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
 	`$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file.  This environment variable can
 	be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
@@ -1006,7 +1019,7 @@
 	temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
 	waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
 
-'GIT_FLUSH'::
+`GIT_FLUSH`::
 	If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
 	as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
 	'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
@@ -1017,7 +1030,7 @@
 	not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
 	based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
 
-'GIT_TRACE'::
+`GIT_TRACE`::
 	Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
 	command execution and external command execution.
 +
@@ -1038,21 +1051,21 @@
 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
 
-'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
+`GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS`::
 	Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
 	access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
 	recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
 	pack-related performance problems.
-	See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
+	See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
 
-'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
+`GIT_TRACE_PACKET`::
 	Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
 	given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
 	or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
-	starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
-	See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
+	starting with "PACK" (but see `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE` below).
+	See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
 
-'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
+`GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE`::
 	Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
 	given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
 	verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
@@ -1063,22 +1076,30 @@
 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
 of clones and fetches.
 
-'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
+`GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE`::
 	Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
 	time of each Git command.
-	See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
+	See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
 
-'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
+`GIT_TRACE_SETUP`::
 	Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
 	working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
-	See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
+	See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
 
-'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
+`GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW`::
 	Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
 	cloning of shallow repositories.
-	See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
+	See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
 
-'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
+`GIT_TRACE_CURL`::
+	Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
+	including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
+	This is similar to doing curl `--trace-ascii` on the command line.
+	This option overrides setting the `GIT_CURL_VERBOSE` environment
+	variable.
+	See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
+
+`GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS`::
 	Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
 	pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
 	running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
@@ -1087,19 +1108,19 @@
 	literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
 	`git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
 
-'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
+`GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS`::
 	Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
 	pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
 
-'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
+`GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS`::
 	Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
 	pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
 
-'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
+`GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS`::
 	Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
 	pathspecs as case-insensitive.
 
-'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
+`GIT_REFLOG_ACTION`::
 	When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
 	track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
 	typically the name of the high-level command that updated
@@ -1109,7 +1130,7 @@
 	variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
 	end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
 
-'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
+`GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
 	If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
 	over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
 	does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
@@ -1120,7 +1141,7 @@
 	an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
 	cloning a repository to make a backup).
 
-'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
+`GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
 	If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
 	allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
 	restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index e3b1de8..7aff940 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -115,6 +115,7 @@
 repository.  To control what line ending style is used in the working
 directory, use the `eol` attribute for a single file and the
 `core.eol` configuration variable for all text files.
+Note that `core.autocrlf` overrides `core.eol`
 
 Set::
 
@@ -130,8 +131,9 @@
 Set to string value "auto"::
 
 	When `text` is set to "auto", the path is marked for automatic
-	end-of-line normalization.  If Git decides that the content is
-	text, its line endings are normalized to LF on checkin.
+	end-of-line conversion.  If Git decides that the content is
+	text, its line endings are converted to LF on checkin.
+	When the file has been committed with CRLF, no conversion is done.
 
 Unspecified::
 
@@ -146,7 +148,7 @@
 ^^^^^
 
 This attribute sets a specific line-ending style to be used in the
-working directory.  It enables end-of-line normalization without any
+working directory.  It enables end-of-line conversion without any
 content checks, effectively setting the `text` attribute.
 
 Set to string value "crlf"::
@@ -180,60 +182,51 @@
 normalize line endings to LF in the repository and, optionally, to
 convert them to CRLF when files are checked out.
 
-Here is an example that will make Git normalize .txt, .vcproj and .sh
-files, ensure that .vcproj files have CRLF and .sh files have LF in
-the working directory, and prevent .jpg files from being normalized
-regardless of their content.
-
-------------------------
-*.txt		text
-*.vcproj	eol=crlf
-*.sh		eol=lf
-*.jpg		-text
-------------------------
-
-Other source code management systems normalize all text files in their
-repositories, and there are two ways to enable similar automatic
-normalization in Git.
-
 If you simply want to have CRLF line endings in your working directory
 regardless of the repository you are working with, you can set the
-config variable "core.autocrlf" without changing any attributes.
+config variable "core.autocrlf" without using any attributes.
 
 ------------------------
 [core]
 	autocrlf = true
 ------------------------
 
-This does not force normalization of all text files, but does ensure
+This does not force normalization of text files, but does ensure
 that text files that you introduce to the repository have their line
 endings normalized to LF when they are added, and that files that are
 already normalized in the repository stay normalized.
 
-If you want to interoperate with a source code management system that
-enforces end-of-line normalization, or you simply want all text files
-in your repository to be normalized, you should instead set the `text`
-attribute to "auto" for _all_ files.
+If you want to ensure that text files that any contributor introduces to
+the repository have their line endings normalized, you can set the
+`text` attribute to "auto" for _all_ files.
 
 ------------------------
 *	text=auto
 ------------------------
 
-This ensures that all files that Git considers to be text will have
-normalized (LF) line endings in the repository.  The `core.eol`
-configuration variable controls which line endings Git will use for
-normalized files in your working directory; the default is to use the
-native line ending for your platform, or CRLF if `core.autocrlf` is
-set.
+The attributes allow a fine-grained control, how the line endings
+are converted.
+Here is an example that will make Git normalize .txt, .vcproj and .sh
+files, ensure that .vcproj files have CRLF and .sh files have LF in
+the working directory, and prevent .jpg files from being normalized
+regardless of their content.
 
-NOTE: When `text=auto` normalization is enabled in an existing
-repository, any text files containing CRLFs should be normalized.  If
-they are not they will be normalized the next time someone tries to
-change them, causing unfortunate misattribution.  From a clean working
-directory:
+------------------------
+*               text=auto
+*.txt		text
+*.vcproj	text eol=crlf
+*.sh		text eol=lf
+*.jpg		-text
+------------------------
+
+NOTE: When `text=auto` conversion is enabled in a cross-platform
+project using push and pull to a central repository the text files
+containing CRLFs should be normalized.
+
+From a clean working directory:
 
 -------------------------------------------------
-$ echo "* text=auto" >>.gitattributes
+$ echo "* text=auto" >.gitattributes
 $ rm .git/index     # Remove the index to force Git to
 $ git reset         # re-scan the working directory
 $ git status        # Show files that will be normalized
@@ -374,6 +367,11 @@
 	smudge = git-p4-filter --smudge %f
 ------------------------
 
+Note that "%f" is the name of the path that is being worked on. Depending
+on the version that is being filtered, the corresponding file on disk may
+not exist, or may have different contents. So, smudge and clean commands
+should not try to access the file on disk, but only act as filters on the
+content provided to them on standard input.
 
 Interaction between checkin/checkout attributes
 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
@@ -525,6 +523,8 @@
 
 - `csharp` suitable for source code in the C# language.
 
+- `css` suitable for cascading style sheets.
+
 - `fortran` suitable for source code in the Fortran language.
 
 - `fountain` suitable for Fountain documents.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 15b3bfa..4546fa0 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -949,7 +949,7 @@
 [NOTE]
 If there were more commits on the 'master' branch after the merge, the
 merge commit itself would not be shown by 'git show-branch' by
-default.  You would need to provide '--sparse' option to make the
+default.  You would need to provide `--sparse` option to make the
 merge commit visible in this case.
 
 Now, let's pretend you are the one who did all the work in
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
index 1c75be0..f3a75d1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
@@ -106,6 +106,11 @@
 password, or nothing. Once Git has acquired both a username and a
 password, no more helpers will be tried.
 
+If `credential.helper` is configured to the empty string, this resets
+the helper list to empty (so you may override a helper set by a
+lower-priority config file by configuring the empty-string helper,
+followed by whatever set of helpers you would like).
+
 
 CREDENTIAL CONTEXTS
 -------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
index b06e852..4c6143c 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
@@ -116,8 +116,12 @@
 Importing a CVS archive
 -----------------------
 
+NOTE: These instructions use the `git-cvsimport` script which ships with
+git, but other importers may provide better results. See the note in
+linkgit:git-cvsimport[1] for other options.
+
 First, install version 2.1 or higher of cvsps from
-http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/[http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/] and make
+https://github.com/andreyvit/cvsps[https://github.com/andreyvit/cvsps] and make
 sure it is in your path.  Then cd to a checked out CVS working directory
 of the project you are interested in and run linkgit:git-cvsimport[1]:
 
diff --git a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
index c579593..08cf622 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
@@ -28,8 +28,8 @@
 files:
 
  - 'git diff-index' compares contents of a "tree" object and the
-   working directory (when '--cached' flag is not used) or a
-   "tree" object and the index file (when '--cached' flag is
+   working directory (when `--cached` flag is not used) or a
+   "tree" object and the index file (when `--cached` flag is
    used);
 
  - 'git diff-files' compares contents of the index file and the
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index a2f59b1..9565dc3 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -7,24 +7,35 @@
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
-$GIT_DIR/hooks/*
+$GIT_DIR/hooks/* (or \`git config core.hooksPath`/*)
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 
-Hooks are little scripts you can place in `$GIT_DIR/hooks`
-directory to trigger action at certain points.  When
-'git init' is run, a handful of example hooks are copied into the
-`hooks` directory of the new repository, but by default they are
-all disabled.  To enable a hook, rename it by removing its `.sample`
-suffix.
+Hooks are programs you can place in a hooks directory to trigger
+actions at certain points in git's execution. Hooks that don't have
+the executable bit set are ignored.
 
-NOTE: It is also a requirement for a given hook to be executable.
-However - in a freshly initialized repository - the `.sample` files are
-executable by default.
+By default the hooks directory is `$GIT_DIR/hooks`, but that can be
+changed via the `core.hooksPath` configuration variable (see
+linkgit:git-config[1]).
 
-This document describes the currently defined hooks.
+Before Git invokes a hook, it changes its working directory to either
+the root of the working tree in a non-bare repository, or to the
+$GIT_DIR in a bare repository.
+
+Hooks can get their arguments via the environment, command-line
+arguments, and stdin. See the documentation for each hook below for
+details.
+
+'git init' may copy hooks to the new repository, depending on its
+configuration. See the "TEMPLATE DIRECTORY" section in
+linkgit:git-init[1] for details. When the rest of this document refers
+to "default hooks" it's talking about the default template shipped
+with Git.
+
+The currently supported hooks are described below.
 
 HOOKS
 -----
@@ -32,15 +43,15 @@
 applypatch-msg
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-This hook is invoked by 'git am' script.  It takes a single
+This hook is invoked by 'git am'.  It takes a single
 parameter, the name of the file that holds the proposed commit
-log message.  Exiting with non-zero status causes
-'git am' to abort before applying the patch.
+log message.  Exiting with a non-zero status causes 'git am' to abort
+before applying the patch.
 
 The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can
 be used to normalize the message into some project standard
-format (if the project has one). It can also be used to refuse
-the commit after inspecting the message file.
+format. It can also be used to refuse the commit after inspecting
+the message file.
 
 The default 'applypatch-msg' hook, when enabled, runs the
 'commit-msg' hook, if the latter is enabled.
@@ -73,10 +84,10 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~
 
 This hook is invoked by 'git commit', and can be bypassed
-with `--no-verify` option.  It takes no parameter, and is
+with the `--no-verify` option.  It takes no parameters, and is
 invoked before obtaining the proposed commit log message and
-making a commit.  Exiting with non-zero status from this script
-causes the 'git commit' to abort.
+making a commit.  Exiting with a non-zero status from this script
+causes the 'git commit' command to abort before creating a commit.
 
 The default 'pre-commit' hook, when enabled, catches introduction
 of lines with trailing whitespaces and aborts the commit when
@@ -115,15 +126,15 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~
 
 This hook is invoked by 'git commit', and can be bypassed
-with `--no-verify` option.  It takes a single parameter, the
+with the `--no-verify` option.  It takes a single parameter, the
 name of the file that holds the proposed commit log message.
-Exiting with non-zero status causes the 'git commit' to
+Exiting with a non-zero status causes the 'git commit' to
 abort.
 
-The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can
-be used to normalize the message into some project standard
-format (if the project has one). It can also be used to refuse
-the commit after inspecting the message file.
+The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can be used
+to normalize the message into some project standard format. It
+can also be used to refuse the commit after inspecting the message
+file.
 
 The default 'commit-msg' hook, when enabled, detects duplicate
 "Signed-off-by" lines, and aborts the commit if one is found.
@@ -131,8 +142,8 @@
 post-commit
 ~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-This hook is invoked by 'git commit'.  It takes no
-parameter, and is invoked after a commit is made.
+This hook is invoked by 'git commit'. It takes no parameters, and is
+invoked after a commit is made.
 
 This hook is meant primarily for notification, and cannot affect
 the outcome of 'git commit'.
@@ -236,6 +247,15 @@
 'git send-pack' on the other end, so you can simply `echo` messages
 for the user.
 
+The number of push options given on the command line of
+`git push --push-option=...` can be read from the environment
+variable `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_COUNT`, and the options themselves are
+found in `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_0`, `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_1`,...
+If it is negotiated to not use the push options phase, the
+environment variables will not be set. If the client selects
+to use push options, but doesn't transmit any, the count variable
+will be set to zero, `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_COUNT=0`.
+
 [[update]]
 update
 ~~~~~~
@@ -267,9 +287,11 @@
 firing one e-mail per ref when used naively, though.  The
 <<post-receive,'post-receive'>> hook is more suited to that.
 
-Another use suggested on the mailing list is to use this hook to
-implement access control which is finer grained than the one
-based on filesystem group.
+In an environment that restricts the users' access only to git
+commands over the wire, this hook can be used to implement access
+control without relying on filesystem ownership and group
+membership. See linkgit:git-shell[1] for how you might use the login
+shell to restrict the user's access to only git commands.
 
 Both standard output and standard error output are forwarded to
 'git send-pack' on the other end, so you can simply `echo` messages
@@ -309,6 +331,15 @@
 directory in Git distribution, which implements sending commit
 emails.
 
+The number of push options given on the command line of
+`git push --push-option=...` can be read from the environment
+variable `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_COUNT`, and the options themselves are
+found in `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_0`, `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_1`,...
+If it is negotiated to not use the push options phase, the
+environment variables will not be set. If the client selects
+to use push options, but doesn't transmit any, the count variable
+will be set to zero, `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_COUNT=0`.
+
 [[post-update]]
 post-update
 ~~~~~~~~~~~
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index 473623d..63260f0 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
  * Patterns read from `$GIT_DIR/info/exclude`.
 
  * Patterns read from the file specified by the configuration
-   variable 'core.excludesFile'.
+   variable `core.excludesFile`.
 
 Which file to place a pattern in depends on how the pattern is meant to
 be used.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index 6ade002..e382dd9 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@
 
 --left-right::
 
-	Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable
+	Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable
 	from.  Commits from the left side are prefixed with a `<`
 	symbol and those from the right with a `>` symbol.
 
@@ -82,7 +82,7 @@
 
 --simplify-merges::
 
-	Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
+	Additional option to `--full-history` to remove some needless
 	merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
 	commits contributing to this merge.  (See "History
 	simplification" in linkgit:git-log[1] for a more detailed
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index ac70eca..10dcc08 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@
 
 The file contains one subsection per submodule, and the subsection value
 is the name of the submodule. The name is set to the path where the
-submodule has been added unless it was customized with the '--name'
+submodule has been added unless it was customized with the `--name`
 option of 'git submodule add'. Each submodule section also contains the
 following required keys:
 
@@ -79,6 +79,11 @@
 	"--ignore-submodule" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
 	affected by this setting.
 
+submodule.<name>.shallow::
+	When set to true, a clone of this submodule will be performed as a
+	shallow clone unless the user explicitly asks for a non-shallow
+	clone.
+
 
 EXAMPLES
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index 78e0b27..a4de50a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@
 it is either the name of a configured remote or a URL. The second
 argument specifies a URL; it is usually of the form
 '<transport>://<address>', but any arbitrary string is possible.
-The 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set up for the remote helper
+The `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set up for the remote helper
 and can be used to determine where to store additional data or from
 which directory to invoke auxiliary Git commands.
 
@@ -61,10 +61,10 @@
 the first argument is '<address>', and if it is encountered in a
 configured remote, the first argument is the name of that remote.
 
-Additionally, when a configured remote has 'remote.<name>.vcs' set to
+Additionally, when a configured remote has `remote.<name>.vcs` set to
 '<transport>', Git explicitly invokes 'git remote-<transport>' with
 '<name>' as the first argument. If set, the second argument is
-'remote.<name>.url'; otherwise, the second argument is omitted.
+`remote.<name>.url`; otherwise, the second argument is omitted.
 
 INPUT FORMAT
 ------------
@@ -210,17 +210,17 @@
 'export-marks' <file>::
 	This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to dump the
 	internal marks table to <file> when complete. For details,
-	read up on '--export-marks=<file>' in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
+	read up on `--export-marks=<file>` in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
 
 'import-marks' <file>::
 	This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to load the
 	marks specified in <file> before processing any input. For details,
-	read up on '--import-marks=<file>' in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
+	read up on `--import-marks=<file>` in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
 
 'signed-tags'::
 	This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to pass
-	'--signed-tags=verbatim' to linkgit:git-fast-export[1].  In the
-	absence of this capability, Git will use '--signed-tags=warn-strip'.
+	`--signed-tags=verbatim` to linkgit:git-fast-export[1].  In the
+	absence of this capability, Git will use `--signed-tags=warn-strip`.
 
 
 
@@ -298,7 +298,7 @@
 	is followed by a blank line). For example, the following would
 	be two batches of 'push', the first asking the remote-helper
 	to push the local ref 'master' to the remote ref 'master' and
-	the local 'HEAD' to the remote 'branch', and the second
+	the local `HEAD` to the remote 'branch', and the second
 	asking to push ref 'foo' to ref 'bar' (forced update requested
 	by the '+').
 +
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt b/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
index e903eb7..27dec5b 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
@@ -15,9 +15,9 @@
 
 Many Git commands take revision parameters as arguments. Depending on
 the command, they denote a specific commit or, for commands which
-walk the revision graph (such as linkgit:git-log[1]), all commits which can
-be reached from that commit. In the latter case one can also specify a
-range of revisions explicitly.
+walk the revision graph (such as linkgit:git-log[1]), all commits which are
+reachable from that commit. For commands that walk the revision graph one can
+also specify a range of revisions explicitly.
 
 In addition, some Git commands (such as linkgit:git-show[1]) also take
 revision parameters which denote other objects than commits, e.g. blobs
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index 8a42270..a79e350 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -376,7 +376,7 @@
 	Name of your site or organization, to appear in page titles.  Set it
 	to something descriptive for clearer bookmarks etc.  If this variable
 	is not set or is, then gitweb uses the value of the `SERVER_NAME`
-	CGI environment variable, setting site name to "$SERVER_NAME Git",
+	`CGI` environment variable, setting site name to "$SERVER_NAME Git",
 	or "Untitled Git" if this variable is not set (e.g. if running gitweb
 	as standalone script).
 +
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
index cd9c895..96156e5 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
@@ -206,8 +206,8 @@
 Per-repository gitweb configuration
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 You can configure individual repositories shown in gitweb by creating file
-in the 'GIT_DIR' of Git repository, or by setting some repo configuration
-variable (in 'GIT_DIR/config', see linkgit:git-config[1]).
+in the `GIT_DIR` of Git repository, or by setting some repo configuration
+variable (in `GIT_DIR/config`, see linkgit:git-config[1]).
 
 You can use the following files in repository:
 
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt b/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt
index 6d772bd..15a4c80 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@
 6. There is a file command-list.txt in the distribution main directory
 that categorizes commands by type, so they can be listed in appropriate
 subsections in the documentation's summary command list.  Add an entry
-for yours.  To understand the categories, look at git-commands.txt
+for yours.  To understand the categories, look at command-list.txt
 in the main directory.  If the new command is part of the typical Git
 workflow and you believe it common enough to be mentioned in 'git help',
 map this command to a common group in the column [common].
diff --git a/Documentation/lint-gitlink.perl b/Documentation/lint-gitlink.perl
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..476cc30
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/lint-gitlink.perl
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+#!/usr/bin/perl
+
+use File::Find;
+use Getopt::Long;
+
+my $basedir = ".";
+GetOptions("basedir=s" => \$basedir)
+	or die("Cannot parse command line arguments\n");
+
+my $found_errors = 0;
+
+sub report {
+	my ($where, $what, $error) = @_;
+	print "$where: $error: $what\n";
+	$found_errors = 1;
+}
+
+sub grab_section {
+	my ($page) = @_;
+	open my $fh, "<", "$basedir/$page.txt";
+	my $firstline = <$fh>;
+	chomp $firstline;
+	close $fh;
+	my ($section) = ($firstline =~ /.*\((\d)\)$/);
+	return $section;
+}
+
+sub lint {
+	my ($file) = @_;
+	open my $fh, "<", $file
+		or return;
+	while (<$fh>) {
+		my $where = "$file:$.";
+		while (s/linkgit:((.*?)\[(\d)\])//) {
+			my ($target, $page, $section) = ($1, $2, $3);
+
+			# De-AsciiDoc
+			$page =~ s/{litdd}/--/g;
+
+			if ($page !~ /^git/) {
+				report($where, $target, "nongit link");
+				next;
+			}
+			if (! -f "$basedir/$page.txt") {
+				report($where, $target, "no such source");
+				next;
+			}
+			$real_section = grab_section($page);
+			if ($real_section != $section) {
+				report($where, $target,
+					"wrong section (should be $real_section)");
+				next;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	close $fh;
+}
+
+sub lint_it {
+	lint($File::Find::name) if -f && /\.txt$/;
+}
+
+if (!@ARGV) {
+	find({ wanted => \&lint_it, no_chdir => 1 }, $basedir);
+} else {
+	for (@ARGV) {
+		lint($_);
+	}
+}
+
+exit $found_errors;
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-config.txt b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
index 002ca58..df3ea37 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@
 	message if conflicts were detected. Level 1 outputs only
 	conflicts, 2 outputs conflicts and file changes.  Level 5 and
 	above outputs debugging information.  The default is level 2.
-	Can be overridden by the 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY' environment variable.
+	Can be overridden by the `GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY` environment variable.
 
 merge.<driver>.name::
 	Defines a human-readable name for a custom low-level
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 30808a0..5b4a62e 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -117,3 +117,11 @@
 	reporting.
 
 endif::git-pull[]
+
+--allow-unrelated-histories::
+	By default, `git merge` command refuses to merge histories
+	that do not share a common ancestor.  This option can be
+	used to override this safety when merging histories of two
+	projects that started their lives independently. As that is
+	a very rare occasion, no configuration variable to enable
+	this by default exists and will not be added.
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 29b19b9..a942d57 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -147,8 +147,14 @@
   "U" for a good signature with unknown validity and "N" for no signature
 - '%GS': show the name of the signer for a signed commit
 - '%GK': show the key used to sign a signed commit
-- '%gD': reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}`
-- '%gd': shortened reflog selector, e.g., `stash@{1}`
+- '%gD': reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}` or
+  `refs/stash@{2 minutes ago`}; the format follows the rules described
+  for the `-g` option. The portion before the `@` is the refname as
+  given on the command line (so `git log -g refs/heads/master` would
+  yield `refs/heads/master@{0}`).
+- '%gd': shortened reflog selector; same as `%gD`, but the refname
+  portion is shortened for human readability (so `refs/heads/master`
+  becomes just `master`).
 - '%gn': reflog identity name
 - '%gN': reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
   linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
@@ -166,7 +172,7 @@
   respecting the `auto` settings of the former if we are going to a
   terminal). `auto` alone (i.e. `%C(auto)`) will turn on auto coloring
   on the next placeholders until the color is switched again.
-- '%m': left, right or boundary mark
+- '%m': left (`<`), right (`>`) or boundary (`-`) mark
 - '%n': newline
 - '%%': a raw '%'
 - '%x00': print a byte from a hex code
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index 54b88b6..e44fc8f 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
 --no-abbrev-commit::
 	Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
 	`--abbrev-commit` and those options which imply it such as
-	"--oneline". It also overrides the 'log.abbrevCommit' variable.
+	"--oneline". It also overrides the `log.abbrevCommit` variable.
 
 --oneline::
 	This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
@@ -42,6 +42,20 @@
 	verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the original
 	commit may be copied to the output.
 
+--expand-tabs=<n>::
+--expand-tabs::
+--no-expand-tabs::
+	Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces
+	to fill to the next display column that is multiple of '<n>')
+	in the log message before showing it in the output.
+	`--expand-tabs` is a short-hand for `--expand-tabs=8`, and
+	`--no-expand-tabs` is a short-hand for `--expand-tabs=0`,
+	which disables tab expansion.
++
+By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
+message by 4 spaces (i.e.  'medium', which is the default, 'full',
+and 'fuller').
+
 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
 --notes[=<treeish>]::
 	Show the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) that annotate the
@@ -51,7 +65,7 @@
 	on the command line.
 +
 By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
-'core.notesRef' and 'notes.displayRef' variables (or corresponding
+`core.notesRef` and `notes.displayRef` variables (or corresponding
 environment overrides). See linkgit:git-config[1] for more details.
 +
 With an optional '<treeish>' argument, use the treeish to find the notes
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 4f009d4..7e462d3 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -193,7 +193,7 @@
 
 --stdin::
 	In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
-	line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
+	line, read them from the standard input. If a `--` separator is
 	seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
 	result.
 
@@ -225,7 +225,7 @@
 
 --left-only::
 --right-only::
-	List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range,
+	List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
 	i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
 	`--left-right`.
 +
@@ -252,10 +252,25 @@
 +
 With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
 this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
-taken from the reflog.  By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
-used in the output.  When the starting commit is specified as
-'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
-instead.  Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
+taken from the reflog.  The reflog designator in the output may be shown
+as `ref@{Nth}` (where `Nth` is the reverse-chronological index in the
+reflog) or as `ref@{timestamp}` (with the timestamp for that entry),
+depending on a few rules:
++
+--
+1. If the starting point is specified as `ref@{Nth}`, show the index
+format.
++
+2. If the starting point was specified as `ref@{now}`, show the
+timestamp format.
++
+3. If neither was used, but `--date` was given on the command line, show
+the timestamp in the format requested by `--date`.
++
+4. Otherwise, show the index format.
+--
++
+Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
 prefixed with this information on the same line.
 This option cannot be combined with `--reverse`.
 See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
@@ -274,6 +289,10 @@
 	Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if
 	one is available). Note that when traversing with `--objects`,
 	trees and blobs will not have their associated path printed.
+
+--progress=<header>::
+	Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
+	`<header>` text will be printed with each progress update.
 endif::git-rev-list[]
 
 --
@@ -710,8 +729,8 @@
 	`iso-local`), the user's local time zone is used instead.
 +
 `--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
-e.g. ``2 hours ago''. The `-local` option cannot be used with
-`--raw` or `--relative`.
+e.g. ``2 hours ago''. The `-local` option has no effect for
+`--date=relative`.
 +
 `--date=local` is an alias for `--date=default-local`.
 +
@@ -731,7 +750,18 @@
 +
 `--date=short` shows only the date, but not the time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
 +
-`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw Git format `%s %z` format.
+`--date=raw` shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
+00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an offset
+from UTC (a `+` or `-` with four digits; the first two are hours, and
+the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp were formatted
+with `strftime("%s %z")`).
+Note that the `-local` option does not affect the seconds-since-epoch
+value (which is always measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying
+timezone value.
++
+`--date=unix` shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
+1970).  As with `--raw`, this is always in UTC and therefore `-local`
+has no effect.
 +
 `--date=format:...` feeds the format `...` to your system `strftime`.
 Use `--date=format:%c` to show the date in your system locale's
@@ -766,7 +796,7 @@
 endif::git-rev-list[]
 
 --left-right::
-	Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
+	Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable from.
 	Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
 	the right with `>`.  If combined with `--boundary`, those
 	commits are prefixed with `-`.
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index 19314e3..4bed5b1 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -28,8 +28,8 @@
   first match in the following rules:
 
   . If '$GIT_DIR/<refname>' exists, that is what you mean (this is usually
-    useful only for 'HEAD', 'FETCH_HEAD', 'ORIG_HEAD', 'MERGE_HEAD'
-    and 'CHERRY_PICK_HEAD');
+    useful only for `HEAD`, `FETCH_HEAD`, `ORIG_HEAD`, `MERGE_HEAD`
+    and `CHERRY_PICK_HEAD`);
 
   . otherwise, 'refs/<refname>' if it exists;
 
@@ -41,16 +41,16 @@
 
   . otherwise, 'refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD' if it exists.
 +
-'HEAD' names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree.
-'FETCH_HEAD' records the branch which you fetched from a remote repository
+`HEAD` names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree.
+`FETCH_HEAD` records the branch which you fetched from a remote repository
 with your last `git fetch` invocation.
-'ORIG_HEAD' is created by commands that move your 'HEAD' in a drastic
-way, to record the position of the 'HEAD' before their operation, so that
+`ORIG_HEAD` is created by commands that move your `HEAD` in a drastic
+way, to record the position of the `HEAD` before their operation, so that
 you can easily change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran
 them.
-'MERGE_HEAD' records the commit(s) which you are merging into your branch
+`MERGE_HEAD` records the commit(s) which you are merging into your branch
 when you run `git merge`.
-'CHERRY_PICK_HEAD' records the commit which you are cherry-picking
+`CHERRY_PICK_HEAD` records the commit which you are cherry-picking
 when you run `git cherry-pick`.
 +
 Note that any of the 'refs/*' cases above may come either from
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@
 some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.
 
 '@'::
-  '@' alone is a shortcut for 'HEAD'.
+  '@' alone is a shortcut for `HEAD`.
 
 '<refname>@{<date>}', e.g. 'master@\{yesterday\}', 'HEAD@{5 minutes ago}'::
   A ref followed by the suffix '@' with a date specification
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@
   existing log ('$GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>'). Note that this looks up the state
   of your *local* ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local
   'master' branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
-  certain times, see '--since' and '--until'.
+  certain times, see `--since` and `--until`.
 
 '<refname>@{<n>}', e.g. 'master@\{1\}'::
   A ref followed by the suffix '@' with an ordinal specification
@@ -101,7 +101,7 @@
 '<branchname>@\{push\}', e.g. 'master@\{push\}', '@\{push\}'::
   The suffix '@\{push}' reports the branch "where we would push to" if
   `git push` were run while `branchname` was checked out (or the current
-  'HEAD' if no branchname is specified). Since our push destination is
+  `HEAD` if no branchname is specified). Since our push destination is
   in a remote repository, of course, we report the local tracking branch
   that corresponds to that branch (i.e., something in 'refs/remotes/').
 +
@@ -237,58 +237,84 @@
 -----------------
 
 History traversing commands such as `git log` operate on a set
-of commits, not just a single commit.  To these commands,
-specifying a single revision with the notation described in the
-previous section means the set of commits reachable from that
-commit, following the commit ancestry chain.
+of commits, not just a single commit.
 
-To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix '{caret}'
-notation is used.  E.g. '{caret}r1 r2' means commits reachable
-from 'r2' but exclude the ones reachable from 'r1'.
+For these commands,
+specifying a single revision, using the notation described in the
+previous section, means the set of commits `reachable` from the given
+commit.
 
-This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand
-for it.  When you have two commits 'r1' and 'r2' (named according
-to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask
-for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable
-from r1 by '{caret}r1 r2' and it can be written as 'r1..r2'.
+A commit's reachable set is the commit itself and the commits in
+its ancestry chain.
 
-A similar notation 'r1\...r2' is called symmetric difference
-of 'r1' and 'r2' and is defined as
-'r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2)'.
-It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of
-'r1' or 'r2' but not from both.
 
-In these two shorthands, you can omit one end and let it default to HEAD.
+Commit Exclusions
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+'{caret}<rev>' (caret) Notation::
+ To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix '{caret}'
+ notation is used.  E.g. '{caret}r1 r2' means commits reachable
+ from 'r2' but exclude the ones reachable from 'r1' (i.e. 'r1' and
+ its ancestors).
+
+Dotted Range Notations
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The '..' (two-dot) Range Notation::
+ The '{caret}r1 r2' set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand
+ for it.  When you have two commits 'r1' and 'r2' (named according
+ to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask
+ for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable
+ from r1 by '{caret}r1 r2' and it can be written as 'r1..r2'.
+
+The '...' (three dot) Symmetric Difference Notation::
+ A similar notation 'r1\...r2' is called symmetric difference
+ of 'r1' and 'r2' and is defined as
+ 'r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2)'.
+ It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of
+ 'r1' (left side) or 'r2' (right side) but not from both.
+
+In these two shorthand notations, you can omit one end and let it default to HEAD.
 For example, 'origin..' is a shorthand for 'origin..HEAD' and asks "What
 did I do since I forked from the origin branch?"  Similarly, '..origin'
 is a shorthand for 'HEAD..origin' and asks "What did the origin do since
 I forked from them?"  Note that '..' would mean 'HEAD..HEAD' which is an
 empty range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.
 
-Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit
-and its parent commits exist.  The 'r1{caret}@' notation means all
-parents of 'r1'.  'r1{caret}!' includes commit 'r1' but excludes
-all of its parents.
+Other <rev>{caret} Parent Shorthand Notations
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Two other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
+for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits.
 
-To summarize:
+The 'r1{caret}@' notation means all parents of 'r1'.
+
+The 'r1{caret}!' notation includes commit 'r1' but excludes all of its parents.
+By itself, this notation denotes the single commit 'r1'.
+
+While '<rev>{caret}<n>' was about specifying a single commit parent, these
+two notations consider all its parents. For example you can say
+'HEAD{caret}2{caret}@', however you cannot say 'HEAD{caret}@{caret}2'.
+
+Revision Range Summary
+----------------------
 
 '<rev>'::
-	Include commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of)
-	<rev>.
+	Include commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its
+	ancestors).
 
 '{caret}<rev>'::
-	Exclude commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of)
-	<rev>.
+	Exclude commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its
+	ancestors).
 
 '<rev1>..<rev2>'::
 	Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude
 	those that are reachable from <rev1>.  When either <rev1> or
-	<rev2> is omitted, it defaults to 'HEAD'.
+	<rev2> is omitted, it defaults to `HEAD`.
 
 '<rev1>\...<rev2>'::
 	Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or
 	<rev2> but exclude those that are reachable from both.  When
-	either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to 'HEAD'.
+	either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to `HEAD`.
 
 '<rev>{caret}@', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}@'::
   A suffix '{caret}' followed by an at sign is the same as listing
@@ -300,16 +326,27 @@
   as giving commit '<rev>' and then all its parents prefixed with
   '{caret}' to exclude them (and their ancestors).
 
-Here are a handful of examples:
+Here are a handful of examples using the Loeliger illustration above,
+with each step in the notation's expansion and selection carefully
+spelt out:
 
-   D                G H D
-   D F              G H I J D F
-   ^G D             H D
-   ^D B             E I J F B
-   B..C             C
-   B...C            G H D E B C
-   ^D B C           E I J F B C
-   C                I J F C
-   C^@              I J F
-   C^!              C
-   F^! D            G H D F
+   Args   Expanded arguments    Selected commits
+   D                            G H D
+   D F                          G H I J D F
+   ^G D                         H D
+   ^D B                         E I J F B
+   ^D B C                       E I J F B C
+   C                            I J F C
+   B..C   = ^B C                C
+   B...C  = B ^F C              G H D E B C
+   C^@    = C^1
+	  = F                   I J F
+   B^@    = B^1 B^2 B^3
+	  = D E F               D G H E F I J
+   C^!    = C ^C^@
+	  = C ^C^1
+	  = C ^F                C
+   B^!    = B ^B^@
+	  = B ^B^1 ^B^2 ^B^3
+	  = B ^D ^E ^F          B
+   F^! D  = F ^I ^J D           G H D F
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
index ad7a5bd..28f5a8b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
@@ -104,6 +104,11 @@
 `entry` points to the entry to initialize.
 +
 `hash` is the hash code of the entry.
++
+The hashmap_entry structure does not hold references to external resources,
+and it is safe to just discard it once you are done with it (i.e. if
+your structure was allocated with xmalloc(), you can just free(3) it,
+and if it is on stack, you can just let it go out of scope).
 
 `void *hashmap_get(const struct hashmap *map, const void *key, const void *keydata)`::
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
index 695bd4b..27bd701 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
@@ -144,8 +144,12 @@
 
 `OPT_COUNTUP(short, long, &int_var, description)`::
 	Introduce a count-up option.
-	`int_var` is incremented on each use of `--option`, and
-	reset to zero with `--no-option`.
+	Each use of `--option` increments `int_var`, starting from zero
+	(even if initially negative), and `--no-option` resets it to
+	zero. To determine if `--option` or `--no-option` was encountered at
+	all, initialize `int_var` to a negative value, and if it is still
+	negative after parse_options(), then neither `--option` nor
+	`--no-option` was seen.
 
 `OPT_BIT(short, long, &int_var, description, mask)`::
 	Introduce a boolean option.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index 8b36343..736f389 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -307,7 +307,7 @@
     ready to make a packfile, it will blindly ACK all 'have' obj-ids
     back to the client.
 
-  * the server will then send a 'NACK' and then wait for another response
+  * the server will then send a 'NAK' and then wait for another response
     from the client - either a 'done' or another list of 'have' lines.
 
 In multi_ack_detailed mode:
@@ -454,7 +454,8 @@
 fetching protocol. Each reference obj-id and name on the server is sent
 in packet-line format to the client, followed by a flush-pkt.  The only
 real difference is that the capability listing is different - the only
-possible values are 'report-status', 'delete-refs' and 'ofs-delta'.
+possible values are 'report-status', 'delete-refs', 'ofs-delta' and
+'push-options'.
 
 Reference Update Request and Packfile Transfer
 ----------------------------------------------
@@ -465,9 +466,10 @@
 the server, the obj-id the client would like to update it to and the name
 of the reference.
 
-This list is followed by a flush-pkt and then the packfile that should
-contain all the objects that the server will need to complete the new
-references.
+This list is followed by a flush-pkt. Then the push options are transmitted
+one per packet followed by another flush-pkt. After that the packfile that
+should contain all the objects that the server will need to complete the new
+references will be sent.
 
 ----
   update-request    =  *shallow ( command-list | push-cert ) [packfile]
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
index eaab6b4..4c28d3a 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
@@ -253,6 +253,15 @@
 will update the refs in one atomic transaction. Either all refs are
 updated or none.
 
+push-options
+------------
+
+If the server sends the 'push-options' capability it is able to accept
+push options after the update commands have been sent, but before the
+packfile is streamed. If the pushing client requests this capability,
+the server will pass the options to the pre- and post- receive hooks
+that process this push request.
+
 allow-tip-sha1-in-want
 ----------------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt
index bf30167..ecedb34 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt
@@ -67,9 +67,9 @@
 LF (stripping the LF if present, and not complaining when it is
 missing).
 
-The maximum length of a pkt-line's data component is 65520 bytes.
-Implementations MUST NOT send pkt-line whose length exceeds 65524
-(65520 bytes of payload + 4 bytes of length data).
+The maximum length of a pkt-line's data component is 65516 bytes.
+Implementations MUST NOT send pkt-line whose length exceeds 65520
+(65516 bytes of payload + 4 bytes of length data).
 
 Implementations SHOULD NOT send an empty pkt-line ("0004").
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/signature-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/signature-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2c9406a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/signature-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,186 @@
+Git signature format
+====================
+
+== Overview
+
+Git uses cryptographic signatures in various places, currently objects (tags,
+commits, mergetags) and transactions (pushes). In every case, the command which
+is about to create an object or transaction determines a payload from that,
+calls gpg to obtain a detached signature for the payload (`gpg -bsa`) and
+embeds the signature into the object or transaction.
+
+Signatures always begin with `-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----`
+and end with `-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----`, unless gpg is told to
+produce RFC1991 signatures which use `MESSAGE` instead of `SIGNATURE`.
+
+The signed payload and the way the signature is embedded depends
+on the type of the object resp. transaction.
+
+== Tag signatures
+
+- created by: `git tag -s`
+- payload: annotated tag object
+- embedding: append the signature to the unsigned tag object
+- example: tag `signedtag` with subject `signed tag`
+
+----
+object 04b871796dc0420f8e7561a895b52484b701d51a
+type commit
+tag signedtag
+tagger C O Mitter <committer@example.com> 1465981006 +0000
+
+signed tag
+
+signed tag message body
+-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
+Version: GnuPG v1
+
+iQEcBAABAgAGBQJXYRhOAAoJEGEJLoW3InGJklkIAIcnhL7RwEb/+QeX9enkXhxn
+rxfdqrvWd1K80sl2TOt8Bg/NYwrUBw/RWJ+sg/hhHp4WtvE1HDGHlkEz3y11Lkuh
+8tSxS3qKTxXUGozyPGuE90sJfExhZlW4knIQ1wt/yWqM+33E9pN4hzPqLwyrdods
+q8FWEqPPUbSJXoMbRPw04S5jrLtZSsUWbRYjmJCHzlhSfFWW4eFd37uquIaLUBS0
+rkC3Jrx7420jkIpgFcTI2s60uhSQLzgcCwdA2ukSYIRnjg/zDkj8+3h/GaROJ72x
+lZyI6HWixKJkWw8lE9aAOD9TmTW9sFJwcVAzmAuFX2kUreDUKMZduGcoRYGpD7E=
+=jpXa
+-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
+----
+
+- verify with: `git verify-tag [-v]` or `git tag -v`
+
+----
+gpg: Signature made Wed Jun 15 10:56:46 2016 CEST using RSA key ID B7227189
+gpg: Good signature from "Eris Discordia <discord@example.net>"
+gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
+gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
+Primary key fingerprint: D4BE 2231 1AD3 131E 5EDA  29A4 6109 2E85 B722 7189
+object 04b871796dc0420f8e7561a895b52484b701d51a
+type commit
+tag signedtag
+tagger C O Mitter <committer@example.com> 1465981006 +0000
+
+signed tag
+
+signed tag message body
+----
+
+== Commit signatures
+
+- created by: `git commit -S`
+- payload: commit object
+- embedding: header entry `gpgsig`
+  (content is preceded by a space)
+- example: commit with subject `signed commit`
+
+----
+tree eebfed94e75e7760540d1485c740902590a00332
+parent 04b871796dc0420f8e7561a895b52484b701d51a
+author A U Thor <author@example.com> 1465981137 +0000
+committer C O Mitter <committer@example.com> 1465981137 +0000
+gpgsig -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
+ Version: GnuPG v1
+
+ iQEcBAABAgAGBQJXYRjRAAoJEGEJLoW3InGJ3IwIAIY4SA6GxY3BjL60YyvsJPh/
+ HRCJwH+w7wt3Yc/9/bW2F+gF72kdHOOs2jfv+OZhq0q4OAN6fvVSczISY/82LpS7
+ DVdMQj2/YcHDT4xrDNBnXnviDO9G7am/9OE77kEbXrp7QPxvhjkicHNwy2rEflAA
+ zn075rtEERDHr8nRYiDh8eVrefSO7D+bdQ7gv+7GsYMsd2auJWi1dHOSfTr9HIF4
+ HJhWXT9d2f8W+diRYXGh4X0wYiGg6na/soXc+vdtDYBzIxanRqjg8jCAeo1eOTk1
+ EdTwhcTZlI0x5pvJ3H0+4hA2jtldVtmPM4OTB0cTrEWBad7XV6YgiyuII73Ve3I=
+ =jKHM
+ -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
+
+signed commit
+
+signed commit message body
+----
+
+- verify with: `git verify-commit [-v]` (or `git show --show-signature`)
+
+----
+gpg: Signature made Wed Jun 15 10:58:57 2016 CEST using RSA key ID B7227189
+gpg: Good signature from "Eris Discordia <discord@example.net>"
+gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
+gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
+Primary key fingerprint: D4BE 2231 1AD3 131E 5EDA  29A4 6109 2E85 B722 7189
+tree eebfed94e75e7760540d1485c740902590a00332
+parent 04b871796dc0420f8e7561a895b52484b701d51a
+author A U Thor <author@example.com> 1465981137 +0000
+committer C O Mitter <committer@example.com> 1465981137 +0000
+
+signed commit
+
+signed commit message body
+----
+
+== Mergetag signatures
+
+- created by: `git merge` on signed tag
+- payload/embedding: the whole signed tag object is embedded into
+  the (merge) commit object as header entry `mergetag`
+- example: merge of the signed tag `signedtag` as above
+
+----
+tree c7b1cff039a93f3600a1d18b82d26688668c7dea
+parent c33429be94b5f2d3ee9b0adad223f877f174b05d
+parent 04b871796dc0420f8e7561a895b52484b701d51a
+author A U Thor <author@example.com> 1465982009 +0000
+committer C O Mitter <committer@example.com> 1465982009 +0000
+mergetag object 04b871796dc0420f8e7561a895b52484b701d51a
+ type commit
+ tag signedtag
+ tagger C O Mitter <committer@example.com> 1465981006 +0000
+
+ signed tag
+
+ signed tag message body
+ -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
+ Version: GnuPG v1
+
+ iQEcBAABAgAGBQJXYRhOAAoJEGEJLoW3InGJklkIAIcnhL7RwEb/+QeX9enkXhxn
+ rxfdqrvWd1K80sl2TOt8Bg/NYwrUBw/RWJ+sg/hhHp4WtvE1HDGHlkEz3y11Lkuh
+ 8tSxS3qKTxXUGozyPGuE90sJfExhZlW4knIQ1wt/yWqM+33E9pN4hzPqLwyrdods
+ q8FWEqPPUbSJXoMbRPw04S5jrLtZSsUWbRYjmJCHzlhSfFWW4eFd37uquIaLUBS0
+ rkC3Jrx7420jkIpgFcTI2s60uhSQLzgcCwdA2ukSYIRnjg/zDkj8+3h/GaROJ72x
+ lZyI6HWixKJkWw8lE9aAOD9TmTW9sFJwcVAzmAuFX2kUreDUKMZduGcoRYGpD7E=
+ =jpXa
+ -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
+
+Merge tag 'signedtag' into downstream
+
+signed tag
+
+signed tag message body
+
+# gpg: Signature made Wed Jun 15 08:56:46 2016 UTC using RSA key ID B7227189
+# gpg: Good signature from "Eris Discordia <discord@example.net>"
+# gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
+# gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
+# Primary key fingerprint: D4BE 2231 1AD3 131E 5EDA  29A4 6109 2E85 B722 7189
+----
+
+- verify with: verification is embedded in merge commit message by default,
+  alternatively with `git show --show-signature`:
+
+----
+commit 9863f0c76ff78712b6800e199a46aa56afbcbd49
+merged tag 'signedtag'
+gpg: Signature made Wed Jun 15 10:56:46 2016 CEST using RSA key ID B7227189
+gpg: Good signature from "Eris Discordia <discord@example.net>"
+gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
+gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
+Primary key fingerprint: D4BE 2231 1AD3 131E 5EDA  29A4 6109 2E85 B722 7189
+Merge: c33429b 04b8717
+Author: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+Date:   Wed Jun 15 09:13:29 2016 +0000
+
+    Merge tag 'signedtag' into downstream
+
+    signed tag
+
+    signed tag message body
+
+    # gpg: Signature made Wed Jun 15 08:56:46 2016 UTC using RSA key ID B7227189
+    # gpg: Good signature from "Eris Discordia <discord@example.net>"
+    # gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
+    # gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
+    # Primary key fingerprint: D4BE 2231 1AD3 131E 5EDA  29A4 6109 2E85 B722 7189
+----
diff --git a/GIT-VERSION-GEN b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
index ba8b8cf..6754ab0 100755
--- a/GIT-VERSION-GEN
+++ b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 #!/bin/sh
 
 GVF=GIT-VERSION-FILE
-DEF_VER=v2.8.4
+DEF_VER=v2.10.0
 
 LF='
 '
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index e11e626..7a36af8 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -296,7 +296,13 @@
 # Define USE_NED_ALLOCATOR if you want to replace the platforms default
 # memory allocators with the nedmalloc allocator written by Niall Douglas.
 #
-# Define NO_REGEX if you have no or inferior regex support in your C library.
+# Define OVERRIDE_STRDUP to override the libc version of strdup(3).
+# This is necessary when using a custom allocator in order to avoid
+# crashes due to allocation and free working on different 'heaps'.
+# It's defined automatically if USE_NED_ALLOCATOR is set.
+#
+# Define NO_REGEX if your C library lacks regex support with REG_STARTEND
+# feature.
 #
 # Define HAVE_DEV_TTY if your system can open /dev/tty to interact with the
 # user.
@@ -351,9 +357,12 @@
 # Define GMTIME_UNRELIABLE_ERRORS if your gmtime() function does not
 # return NULL when it receives a bogus time_t.
 #
-# Define HAVE_CLOCK_GETTIME if your platform has clock_gettime in librt.
+# Define HAVE_CLOCK_GETTIME if your platform has clock_gettime.
 #
-# Define HAVE_CLOCK_MONOTONIC if your platform has CLOCK_MONOTONIC in librt.
+# Define HAVE_CLOCK_MONOTONIC if your platform has CLOCK_MONOTONIC.
+#
+# Define NEEDS_LIBRT if your platform requires linking with librt (glibc version
+# before 2.17) for clock_gettime and CLOCK_MONOTONIC.
 #
 # Define USE_PARENS_AROUND_GETTEXT_N to "yes" if your compiler happily
 # compiles the following initialization:
@@ -367,6 +376,14 @@
 # Define HAVE_BSD_SYSCTL if your platform has a BSD-compatible sysctl function.
 #
 # Define HAVE_GETDELIM if your system has the getdelim() function.
+#
+# Define PAGER_ENV to a SP separated VAR=VAL pairs to define
+# default environment variables to be passed when a pager is spawned, e.g.
+#
+#    PAGER_ENV = LESS=FRX LV=-c
+#
+# to say "export LESS=FRX (and LV=-c) if the environment variable
+# LESS (and LV) is not set, respectively".
 
 GIT-VERSION-FILE: FORCE
 	@$(SHELL_PATH) ./GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -375,13 +392,7 @@
 # CFLAGS and LDFLAGS are for the users to override from the command line.
 
 CFLAGS = -g -O2 -Wall
-LDFLAGS =
-ALL_CFLAGS = $(CPPFLAGS) $(CFLAGS)
-ALL_LDFLAGS = $(LDFLAGS)
-STRIP ?= strip
-
-ifdef DEVELOPER
-CFLAGS += -Werror \
+DEVELOPER_CFLAGS = -Werror \
 	-Wdeclaration-after-statement \
 	-Wno-format-zero-length \
 	-Wold-style-definition \
@@ -390,7 +401,10 @@
 	-Wstrict-prototypes \
 	-Wunused \
 	-Wvla
-endif
+LDFLAGS =
+ALL_CFLAGS = $(CPPFLAGS) $(CFLAGS)
+ALL_LDFLAGS = $(LDFLAGS)
+STRIP ?= strip
 
 # Create as necessary, replace existing, make ranlib unneeded.
 ARFLAGS = rcs
@@ -440,7 +454,6 @@
 TAR = tar
 FIND = find
 INSTALL = install
-RPMBUILD = rpmbuild
 TCL_PATH = tclsh
 TCLTK_PATH = wish
 XGETTEXT = xgettext
@@ -621,7 +634,7 @@
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-urlmatch-normalization
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-wildmatch
 
-TEST_PROGRAMS = $(patsubst %,%$X,$(TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X))
+TEST_PROGRAMS = $(patsubst %,t/helper/%$X,$(TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X))
 
 # List built-in command $C whose implementation cmd_$C() is not in
 # builtin/$C.o but is linked in as part of some other command.
@@ -722,6 +735,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += diff-no-index.o
 LIB_OBJS += diff.o
 LIB_OBJS += dir.o
+LIB_OBJS += dir-iterator.o
 LIB_OBJS += editor.o
 LIB_OBJS += entry.o
 LIB_OBJS += environment.o
@@ -755,6 +769,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += merge-blobs.o
 LIB_OBJS += merge-recursive.o
 LIB_OBJS += mergesort.o
+LIB_OBJS += mru.o
 LIB_OBJS += name-hash.o
 LIB_OBJS += notes.o
 LIB_OBJS += notes-cache.o
@@ -786,6 +801,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += reflog-walk.o
 LIB_OBJS += refs.o
 LIB_OBJS += refs/files-backend.o
+LIB_OBJS += refs/iterator.o
 LIB_OBJS += ref-filter.o
 LIB_OBJS += remote.o
 LIB_OBJS += replace_object.o
@@ -943,7 +959,7 @@
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/worktree.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/write-tree.o
 
-GITLIBS = $(LIB_FILE) $(XDIFF_LIB)
+GITLIBS = common-main.o $(LIB_FILE) $(XDIFF_LIB)
 EXTLIBS =
 
 GIT_USER_AGENT = git/$(GIT_VERSION)
@@ -952,6 +968,10 @@
 -include config.mak.autogen
 -include config.mak
 
+ifdef DEVELOPER
+CFLAGS += $(DEVELOPER_CFLAGS)
+endif
+
 ifndef sysconfdir
 ifeq ($(prefix),/usr)
 sysconfdir = /etc
@@ -1442,8 +1462,14 @@
 endif
 
 ifdef USE_NED_ALLOCATOR
-       COMPAT_CFLAGS += -Icompat/nedmalloc
-       COMPAT_OBJS += compat/nedmalloc/nedmalloc.o
+	COMPAT_CFLAGS += -Icompat/nedmalloc
+	COMPAT_OBJS += compat/nedmalloc/nedmalloc.o
+	OVERRIDE_STRDUP = YesPlease
+endif
+
+ifdef OVERRIDE_STRDUP
+	COMPAT_CFLAGS += -DOVERRIDE_STRDUP
+	COMPAT_OBJS += compat/strdup.o
 endif
 
 ifdef GIT_TEST_CMP_USE_COPIED_CONTEXT
@@ -1465,13 +1491,16 @@
 
 ifdef HAVE_CLOCK_GETTIME
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DHAVE_CLOCK_GETTIME
-	EXTLIBS += -lrt
 endif
 
 ifdef HAVE_CLOCK_MONOTONIC
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DHAVE_CLOCK_MONOTONIC
 endif
 
+ifdef NEEDS_LIBRT
+	EXTLIBS += -lrt
+endif
+
 ifdef HAVE_BSD_SYSCTL
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DHAVE_BSD_SYSCTL
 endif
@@ -1492,6 +1521,10 @@
 NO_PYTHON = NoThanks
 endif
 
+ifndef PAGER_ENV
+PAGER_ENV = LESS=FRX LV=-c
+endif
+
 QUIET_SUBDIR0  = +$(MAKE) -C # space to separate -C and subdir
 QUIET_SUBDIR1  =
 
@@ -1572,7 +1605,15 @@
 DIFF_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(DIFF))
 PERLLIB_EXTRA_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(PERLLIB_EXTRA))
 
-LIBS = $(GITLIBS) $(EXTLIBS)
+# We must filter out any object files from $(GITLIBS),
+# as it is typically used like:
+#
+#   foo: foo.o $(GITLIBS)
+#	$(CC) $(filter %.o,$^) $(LIBS)
+#
+# where we use it as a dependency. Since we also pull object files
+# from the dependency list, that would make each entry appear twice.
+LIBS = $(filter-out %.o, $(GITLIBS)) $(EXTLIBS)
 
 BASIC_CFLAGS += -DSHA1_HEADER='$(SHA1_HEADER_SQ)' \
 	$(COMPAT_CFLAGS)
@@ -1613,6 +1654,11 @@
 BASIC_CFLAGS += -DDEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT='"$(DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT)"'
 endif
 
+PAGER_ENV_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(PAGER_ENV))
+PAGER_ENV_CQ = "$(subst ",\",$(subst \,\\,$(PAGER_ENV)))"
+PAGER_ENV_CQ_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(PAGER_ENV_CQ))
+BASIC_CFLAGS += -DPAGER_ENV='$(PAGER_ENV_CQ_SQ)'
+
 ALL_CFLAGS += $(BASIC_CFLAGS)
 ALL_LDFLAGS += $(BASIC_LDFLAGS)
 
@@ -1708,8 +1754,8 @@
 	'-DGIT_INFO_PATH="$(infodir_relative_SQ)"'
 
 git$X: git.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(BUILTIN_OBJS) $(GITLIBS)
-	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) git.o \
-		$(BUILTIN_OBJS) $(LIBS)
+	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) \
+		$(filter %.o,$^) $(LIBS)
 
 help.sp help.s help.o: common-cmds.h
 
@@ -1737,7 +1783,7 @@
 
 SCRIPT_DEFINES = $(SHELL_PATH_SQ):$(DIFF_SQ):$(GIT_VERSION):\
 	$(localedir_SQ):$(NO_CURL):$(USE_GETTEXT_SCHEME):$(SANE_TOOL_PATH_SQ):\
-	$(gitwebdir_SQ):$(PERL_PATH_SQ):$(SANE_TEXT_GREP)
+	$(gitwebdir_SQ):$(PERL_PATH_SQ):$(SANE_TEXT_GREP):$(PAGER_ENV)
 define cmd_munge_script
 $(RM) $@ $@+ && \
 sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
@@ -1750,6 +1796,7 @@
     -e 's|@@GITWEBDIR@@|$(gitwebdir_SQ)|g' \
     -e 's|@@PERL@@|$(PERL_PATH_SQ)|g' \
     -e 's|@@SANE_TEXT_GREP@@|$(SANE_TEXT_GREP)|g' \
+    -e 's|@@PAGER_ENV@@|$(PAGER_ENV_SQ)|g' \
     $@.sh >$@+
 endef
 
@@ -1898,10 +1945,11 @@
 VCSSVN_OBJS += vcs-svn/svndiff.o
 VCSSVN_OBJS += vcs-svn/svndump.o
 
-TEST_OBJS := $(patsubst test-%$X,test-%.o,$(TEST_PROGRAMS))
+TEST_OBJS := $(patsubst %$X,%.o,$(TEST_PROGRAMS))
 OBJECTS := $(LIB_OBJS) $(BUILTIN_OBJS) $(PROGRAM_OBJS) $(TEST_OBJS) \
 	$(XDIFF_OBJS) \
 	$(VCSSVN_OBJS) \
+	common-main.o \
 	git.o
 ifndef NO_CURL
 	OBJECTS += http.o http-walker.o remote-curl.o
@@ -1993,7 +2041,7 @@
 
 ifdef USE_NED_ALLOCATOR
 compat/nedmalloc/nedmalloc.sp compat/nedmalloc/nedmalloc.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
-	-DNDEBUG -DOVERRIDE_STRDUP -DREPLACE_SYSTEM_ALLOCATOR
+	-DNDEBUG -DREPLACE_SYSTEM_ALLOCATOR
 compat/nedmalloc/nedmalloc.sp: SPARSE_FLAGS += -Wno-non-pointer-null
 endif
 
@@ -2063,7 +2111,10 @@
 	--keyword=gettextln --keyword=eval_gettextln
 XGETTEXT_FLAGS_PERL = $(XGETTEXT_FLAGS) --keyword=__ --language=Perl
 LOCALIZED_C = $(C_OBJ:o=c) $(LIB_H) $(GENERATED_H)
-LOCALIZED_SH = $(SCRIPT_SH) git-parse-remote.sh
+LOCALIZED_SH = $(SCRIPT_SH)
+LOCALIZED_SH += git-parse-remote.sh
+LOCALIZED_SH += git-rebase--interactive.sh
+LOCALIZED_SH += git-sh-setup.sh
 LOCALIZED_PERL = $(SCRIPT_PERL)
 
 ifdef XGETTEXT_INCLUDE_TESTS
@@ -2153,6 +2204,7 @@
 	@echo NO_PERL=\''$(subst ','\'',$(subst ','\'',$(NO_PERL)))'\' >>$@+
 	@echo NO_PYTHON=\''$(subst ','\'',$(subst ','\'',$(NO_PYTHON)))'\' >>$@+
 	@echo NO_UNIX_SOCKETS=\''$(subst ','\'',$(subst ','\'',$(NO_UNIX_SOCKETS)))'\' >>$@+
+	@echo PAGER_ENV=\''$(subst ','\'',$(subst ','\'',$(PAGER_ENV)))'\' >>$@+
 ifdef TEST_OUTPUT_DIRECTORY
 	@echo TEST_OUTPUT_DIRECTORY=\''$(subst ','\'',$(subst ','\'',$(TEST_OUTPUT_DIRECTORY)))'\' >>$@+
 endif
@@ -2205,7 +2257,7 @@
 	@mkdir -p bin-wrappers
 	$(QUIET_GEN)sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
 	     -e 's|@@BUILD_DIR@@|$(shell pwd)|' \
-	     -e 's|@@PROG@@|$(@F)|' < $< > $@ && \
+	     -e 's|@@PROG@@|$(patsubst test-%,t/helper/test-%,$(@F))|' < $< > $@ && \
 	chmod +x $@
 
 # GNU make supports exporting all variables by "export" without parameters.
@@ -2225,25 +2277,17 @@
 
 .PHONY: test perf
 
-test-ctype$X: ctype.o
+t/helper/test-line-buffer$X: $(VCSSVN_LIB)
 
-test-date$X: date.o ctype.o
-
-test-delta$X: diff-delta.o patch-delta.o
-
-test-line-buffer$X: vcs-svn/lib.a
-
-test-parse-options$X: parse-options.o parse-options-cb.o
-
-test-svn-fe$X: vcs-svn/lib.a
+t/helper/test-svn-fe$X: $(VCSSVN_LIB)
 
 .PRECIOUS: $(TEST_OBJS)
 
-test-%$X: test-%.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(GITLIBS)
+t/helper/test-%$X: t/helper/test-%.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(GITLIBS)
 	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(filter %.o,$^) $(filter %.a,$^) $(LIBS)
 
-check-sha1:: test-sha1$X
-	./test-sha1.sh
+check-sha1:: t/helper/test-sha1$X
+	t/helper/test-sha1.sh
 
 SP_OBJ = $(patsubst %.o,%.sp,$(C_OBJ))
 
@@ -2390,31 +2434,25 @@
 
 ### Maintainer's dist rules
 
-git.spec: git.spec.in GIT-VERSION-FILE
-	sed -e 's/@@VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' < $< > $@+
-	mv $@+ $@
-
 GIT_TARNAME = git-$(GIT_VERSION)
-dist: git.spec git-archive$(X) configure
+dist: git-archive$(X) configure
 	./git-archive --format=tar \
 		--prefix=$(GIT_TARNAME)/ HEAD^{tree} > $(GIT_TARNAME).tar
 	@mkdir -p $(GIT_TARNAME)
-	@cp git.spec configure $(GIT_TARNAME)
+	@cp configure $(GIT_TARNAME)
 	@echo $(GIT_VERSION) > $(GIT_TARNAME)/version
 	@$(MAKE) -C git-gui TARDIR=../$(GIT_TARNAME)/git-gui dist-version
 	$(TAR) rf $(GIT_TARNAME).tar \
-		$(GIT_TARNAME)/git.spec \
 		$(GIT_TARNAME)/configure \
 		$(GIT_TARNAME)/version \
 		$(GIT_TARNAME)/git-gui/version
 	@$(RM) -r $(GIT_TARNAME)
 	gzip -f -9 $(GIT_TARNAME).tar
 
-rpm: dist
-	$(RPMBUILD) \
-		--define "_source_filedigest_algorithm md5" \
-		--define "_binary_filedigest_algorithm md5" \
-		-ta $(GIT_TARNAME).tar.gz
+rpm::
+	@echo >&2 "Use distro packaged sources to run rpmbuild"
+	@false
+.PHONY: rpm
 
 htmldocs = git-htmldocs-$(GIT_VERSION)
 manpages = git-manpages-$(GIT_VERSION)
@@ -2450,8 +2488,8 @@
 	$(RM) $(addsuffix *.gcno,$(addprefix $(PROFILE_DIR)/, $(object_dirs)))
 
 clean: profile-clean coverage-clean
-	$(RM) *.o *.res refs/*.o block-sha1/*.o ppc/*.o compat/*.o compat/*/*.o
-	$(RM) xdiff/*.o vcs-svn/*.o ewah/*.o builtin/*.o
+	$(RM) *.res
+	$(RM) $(OBJECTS)
 	$(RM) $(LIB_FILE) $(XDIFF_LIB) $(VCSSVN_LIB)
 	$(RM) $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(SCRIPT_LIB) $(BUILT_INS) git$X
 	$(RM) $(TEST_PROGRAMS) $(NO_INSTALL)
@@ -2490,6 +2528,7 @@
 
 .PHONY: check-docs
 check-docs::
+	$(MAKE) -C Documentation lint-docs
 	@(for v in $(ALL_COMMANDS); \
 	do \
 		case "$$v" in \
diff --git a/README.md b/README.md
index d1ffbb6..bd8a918 100644
--- a/README.md
+++ b/README.md
@@ -17,14 +17,14 @@
 
 See [Documentation/gittutorial.txt][] to get started, then see
 [Documentation/giteveryday.txt][] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
-[Documentation/git-commandname.txt][] for documentation of each command.
+Documentation/git-<commandname>.txt for documentation of each command.
 If git has been correctly installed, then the tutorial can also be
-read with "man gittutorial" or "git help tutorial", and the
-documentation of each command with "man git-commandname" or "git help
-commandname".
+read with `man gittutorial` or `git help tutorial`, and the
+documentation of each command with `man git-<commandname>` or `git help
+<commandname>`.
 
 CVS users may also want to read [Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt][]
-("man gitcvs-migration" or "git help cvs-migration" if git is
+(`man gitcvs-migration` or `git help cvs-migration` if git is
 installed).
 
 The user discussion and development of Git take place on the Git
@@ -57,6 +57,5 @@
 [INSTALL]: INSTALL
 [Documentation/gittutorial.txt]: Documentation/gittutorial.txt
 [Documentation/giteveryday.txt]: Documentation/giteveryday.txt
-[Documentation/git-commandname.txt]: Documentation/git-commandname.txt
 [Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt]: Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
 [Documentation/SubmittingPatches]: Documentation/SubmittingPatches
diff --git a/RelNotes b/RelNotes
index 58fee1e..bf857e5 120000
--- a/RelNotes
+++ b/RelNotes
@@ -1 +1 @@
-Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.4.txt
\ No newline at end of file
+Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.1.txt
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/advice.c b/advice.c
index 4dc5cf1..b84ae49 100644
--- a/advice.c
+++ b/advice.c
@@ -79,7 +79,20 @@
 
 int error_resolve_conflict(const char *me)
 {
-	error("%s is not possible because you have unmerged files.", me);
+	if (!strcmp(me, "cherry-pick"))
+		error(_("Cherry-picking is not possible because you have unmerged files."));
+	else if (!strcmp(me, "commit"))
+		error(_("Committing is not possible because you have unmerged files."));
+	else if (!strcmp(me, "merge"))
+		error(_("Merging is not possible because you have unmerged files."));
+	else if (!strcmp(me, "pull"))
+		error(_("Pulling is not possible because you have unmerged files."));
+	else if (!strcmp(me, "revert"))
+		error(_("Reverting is not possible because you have unmerged files."));
+	else
+		error(_("It is not possible to %s because you have unmerged files."),
+			me);
+
 	if (advice_resolve_conflict)
 		/*
 		 * Message used both when 'git commit' fails and when
@@ -93,7 +106,7 @@
 void NORETURN die_resolve_conflict(const char *me)
 {
 	error_resolve_conflict(me);
-	die("Exiting because of an unresolved conflict.");
+	die(_("Exiting because of an unresolved conflict."));
 }
 
 void NORETURN die_conclude_merge(void)
@@ -106,14 +119,14 @@
 
 void detach_advice(const char *new_name)
 {
-	const char fmt[] =
-	"Note: checking out '%s'.\n\n"
+	const char *fmt =
+	_("Note: checking out '%s'.\n\n"
 	"You are in 'detached HEAD' state. You can look around, make experimental\n"
 	"changes and commit them, and you can discard any commits you make in this\n"
 	"state without impacting any branches by performing another checkout.\n\n"
 	"If you want to create a new branch to retain commits you create, you may\n"
 	"do so (now or later) by using -b with the checkout command again. Example:\n\n"
-	"  git checkout -b <new-branch-name>\n\n";
+	"  git checkout -b <new-branch-name>\n\n");
 
 	fprintf(stderr, fmt, new_name);
 }
diff --git a/archive-tar.c b/archive-tar.c
index cb99df2..380e3ae 100644
--- a/archive-tar.c
+++ b/archive-tar.c
@@ -18,6 +18,21 @@
 static int write_tar_filter_archive(const struct archiver *ar,
 				    struct archiver_args *args);
 
+/*
+ * This is the max value that a ustar size header can specify, as it is fixed
+ * at 11 octal digits. POSIX specifies that we switch to extended headers at
+ * this size.
+ *
+ * Likewise for the mtime (which happens to use a buffer of the same size).
+ */
+#if ULONG_MAX == 0xFFFFFFFF
+#define USTAR_MAX_SIZE ULONG_MAX
+#define USTAR_MAX_MTIME ULONG_MAX
+#else
+#define USTAR_MAX_SIZE 077777777777UL
+#define USTAR_MAX_MTIME 077777777777UL
+#endif
+
 /* writes out the whole block, but only if it is full */
 static void write_if_needed(void)
 {
@@ -137,6 +152,20 @@
 	strbuf_addch(sb, '\n');
 }
 
+/*
+ * Like strbuf_append_ext_header, but for numeric values.
+ */
+static void strbuf_append_ext_header_uint(struct strbuf *sb,
+					  const char *keyword,
+					  uintmax_t value)
+{
+	char buf[40]; /* big enough for 2^128 in decimal, plus NUL */
+	int len;
+
+	len = xsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%"PRIuMAX, value);
+	strbuf_append_ext_header(sb, keyword, buf, len);
+}
+
 static unsigned int ustar_header_chksum(const struct ustar_header *header)
 {
 	const unsigned char *p = (const unsigned char *)header;
@@ -184,9 +213,9 @@
 	xsnprintf(header->chksum, sizeof(header->chksum), "%07o", ustar_header_chksum(header));
 }
 
-static int write_extended_header(struct archiver_args *args,
-				 const unsigned char *sha1,
-				 const void *buffer, unsigned long size)
+static void write_extended_header(struct archiver_args *args,
+				  const unsigned char *sha1,
+				  const void *buffer, unsigned long size)
 {
 	struct ustar_header header;
 	unsigned int mode;
@@ -197,7 +226,6 @@
 	prepare_header(args, &header, mode, size);
 	write_blocked(&header, sizeof(header));
 	write_blocked(buffer, size);
-	return 0;
 }
 
 static int write_tar_entry(struct archiver_args *args,
@@ -208,7 +236,7 @@
 	struct ustar_header header;
 	struct strbuf ext_header = STRBUF_INIT;
 	unsigned int old_mode = mode;
-	unsigned long size;
+	unsigned long size, size_in_header;
 	void *buffer;
 	int err = 0;
 
@@ -267,15 +295,17 @@
 			memcpy(header.linkname, buffer, size);
 	}
 
-	prepare_header(args, &header, mode, size);
+	size_in_header = size;
+	if (S_ISREG(mode) && size > USTAR_MAX_SIZE) {
+		size_in_header = 0;
+		strbuf_append_ext_header_uint(&ext_header, "size", size);
+	}
+
+	prepare_header(args, &header, mode, size_in_header);
 
 	if (ext_header.len > 0) {
-		err = write_extended_header(args, sha1, ext_header.buf,
-					    ext_header.len);
-		if (err) {
-			free(buffer);
-			return err;
-		}
+		write_extended_header(args, sha1, ext_header.buf,
+				      ext_header.len);
 	}
 	strbuf_release(&ext_header);
 	write_blocked(&header, sizeof(header));
@@ -289,15 +319,25 @@
 	return err;
 }
 
-static int write_global_extended_header(struct archiver_args *args)
+static void write_global_extended_header(struct archiver_args *args)
 {
 	const unsigned char *sha1 = args->commit_sha1;
 	struct strbuf ext_header = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct ustar_header header;
 	unsigned int mode;
-	int err = 0;
 
-	strbuf_append_ext_header(&ext_header, "comment", sha1_to_hex(sha1), 40);
+	if (sha1)
+		strbuf_append_ext_header(&ext_header, "comment",
+					 sha1_to_hex(sha1), 40);
+	if (args->time > USTAR_MAX_MTIME) {
+		strbuf_append_ext_header_uint(&ext_header, "mtime",
+					      args->time);
+		args->time = USTAR_MAX_MTIME;
+	}
+
+	if (!ext_header.len)
+		return;
+
 	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
 	*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_GLOBAL_HEADER;
 	mode = 0100666;
@@ -306,7 +346,6 @@
 	write_blocked(&header, sizeof(header));
 	write_blocked(ext_header.buf, ext_header.len);
 	strbuf_release(&ext_header);
-	return err;
 }
 
 static struct archiver **tar_filters;
@@ -382,10 +421,8 @@
 {
 	int err = 0;
 
-	if (args->commit_sha1)
-		err = write_global_extended_header(args);
-	if (!err)
-		err = write_archive_entries(args, write_tar_entry);
+	write_global_extended_header(args);
+	err = write_archive_entries(args, write_tar_entry);
 	if (!err)
 		write_trailer();
 	return err;
diff --git a/archive.c b/archive.c
index 5d735ae..dde1ab4 100644
--- a/archive.c
+++ b/archive.c
@@ -322,7 +322,7 @@
 	pathspec.recursive = 1;
 	ret = read_tree_recursive(tree, "", 0, 0, &pathspec,
 				  reject_entry, &pathspec);
-	free_pathspec(&pathspec);
+	clear_pathspec(&pathspec);
 	return ret != 0;
 }
 
@@ -458,11 +458,11 @@
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, NULL, opts, archive_usage, 0);
 
 	if (remote)
-		die("Unexpected option --remote");
+		die(_("Unexpected option --remote"));
 	if (exec)
-		die("Option --exec can only be used together with --remote");
+		die(_("Option --exec can only be used together with --remote"));
 	if (output)
-		die("Unexpected option --output");
+		die(_("Unexpected option --output"));
 
 	if (!base)
 		base = "";
@@ -484,14 +484,14 @@
 		usage_with_options(archive_usage, opts);
 	*ar = lookup_archiver(format);
 	if (!*ar || (is_remote && !((*ar)->flags & ARCHIVER_REMOTE)))
-		die("Unknown archive format '%s'", format);
+		die(_("Unknown archive format '%s'"), format);
 
 	args->compression_level = Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION;
 	if (compression_level != -1) {
 		if ((*ar)->flags & ARCHIVER_WANT_COMPRESSION_LEVELS)
 			args->compression_level = compression_level;
 		else {
-			die("Argument not supported for format '%s': -%d",
+			die(_("Argument not supported for format '%s': -%d"),
 					format, compression_level);
 		}
 	}
diff --git a/bisect.c b/bisect.c
index 7996c29..6f512c2 100644
--- a/bisect.c
+++ b/bisect.c
@@ -438,12 +438,12 @@
 	FILE *fp = fopen(filename, "r");
 
 	if (!fp)
-		die_errno("Could not open file '%s'", filename);
+		die_errno(_("Could not open file '%s'"), filename);
 
 	while (strbuf_getline_lf(&str, fp) != EOF) {
 		strbuf_trim(&str);
 		if (sq_dequote_to_argv_array(str.buf, array))
-			die("Badly quoted content in file '%s': %s",
+			die(_("Badly quoted content in file '%s': %s"),
 			    filename, str.buf);
 	}
 
@@ -646,10 +646,13 @@
 
 	printf("There are only 'skip'ped commits left to test.\n"
 	       "The first %s commit could be any of:\n", term_bad);
-	print_commit_list(tried, "%s\n", "%s\n");
+
+	for ( ; tried; tried = tried->next)
+		printf("%s\n", oid_to_hex(&tried->item->object.oid));
+
 	if (bad)
 		printf("%s\n", oid_to_hex(bad));
-	printf("We cannot bisect more!\n");
+	printf(_("We cannot bisect more!\n"));
 	exit(2);
 }
 
@@ -702,7 +705,7 @@
 {
 	struct commit *r = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
 	if (!r)
-		die("Not a valid commit name %s", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+		die(_("Not a valid commit name %s"), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	return r;
 }
 
@@ -726,27 +729,27 @@
 		char *bad_hex = oid_to_hex(current_bad_oid);
 		char *good_hex = join_sha1_array_hex(&good_revs, ' ');
 		if (!strcmp(term_bad, "bad") && !strcmp(term_good, "good")) {
-			fprintf(stderr, "The merge base %s is bad.\n"
+			fprintf(stderr, _("The merge base %s is bad.\n"
 				"This means the bug has been fixed "
-				"between %s and [%s].\n",
+				"between %s and [%s].\n"),
 				bad_hex, bad_hex, good_hex);
 		} else if (!strcmp(term_bad, "new") && !strcmp(term_good, "old")) {
-			fprintf(stderr, "The merge base %s is new.\n"
+			fprintf(stderr, _("The merge base %s is new.\n"
 				"The property has changed "
-				"between %s and [%s].\n",
+				"between %s and [%s].\n"),
 				bad_hex, bad_hex, good_hex);
 		} else {
-			fprintf(stderr, "The merge base %s is %s.\n"
+			fprintf(stderr, _("The merge base %s is %s.\n"
 				"This means the first '%s' commit is "
-				"between %s and [%s].\n",
+				"between %s and [%s].\n"),
 				bad_hex, term_bad, term_good, bad_hex, good_hex);
 		}
 		exit(3);
 	}
 
-	fprintf(stderr, "Some %s revs are not ancestor of the %s rev.\n"
+	fprintf(stderr, _("Some %s revs are not ancestor of the %s rev.\n"
 		"git bisect cannot work properly in this case.\n"
-		"Maybe you mistook %s and %s revs?\n",
+		"Maybe you mistook %s and %s revs?\n"),
 		term_good, term_bad, term_good, term_bad);
 	exit(1);
 }
@@ -754,14 +757,14 @@
 static void handle_skipped_merge_base(const unsigned char *mb)
 {
 	char *mb_hex = sha1_to_hex(mb);
-	char *bad_hex = sha1_to_hex(current_bad_oid->hash);
+	char *bad_hex = oid_to_hex(current_bad_oid);
 	char *good_hex = join_sha1_array_hex(&good_revs, ' ');
 
-	warning("the merge base between %s and [%s] "
+	warning(_("the merge base between %s and [%s] "
 		"must be skipped.\n"
 		"So we cannot be sure the first %s commit is "
 		"between %s and %s.\n"
-		"We continue anyway.",
+		"We continue anyway."),
 		bad_hex, good_hex, term_bad, mb_hex, bad_hex);
 	free(good_hex);
 }
@@ -792,7 +795,7 @@
 		} else if (0 <= sha1_array_lookup(&skipped_revs, mb)) {
 			handle_skipped_merge_base(mb);
 		} else {
-			printf("Bisecting: a merge base must be tested\n");
+			printf(_("Bisecting: a merge base must be tested\n"));
 			exit(bisect_checkout(mb, no_checkout));
 		}
 	}
@@ -843,7 +846,7 @@
 	int fd;
 
 	if (!current_bad_oid)
-		die("a %s revision is needed", term_bad);
+		die(_("a %s revision is needed"), term_bad);
 
 	/* Check if file BISECT_ANCESTORS_OK exists. */
 	if (!stat(filename, &st) && S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
@@ -860,8 +863,8 @@
 	/* Create file BISECT_ANCESTORS_OK. */
 	fd = open(filename, O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_WRONLY, 0600);
 	if (fd < 0)
-		warning("could not create file '%s': %s",
-			filename, strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno(_("could not create file '%s'"),
+			      filename);
 	else
 		close(fd);
  done:
@@ -890,6 +893,7 @@
 	if (!opt.diffopt.output_format)
 		opt.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_RAW;
 
+	setup_revisions(0, NULL, &opt, NULL);
 	log_tree_commit(&opt, commit);
 }
 
@@ -910,8 +914,7 @@
 			*read_good = "good";
 			return;
 		} else {
-			die("could not read file '%s': %s", filename,
-				strerror(errno));
+			die_errno(_("could not read file '%s'"), filename);
 		}
 	} else {
 		strbuf_getline_lf(&str, fp);
@@ -937,10 +940,11 @@
 	struct commit_list *tried;
 	int reaches = 0, all = 0, nr, steps;
 	const unsigned char *bisect_rev;
+	char steps_msg[32];
 
 	read_bisect_terms(&term_bad, &term_good);
 	if (read_bisect_refs())
-		die("reading bisect refs failed");
+		die(_("reading bisect refs failed"));
 
 	check_good_are_ancestors_of_bad(prefix, no_checkout);
 
@@ -960,7 +964,7 @@
 		 */
 		exit_if_skipped_commits(tried, NULL);
 
-		printf("%s was both %s and %s\n",
+		printf(_("%s was both %s and %s\n"),
 		       oid_to_hex(current_bad_oid),
 		       term_good,
 		       term_bad);
@@ -968,8 +972,8 @@
 	}
 
 	if (!all) {
-		fprintf(stderr, "No testable commit found.\n"
-			"Maybe you started with bad path parameters?\n");
+		fprintf(stderr, _("No testable commit found.\n"
+			"Maybe you started with bad path parameters?\n"));
 		exit(4);
 	}
 
@@ -986,9 +990,14 @@
 
 	nr = all - reaches - 1;
 	steps = estimate_bisect_steps(all);
-	printf("Bisecting: %d revision%s left to test after this "
-	       "(roughly %d step%s)\n", nr, (nr == 1 ? "" : "s"),
-	       steps, (steps == 1 ? "" : "s"));
+	xsnprintf(steps_msg, sizeof(steps_msg),
+		  Q_("(roughly %d step)", "(roughly %d steps)", steps),
+		  steps);
+	/* TRANSLATORS: the last %s will be replaced with
+	   "(roughly %d steps)" translation */
+	printf(Q_("Bisecting: %d revision left to test after this %s\n",
+		  "Bisecting: %d revisions left to test after this %s\n",
+		  nr), nr, steps_msg);
 
 	return bisect_checkout(bisect_rev, no_checkout);
 }
diff --git a/branch.c b/branch.c
index 4162443..a5a8dcb 100644
--- a/branch.c
+++ b/branch.c
@@ -334,15 +334,16 @@
 	unlink(git_path_squash_msg());
 }
 
-void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch)
+void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch, int ignore_current_worktree)
 {
-	char *existing;
+	const struct worktree *wt;
 
-	existing = find_shared_symref("HEAD", branch);
-	if (existing) {
-		skip_prefix(branch, "refs/heads/", &branch);
-		die(_("'%s' is already checked out at '%s'"), branch, existing);
-	}
+	wt = find_shared_symref("HEAD", branch);
+	if (!wt || (ignore_current_worktree && wt->is_current))
+		return;
+	skip_prefix(branch, "refs/heads/", &branch);
+	die(_("'%s' is already checked out at '%s'"),
+	    branch, wt->path);
 }
 
 int replace_each_worktree_head_symref(const char *oldref, const char *newref)
@@ -357,7 +358,8 @@
 		if (strcmp(oldref, worktrees[i]->head_ref))
 			continue;
 
-		if (set_worktree_head_symref(worktrees[i]->git_dir, newref)) {
+		if (set_worktree_head_symref(get_worktree_git_dir(worktrees[i]),
+					     newref)) {
 			ret = -1;
 			error(_("HEAD of working tree %s is not updated"),
 			      worktrees[i]->path);
diff --git a/branch.h b/branch.h
index d69163d..b2f9649 100644
--- a/branch.h
+++ b/branch.h
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@
  * worktree and die (with a message describing its checkout location) if
  * it is.
  */
-extern void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch);
+extern void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch, int ignore_current_worktree);
 
 /*
  * Update all per-worktree HEADs pointing at the old ref to point the new ref.
diff --git a/builtin/add.c b/builtin/add.c
index 145f06e..e8fb80b 100644
--- a/builtin/add.c
+++ b/builtin/add.c
@@ -30,6 +30,21 @@
 	int add_errors;
 };
 
+static void chmod_pathspec(struct pathspec *pathspec, int force_mode)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < active_nr; i++) {
+		struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[i];
+
+		if (pathspec && !ce_path_match(ce, pathspec, NULL))
+			continue;
+
+		if (chmod_cache_entry(ce, force_mode) < 0)
+			fprintf(stderr, "cannot chmod '%s'", ce->name);
+	}
+}
+
 static int fix_unmerged_status(struct diff_filepair *p,
 			       struct update_callback_data *data)
 {
@@ -65,7 +80,7 @@
 			die(_("unexpected diff status %c"), p->status);
 		case DIFF_STATUS_MODIFIED:
 		case DIFF_STATUS_TYPE_CHANGED:
-			if (add_file_to_index(&the_index, path, data->flags)) {
+			if (add_file_to_index(&the_index, path,	data->flags)) {
 				if (!(data->flags & ADD_CACHE_IGNORE_ERRORS))
 					die(_("updating files failed"));
 				data->add_errors++;
@@ -238,6 +253,8 @@
 static int addremove = ADDREMOVE_DEFAULT;
 static int addremove_explicit = -1; /* unspecified */
 
+static char *chmod_arg;
+
 static int ignore_removal_cb(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
 {
 	/* if we are told to ignore, we are not adding removals */
@@ -263,6 +280,7 @@
 	OPT_BOOL( 0 , "refresh", &refresh_only, N_("don't add, only refresh the index")),
 	OPT_BOOL( 0 , "ignore-errors", &ignore_add_errors, N_("just skip files which cannot be added because of errors")),
 	OPT_BOOL( 0 , "ignore-missing", &ignore_missing, N_("check if - even missing - files are ignored in dry run")),
+	OPT_STRING( 0 , "chmod", &chmod_arg, N_("(+/-)x"), N_("override the executable bit of the listed files")),
 	OPT_END(),
 };
 
@@ -289,7 +307,7 @@
 	}
 
 	for (i = 0; i < dir->nr; i++)
-		if (add_file_to_cache(dir->entries[i]->name, flags)) {
+		if (add_file_to_index(&the_index, dir->entries[i]->name, flags)) {
 			if (!ignore_add_errors)
 				die(_("adding files failed"));
 			exit_status = 1;
@@ -336,6 +354,10 @@
 	if (!show_only && ignore_missing)
 		die(_("Option --ignore-missing can only be used together with --dry-run"));
 
+	if (chmod_arg && ((chmod_arg[0] != '-' && chmod_arg[0] != '+') ||
+			  chmod_arg[1] != 'x' || chmod_arg[2]))
+		die(_("--chmod param '%s' must be either -x or +x"), chmod_arg);
+
 	add_new_files = !take_worktree_changes && !refresh_only;
 	require_pathspec = !(take_worktree_changes || (0 < addremove_explicit));
 
@@ -431,6 +453,8 @@
 	if (add_new_files)
 		exit_status |= add_files(&dir, flags);
 
+	if (chmod_arg && pathspec.nr)
+		chmod_pathspec(&pathspec, chmod_arg[0]);
 	unplug_bulk_checkin();
 
 finish:
diff --git a/builtin/am.c b/builtin/am.c
index d003939..9e2ae5c 100644
--- a/builtin/am.c
+++ b/builtin/am.c
@@ -70,7 +70,8 @@
 	PATCH_FORMAT_MBOX,
 	PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT,
 	PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT_SERIES,
-	PATCH_FORMAT_HG
+	PATCH_FORMAT_HG,
+	PATCH_FORMAT_MBOXRD
 };
 
 enum keep_type {
@@ -183,22 +184,22 @@
 /**
  * For convenience to call write_file()
  */
-static int write_state_text(const struct am_state *state,
-			    const char *name, const char *string)
+static void write_state_text(const struct am_state *state,
+			     const char *name, const char *string)
 {
-	return write_file(am_path(state, name), "%s", string);
+	write_file(am_path(state, name), "%s", string);
 }
 
-static int write_state_count(const struct am_state *state,
+static void write_state_count(const struct am_state *state,
+			      const char *name, int value)
+{
+	write_file(am_path(state, name), "%d", value);
+}
+
+static void write_state_bool(const struct am_state *state,
 			     const char *name, int value)
 {
-	return write_file(am_path(state, name), "%d", value);
-}
-
-static int write_state_bool(const struct am_state *state,
-			    const char *name, int value)
-{
-	return write_state_text(state, name, value ? "t" : "f");
+	write_state_text(state, name, value ? "t" : "f");
 }
 
 /**
@@ -402,13 +403,8 @@
  */
 static void write_commit_msg(const struct am_state *state)
 {
-	int fd;
 	const char *filename = am_path(state, "final-commit");
-
-	fd = xopen(filename, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT, 0666);
-	if (write_in_full(fd, state->msg, state->msg_len) < 0)
-		die_errno(_("could not write to %s"), filename);
-	close(fd);
+	write_file_buf(filename, state->msg, state->msg_len);
 }
 
 /**
@@ -712,7 +708,8 @@
  * Splits out individual email patches from `paths`, where each path is either
  * a mbox file or a Maildir. Returns 0 on success, -1 on failure.
  */
-static int split_mail_mbox(struct am_state *state, const char **paths, int keep_cr)
+static int split_mail_mbox(struct am_state *state, const char **paths,
+				int keep_cr, int mboxrd)
 {
 	struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
 	struct strbuf last = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -724,6 +721,8 @@
 	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "-b");
 	if (keep_cr)
 		argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--keep-cr");
+	if (mboxrd)
+		argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--mboxrd");
 	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--");
 	argv_array_pushv(&cp.args, paths);
 
@@ -769,15 +768,15 @@
 			in = fopen(*paths, "r");
 
 		if (!in)
-			return error(_("could not open '%s' for reading: %s"),
-					*paths, strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno(_("could not open '%s' for reading"),
+					   *paths);
 
 		mail = mkpath("%s/%0*d", state->dir, state->prec, i + 1);
 
 		out = fopen(mail, "w");
 		if (!out)
-			return error(_("could not open '%s' for writing: %s"),
-					mail, strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno(_("could not open '%s' for writing"),
+					   mail);
 
 		ret = fn(out, in, keep_cr);
 
@@ -857,8 +856,7 @@
 
 	fp = fopen(*paths, "r");
 	if (!fp)
-		return error(_("could not open '%s' for reading: %s"), *paths,
-				strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("could not open '%s' for reading"), *paths);
 
 	while (!strbuf_getline_lf(&sb, fp)) {
 		if (*sb.buf == '#')
@@ -966,13 +964,15 @@
 
 	switch (patch_format) {
 	case PATCH_FORMAT_MBOX:
-		return split_mail_mbox(state, paths, keep_cr);
+		return split_mail_mbox(state, paths, keep_cr, 0);
 	case PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT:
 		return split_mail_conv(stgit_patch_to_mail, state, paths, keep_cr);
 	case PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT_SERIES:
 		return split_mail_stgit_series(state, paths, keep_cr);
 	case PATCH_FORMAT_HG:
 		return split_mail_conv(hg_patch_to_mail, state, paths, keep_cr);
+	case PATCH_FORMAT_MBOXRD:
+		return split_mail_mbox(state, paths, keep_cr, 1);
 	default:
 		die("BUG: invalid patch_format");
 	}
@@ -1579,47 +1579,18 @@
 }
 
 /**
- * Do the three-way merge using fake ancestor, his tree constructed
- * from the fake ancestor and the postimage of the patch, and our
- * state.
- */
-static int run_fallback_merge_recursive(const struct am_state *state,
-					unsigned char *orig_tree,
-					unsigned char *our_tree,
-					unsigned char *his_tree)
-{
-	struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
-	int status;
-
-	cp.git_cmd = 1;
-
-	argv_array_pushf(&cp.env_array, "GITHEAD_%s=%.*s",
-			 sha1_to_hex(his_tree), linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
-	if (state->quiet)
-		argv_array_push(&cp.env_array, "GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY=0");
-
-	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "merge-recursive");
-	argv_array_push(&cp.args, sha1_to_hex(orig_tree));
-	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--");
-	argv_array_push(&cp.args, sha1_to_hex(our_tree));
-	argv_array_push(&cp.args, sha1_to_hex(his_tree));
-
-	status = run_command(&cp) ? (-1) : 0;
-	discard_cache();
-	read_cache();
-	return status;
-}
-
-/**
  * Attempt a threeway merge, using index_path as the temporary index.
  */
 static int fall_back_threeway(const struct am_state *state, const char *index_path)
 {
-	unsigned char orig_tree[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ], his_tree[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ],
-		      our_tree[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+	struct object_id orig_tree, their_tree, our_tree;
+	const struct object_id *bases[1] = { &orig_tree };
+	struct merge_options o;
+	struct commit *result;
+	char *their_tree_name;
 
-	if (get_sha1("HEAD", our_tree) < 0)
-		hashcpy(our_tree, EMPTY_TREE_SHA1_BIN);
+	if (get_oid("HEAD", &our_tree) < 0)
+		hashcpy(our_tree.hash, EMPTY_TREE_SHA1_BIN);
 
 	if (build_fake_ancestor(state, index_path))
 		return error("could not build fake ancestor");
@@ -1627,7 +1598,7 @@
 	discard_cache();
 	read_cache_from(index_path);
 
-	if (write_index_as_tree(orig_tree, &the_index, index_path, 0, NULL))
+	if (write_index_as_tree(orig_tree.hash, &the_index, index_path, 0, NULL))
 		return error(_("Repository lacks necessary blobs to fall back on 3-way merge."));
 
 	say(state, stdout, _("Using index info to reconstruct a base tree..."));
@@ -1643,7 +1614,7 @@
 		init_revisions(&rev_info, NULL);
 		rev_info.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_NAME_STATUS;
 		diff_opt_parse(&rev_info.diffopt, &diff_filter_str, 1, rev_info.prefix);
-		add_pending_sha1(&rev_info, "HEAD", our_tree, 0);
+		add_pending_sha1(&rev_info, "HEAD", our_tree.hash, 0);
 		diff_setup_done(&rev_info.diffopt);
 		run_diff_index(&rev_info, 1);
 	}
@@ -1652,7 +1623,7 @@
 		return error(_("Did you hand edit your patch?\n"
 				"It does not apply to blobs recorded in its index."));
 
-	if (write_index_as_tree(his_tree, &the_index, index_path, 0, NULL))
+	if (write_index_as_tree(their_tree.hash, &the_index, index_path, 0, NULL))
 		return error("could not write tree");
 
 	say(state, stdout, _("Falling back to patching base and 3-way merge..."));
@@ -1662,17 +1633,28 @@
 
 	/*
 	 * This is not so wrong. Depending on which base we picked, orig_tree
-	 * may be wildly different from ours, but his_tree has the same set of
+	 * may be wildly different from ours, but their_tree has the same set of
 	 * wildly different changes in parts the patch did not touch, so
 	 * recursive ends up canceling them, saying that we reverted all those
 	 * changes.
 	 */
 
-	if (run_fallback_merge_recursive(state, orig_tree, our_tree, his_tree)) {
+	init_merge_options(&o);
+
+	o.branch1 = "HEAD";
+	their_tree_name = xstrfmt("%.*s", linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
+	o.branch2 = their_tree_name;
+
+	if (state->quiet)
+		o.verbosity = 0;
+
+	if (merge_recursive_generic(&o, &our_tree, &their_tree, 1, bases, &result)) {
 		rerere(state->allow_rerere_autoupdate);
+		free(their_tree_name);
 		return error(_("Failed to merge in the changes."));
 	}
 
+	free(their_tree_name);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -1840,6 +1822,8 @@
 		const char *mail = am_path(state, msgnum(state));
 		int apply_status;
 
+		reset_ident_date();
+
 		if (!file_exists(mail))
 			goto next;
 
@@ -2202,6 +2186,8 @@
 		*opt_value = PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT_SERIES;
 	else if (!strcmp(arg, "hg"))
 		*opt_value = PATCH_FORMAT_HG;
+	else if (!strcmp(arg, "mboxrd"))
+		*opt_value = PATCH_FORMAT_MBOXRD;
 	else
 		return error(_("Invalid value for --patch-format: %s"), arg);
 	return 0;
@@ -2236,7 +2222,7 @@
 	int in_progress;
 
 	const char * const usage[] = {
-		N_("git am [<options>] [(<mbox>|<Maildir>)...]"),
+		N_("git am [<options>] [(<mbox> | <Maildir>)...]"),
 		N_("git am [<options>] (--continue | --skip | --abort)"),
 		NULL
 	};
diff --git a/builtin/apply.c b/builtin/apply.c
index ce3b778..1a488f9 100644
--- a/builtin/apply.c
+++ b/builtin/apply.c
@@ -21,132 +21,161 @@
 #include "ll-merge.h"
 #include "rerere.h"
 
-/*
- *  --check turns on checking that the working tree matches the
- *    files that are being modified, but doesn't apply the patch
- *  --stat does just a diffstat, and doesn't actually apply
- *  --numstat does numeric diffstat, and doesn't actually apply
- *  --index-info shows the old and new index info for paths if available.
- *  --index updates the cache as well.
- *  --cached updates only the cache without ever touching the working tree.
- */
-static const char *prefix;
-static int prefix_length = -1;
-static int newfd = -1;
+enum ws_error_action {
+	nowarn_ws_error,
+	warn_on_ws_error,
+	die_on_ws_error,
+	correct_ws_error
+};
 
-static int unidiff_zero;
-static int p_value = 1;
-static int p_value_known;
-static int check_index;
-static int update_index;
-static int cached;
-static int diffstat;
-static int numstat;
-static int summary;
-static int check;
-static int apply = 1;
-static int apply_in_reverse;
-static int apply_with_reject;
-static int apply_verbosely;
-static int allow_overlap;
-static int no_add;
-static int threeway;
-static int unsafe_paths;
-static const char *fake_ancestor;
-static int line_termination = '\n';
-static unsigned int p_context = UINT_MAX;
+
+enum ws_ignore {
+	ignore_ws_none,
+	ignore_ws_change
+};
+
+/*
+ * We need to keep track of how symlinks in the preimage are
+ * manipulated by the patches.  A patch to add a/b/c where a/b
+ * is a symlink should not be allowed to affect the directory
+ * the symlink points at, but if the same patch removes a/b,
+ * it is perfectly fine, as the patch removes a/b to make room
+ * to create a directory a/b so that a/b/c can be created.
+ *
+ * See also "struct string_list symlink_changes" in "struct
+ * apply_state".
+ */
+#define SYMLINK_GOES_AWAY 01
+#define SYMLINK_IN_RESULT 02
+
+struct apply_state {
+	const char *prefix;
+	int prefix_length;
+
+	/* These are lock_file related */
+	struct lock_file *lock_file;
+	int newfd;
+
+	/* These control what gets looked at and modified */
+	int apply; /* this is not a dry-run */
+	int cached; /* apply to the index only */
+	int check; /* preimage must match working tree, don't actually apply */
+	int check_index; /* preimage must match the indexed version */
+	int update_index; /* check_index && apply */
+
+	/* These control cosmetic aspect of the output */
+	int diffstat; /* just show a diffstat, and don't actually apply */
+	int numstat; /* just show a numeric diffstat, and don't actually apply */
+	int summary; /* just report creation, deletion, etc, and don't actually apply */
+
+	/* These boolean parameters control how the apply is done */
+	int allow_overlap;
+	int apply_in_reverse;
+	int apply_with_reject;
+	int apply_verbosely;
+	int no_add;
+	int threeway;
+	int unidiff_zero;
+	int unsafe_paths;
+
+	/* Other non boolean parameters */
+	const char *fake_ancestor;
+	const char *patch_input_file;
+	int line_termination;
+	struct strbuf root;
+	int p_value;
+	int p_value_known;
+	unsigned int p_context;
+
+	/* Exclude and include path parameters */
+	struct string_list limit_by_name;
+	int has_include;
+
+	/* Various "current state" */
+	int linenr; /* current line number */
+	struct string_list symlink_changes; /* we have to track symlinks */
+
+	/*
+	 * For "diff-stat" like behaviour, we keep track of the biggest change
+	 * we've seen, and the longest filename. That allows us to do simple
+	 * scaling.
+	 */
+	int max_change;
+	int max_len;
+
+	/*
+	 * Records filenames that have been touched, in order to handle
+	 * the case where more than one patches touch the same file.
+	 */
+	struct string_list fn_table;
+
+	/* These control whitespace errors */
+	enum ws_error_action ws_error_action;
+	enum ws_ignore ws_ignore_action;
+	const char *whitespace_option;
+	int whitespace_error;
+	int squelch_whitespace_errors;
+	int applied_after_fixing_ws;
+};
+
 static const char * const apply_usage[] = {
 	N_("git apply [<options>] [<patch>...]"),
 	NULL
 };
 
-static enum ws_error_action {
-	nowarn_ws_error,
-	warn_on_ws_error,
-	die_on_ws_error,
-	correct_ws_error
-} ws_error_action = warn_on_ws_error;
-static int whitespace_error;
-static int squelch_whitespace_errors = 5;
-static int applied_after_fixing_ws;
-
-static enum ws_ignore {
-	ignore_ws_none,
-	ignore_ws_change
-} ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_none;
-
-
-static const char *patch_input_file;
-static struct strbuf root = STRBUF_INIT;
-static int read_stdin = 1;
-static int options;
-
-static void parse_whitespace_option(const char *option)
+static void parse_whitespace_option(struct apply_state *state, const char *option)
 {
 	if (!option) {
-		ws_error_action = warn_on_ws_error;
+		state->ws_error_action = warn_on_ws_error;
 		return;
 	}
 	if (!strcmp(option, "warn")) {
-		ws_error_action = warn_on_ws_error;
+		state->ws_error_action = warn_on_ws_error;
 		return;
 	}
 	if (!strcmp(option, "nowarn")) {
-		ws_error_action = nowarn_ws_error;
+		state->ws_error_action = nowarn_ws_error;
 		return;
 	}
 	if (!strcmp(option, "error")) {
-		ws_error_action = die_on_ws_error;
+		state->ws_error_action = die_on_ws_error;
 		return;
 	}
 	if (!strcmp(option, "error-all")) {
-		ws_error_action = die_on_ws_error;
-		squelch_whitespace_errors = 0;
+		state->ws_error_action = die_on_ws_error;
+		state->squelch_whitespace_errors = 0;
 		return;
 	}
 	if (!strcmp(option, "strip") || !strcmp(option, "fix")) {
-		ws_error_action = correct_ws_error;
+		state->ws_error_action = correct_ws_error;
 		return;
 	}
 	die(_("unrecognized whitespace option '%s'"), option);
 }
 
-static void parse_ignorewhitespace_option(const char *option)
+static void parse_ignorewhitespace_option(struct apply_state *state,
+					  const char *option)
 {
 	if (!option || !strcmp(option, "no") ||
 	    !strcmp(option, "false") || !strcmp(option, "never") ||
 	    !strcmp(option, "none")) {
-		ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_none;
+		state->ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_none;
 		return;
 	}
 	if (!strcmp(option, "change")) {
-		ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_change;
+		state->ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_change;
 		return;
 	}
 	die(_("unrecognized whitespace ignore option '%s'"), option);
 }
 
-static void set_default_whitespace_mode(const char *whitespace_option)
+static void set_default_whitespace_mode(struct apply_state *state)
 {
-	if (!whitespace_option && !apply_default_whitespace)
-		ws_error_action = (apply ? warn_on_ws_error : nowarn_ws_error);
+	if (!state->whitespace_option && !apply_default_whitespace)
+		state->ws_error_action = (state->apply ? warn_on_ws_error : nowarn_ws_error);
 }
 
 /*
- * For "diff-stat" like behaviour, we keep track of the biggest change
- * we've seen, and the longest filename. That allows us to do simple
- * scaling.
- */
-static int max_change, max_len;
-
-/*
- * Various "current state", notably line numbers and what
- * file (and how) we're patching right now.. The "is_xxxx"
- * things are flags, where -1 means "don't know yet".
- */
-static int linenr = 1;
-
-/*
  * This represents one "hunk" from a patch, starting with
  * "@@ -oldpos,oldlines +newpos,newlines @@" marker.  The
  * patch text is pointed at by patch, and its byte length
@@ -265,13 +294,6 @@
 	struct line *line;
 };
 
-/*
- * Records filenames that have been touched, in order to handle
- * the case where more than one patches touch the same file.
- */
-
-static struct string_list fn_table;
-
 static uint32_t hash_line(const char *cp, size_t len)
 {
 	size_t i;
@@ -442,7 +464,7 @@
 #define TERM_SPACE	1
 #define TERM_TAB	2
 
-static int name_terminate(const char *name, int namelen, int c, int terminate)
+static int name_terminate(int c, int terminate)
 {
 	if (c == ' ' && !(terminate & TERM_SPACE))
 		return 0;
@@ -469,7 +491,10 @@
 	return name;
 }
 
-static char *find_name_gnu(const char *line, const char *def, int p_value)
+static char *find_name_gnu(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *line,
+			   const char *def,
+			   int p_value)
 {
 	struct strbuf name = STRBUF_INIT;
 	char *cp;
@@ -493,8 +518,8 @@
 	}
 
 	strbuf_remove(&name, 0, cp - name.buf);
-	if (root.len)
-		strbuf_insert(&name, 0, root.buf, root.len);
+	if (state->root.len)
+		strbuf_insert(&name, 0, state->root.buf, state->root.len);
 	return squash_slash(strbuf_detach(&name, NULL));
 }
 
@@ -657,8 +682,12 @@
 	return line + len - end;
 }
 
-static char *find_name_common(const char *line, const char *def,
-			      int p_value, const char *end, int terminate)
+static char *find_name_common(struct apply_state *state,
+			      const char *line,
+			      const char *def,
+			      int p_value,
+			      const char *end,
+			      int terminate)
 {
 	int len;
 	const char *start = NULL;
@@ -671,7 +700,7 @@
 		if (!end && isspace(c)) {
 			if (c == '\n')
 				break;
-			if (name_terminate(start, line-start, c, terminate))
+			if (name_terminate(c, terminate))
 				break;
 		}
 		line++;
@@ -696,32 +725,39 @@
 			return squash_slash(xstrdup(def));
 	}
 
-	if (root.len) {
-		char *ret = xstrfmt("%s%.*s", root.buf, len, start);
+	if (state->root.len) {
+		char *ret = xstrfmt("%s%.*s", state->root.buf, len, start);
 		return squash_slash(ret);
 	}
 
 	return squash_slash(xmemdupz(start, len));
 }
 
-static char *find_name(const char *line, char *def, int p_value, int terminate)
+static char *find_name(struct apply_state *state,
+		       const char *line,
+		       char *def,
+		       int p_value,
+		       int terminate)
 {
 	if (*line == '"') {
-		char *name = find_name_gnu(line, def, p_value);
+		char *name = find_name_gnu(state, line, def, p_value);
 		if (name)
 			return name;
 	}
 
-	return find_name_common(line, def, p_value, NULL, terminate);
+	return find_name_common(state, line, def, p_value, NULL, terminate);
 }
 
-static char *find_name_traditional(const char *line, char *def, int p_value)
+static char *find_name_traditional(struct apply_state *state,
+				   const char *line,
+				   char *def,
+				   int p_value)
 {
 	size_t len;
 	size_t date_len;
 
 	if (*line == '"') {
-		char *name = find_name_gnu(line, def, p_value);
+		char *name = find_name_gnu(state, line, def, p_value);
 		if (name)
 			return name;
 	}
@@ -729,10 +765,10 @@
 	len = strchrnul(line, '\n') - line;
 	date_len = diff_timestamp_len(line, len);
 	if (!date_len)
-		return find_name_common(line, def, p_value, NULL, TERM_TAB);
+		return find_name_common(state, line, def, p_value, NULL, TERM_TAB);
 	len -= date_len;
 
-	return find_name_common(line, def, p_value, line + len, 0);
+	return find_name_common(state, line, def, p_value, line + len, 0);
 }
 
 static int count_slashes(const char *cp)
@@ -750,30 +786,30 @@
  * Given the string after "--- " or "+++ ", guess the appropriate
  * p_value for the given patch.
  */
-static int guess_p_value(const char *nameline)
+static int guess_p_value(struct apply_state *state, const char *nameline)
 {
 	char *name, *cp;
 	int val = -1;
 
 	if (is_dev_null(nameline))
 		return -1;
-	name = find_name_traditional(nameline, NULL, 0);
+	name = find_name_traditional(state, nameline, NULL, 0);
 	if (!name)
 		return -1;
 	cp = strchr(name, '/');
 	if (!cp)
 		val = 0;
-	else if (prefix) {
+	else if (state->prefix) {
 		/*
 		 * Does it begin with "a/$our-prefix" and such?  Then this is
 		 * very likely to apply to our directory.
 		 */
-		if (!strncmp(name, prefix, prefix_length))
-			val = count_slashes(prefix);
+		if (!strncmp(name, state->prefix, state->prefix_length))
+			val = count_slashes(state->prefix);
 		else {
 			cp++;
-			if (!strncmp(cp, prefix, prefix_length))
-				val = count_slashes(prefix) + 1;
+			if (!strncmp(cp, state->prefix, state->prefix_length))
+				val = count_slashes(state->prefix) + 1;
 		}
 	}
 	free(name);
@@ -860,36 +896,39 @@
  * files, we can happily check the index for a match, but for creating a
  * new file we should try to match whatever "patch" does. I have no idea.
  */
-static void parse_traditional_patch(const char *first, const char *second, struct patch *patch)
+static void parse_traditional_patch(struct apply_state *state,
+				    const char *first,
+				    const char *second,
+				    struct patch *patch)
 {
 	char *name;
 
 	first += 4;	/* skip "--- " */
 	second += 4;	/* skip "+++ " */
-	if (!p_value_known) {
+	if (!state->p_value_known) {
 		int p, q;
-		p = guess_p_value(first);
-		q = guess_p_value(second);
+		p = guess_p_value(state, first);
+		q = guess_p_value(state, second);
 		if (p < 0) p = q;
 		if (0 <= p && p == q) {
-			p_value = p;
-			p_value_known = 1;
+			state->p_value = p;
+			state->p_value_known = 1;
 		}
 	}
 	if (is_dev_null(first)) {
 		patch->is_new = 1;
 		patch->is_delete = 0;
-		name = find_name_traditional(second, NULL, p_value);
+		name = find_name_traditional(state, second, NULL, state->p_value);
 		patch->new_name = name;
 	} else if (is_dev_null(second)) {
 		patch->is_new = 0;
 		patch->is_delete = 1;
-		name = find_name_traditional(first, NULL, p_value);
+		name = find_name_traditional(state, first, NULL, state->p_value);
 		patch->old_name = name;
 	} else {
 		char *first_name;
-		first_name = find_name_traditional(first, NULL, p_value);
-		name = find_name_traditional(second, first_name, p_value);
+		first_name = find_name_traditional(state, first, NULL, state->p_value);
+		name = find_name_traditional(state, second, first_name, state->p_value);
 		free(first_name);
 		if (has_epoch_timestamp(first)) {
 			patch->is_new = 1;
@@ -905,10 +944,12 @@
 		}
 	}
 	if (!name)
-		die(_("unable to find filename in patch at line %d"), linenr);
+		die(_("unable to find filename in patch at line %d"), state->linenr);
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_hdrend(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_hdrend(struct apply_state *state,
+			  const char *line,
+			  struct patch *patch)
 {
 	return -1;
 }
@@ -925,107 +966,135 @@
 #define DIFF_OLD_NAME 0
 #define DIFF_NEW_NAME 1
 
-static char *gitdiff_verify_name(const char *line, int isnull, char *orig_name, int side)
+static void gitdiff_verify_name(struct apply_state *state,
+				const char *line,
+				int isnull,
+				char **name,
+				int side)
 {
-	if (!orig_name && !isnull)
-		return find_name(line, NULL, p_value, TERM_TAB);
+	if (!*name && !isnull) {
+		*name = find_name(state, line, NULL, state->p_value, TERM_TAB);
+		return;
+	}
 
-	if (orig_name) {
-		int len = strlen(orig_name);
+	if (*name) {
+		int len = strlen(*name);
 		char *another;
 		if (isnull)
 			die(_("git apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null, got %s on line %d"),
-			    orig_name, linenr);
-		another = find_name(line, NULL, p_value, TERM_TAB);
-		if (!another || memcmp(another, orig_name, len + 1))
+			    *name, state->linenr);
+		another = find_name(state, line, NULL, state->p_value, TERM_TAB);
+		if (!another || memcmp(another, *name, len + 1))
 			die((side == DIFF_NEW_NAME) ?
 			    _("git apply: bad git-diff - inconsistent new filename on line %d") :
-			    _("git apply: bad git-diff - inconsistent old filename on line %d"), linenr);
+			    _("git apply: bad git-diff - inconsistent old filename on line %d"), state->linenr);
 		free(another);
-		return orig_name;
 	} else {
 		/* expect "/dev/null" */
 		if (memcmp("/dev/null", line, 9) || line[9] != '\n')
-			die(_("git apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null on line %d"), linenr);
-		return NULL;
+			die(_("git apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null on line %d"), state->linenr);
 	}
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_oldname(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_oldname(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *line,
+			   struct patch *patch)
 {
-	patch->old_name = gitdiff_verify_name(line, patch->is_new, patch->old_name,
-					      DIFF_OLD_NAME);
+	gitdiff_verify_name(state, line,
+			    patch->is_new, &patch->old_name,
+			    DIFF_OLD_NAME);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_newname(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_newname(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *line,
+			   struct patch *patch)
 {
-	patch->new_name = gitdiff_verify_name(line, patch->is_delete, patch->new_name,
-					      DIFF_NEW_NAME);
+	gitdiff_verify_name(state, line,
+			    patch->is_delete, &patch->new_name,
+			    DIFF_NEW_NAME);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_oldmode(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_oldmode(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *line,
+			   struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->old_mode = strtoul(line, NULL, 8);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_newmode(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_newmode(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *line,
+			   struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->new_mode = strtoul(line, NULL, 8);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_delete(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_delete(struct apply_state *state,
+			  const char *line,
+			  struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_delete = 1;
 	free(patch->old_name);
 	patch->old_name = xstrdup_or_null(patch->def_name);
-	return gitdiff_oldmode(line, patch);
+	return gitdiff_oldmode(state, line, patch);
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_newfile(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_newfile(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *line,
+			   struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_new = 1;
 	free(patch->new_name);
 	patch->new_name = xstrdup_or_null(patch->def_name);
-	return gitdiff_newmode(line, patch);
+	return gitdiff_newmode(state, line, patch);
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_copysrc(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_copysrc(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *line,
+			   struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_copy = 1;
 	free(patch->old_name);
-	patch->old_name = find_name(line, NULL, p_value ? p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
+	patch->old_name = find_name(state, line, NULL, state->p_value ? state->p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_copydst(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_copydst(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *line,
+			   struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_copy = 1;
 	free(patch->new_name);
-	patch->new_name = find_name(line, NULL, p_value ? p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
+	patch->new_name = find_name(state, line, NULL, state->p_value ? state->p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_renamesrc(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_renamesrc(struct apply_state *state,
+			     const char *line,
+			     struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_rename = 1;
 	free(patch->old_name);
-	patch->old_name = find_name(line, NULL, p_value ? p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
+	patch->old_name = find_name(state, line, NULL, state->p_value ? state->p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_renamedst(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_renamedst(struct apply_state *state,
+			     const char *line,
+			     struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_rename = 1;
 	free(patch->new_name);
-	patch->new_name = find_name(line, NULL, p_value ? p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
+	patch->new_name = find_name(state, line, NULL, state->p_value ? state->p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_similarity(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_similarity(struct apply_state *state,
+			      const char *line,
+			      struct patch *patch)
 {
 	unsigned long val = strtoul(line, NULL, 10);
 	if (val <= 100)
@@ -1033,7 +1102,9 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_dissimilarity(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_dissimilarity(struct apply_state *state,
+				 const char *line,
+				 struct patch *patch)
 {
 	unsigned long val = strtoul(line, NULL, 10);
 	if (val <= 100)
@@ -1041,7 +1112,9 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitdiff_index(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_index(struct apply_state *state,
+			 const char *line,
+			 struct patch *patch)
 {
 	/*
 	 * index line is N hexadecimal, "..", N hexadecimal,
@@ -1078,7 +1151,9 @@
  * This is normal for a diff that doesn't change anything: we'll fall through
  * into the next diff. Tell the parser to break out.
  */
-static int gitdiff_unrecognized(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+static int gitdiff_unrecognized(struct apply_state *state,
+				const char *line,
+				struct patch *patch)
 {
 	return -1;
 }
@@ -1087,15 +1162,17 @@
  * Skip p_value leading components from "line"; as we do not accept
  * absolute paths, return NULL in that case.
  */
-static const char *skip_tree_prefix(const char *line, int llen)
+static const char *skip_tree_prefix(struct apply_state *state,
+				    const char *line,
+				    int llen)
 {
 	int nslash;
 	int i;
 
-	if (!p_value)
+	if (!state->p_value)
 		return (llen && line[0] == '/') ? NULL : line;
 
-	nslash = p_value;
+	nslash = state->p_value;
 	for (i = 0; i < llen; i++) {
 		int ch = line[i];
 		if (ch == '/' && --nslash <= 0)
@@ -1112,7 +1189,9 @@
  * creation or deletion of an empty file.  In any of these cases,
  * both sides are the same name under a/ and b/ respectively.
  */
-static char *git_header_name(const char *line, int llen)
+static char *git_header_name(struct apply_state *state,
+			     const char *line,
+			     int llen)
 {
 	const char *name;
 	const char *second = NULL;
@@ -1130,7 +1209,7 @@
 			goto free_and_fail1;
 
 		/* strip the a/b prefix including trailing slash */
-		cp = skip_tree_prefix(first.buf, first.len);
+		cp = skip_tree_prefix(state, first.buf, first.len);
 		if (!cp)
 			goto free_and_fail1;
 		strbuf_remove(&first, 0, cp - first.buf);
@@ -1147,7 +1226,7 @@
 		if (*second == '"') {
 			if (unquote_c_style(&sp, second, NULL))
 				goto free_and_fail1;
-			cp = skip_tree_prefix(sp.buf, sp.len);
+			cp = skip_tree_prefix(state, sp.buf, sp.len);
 			if (!cp)
 				goto free_and_fail1;
 			/* They must match, otherwise ignore */
@@ -1158,7 +1237,7 @@
 		}
 
 		/* unquoted second */
-		cp = skip_tree_prefix(second, line + llen - second);
+		cp = skip_tree_prefix(state, second, line + llen - second);
 		if (!cp)
 			goto free_and_fail1;
 		if (line + llen - cp != first.len ||
@@ -1173,7 +1252,7 @@
 	}
 
 	/* unquoted first name */
-	name = skip_tree_prefix(line, llen);
+	name = skip_tree_prefix(state, line, llen);
 	if (!name)
 		return NULL;
 
@@ -1189,7 +1268,7 @@
 			if (unquote_c_style(&sp, second, NULL))
 				goto free_and_fail2;
 
-			np = skip_tree_prefix(sp.buf, sp.len);
+			np = skip_tree_prefix(state, sp.buf, sp.len);
 			if (!np)
 				goto free_and_fail2;
 
@@ -1233,7 +1312,7 @@
 			 */
 			if (!name[len + 1])
 				return NULL; /* no postimage name */
-			second = skip_tree_prefix(name + len + 1,
+			second = skip_tree_prefix(state, name + len + 1,
 						  line_len - (len + 1));
 			if (!second)
 				return NULL;
@@ -1249,7 +1328,11 @@
 }
 
 /* Verify that we recognize the lines following a git header */
-static int parse_git_header(const char *line, int len, unsigned int size, struct patch *patch)
+static int parse_git_header(struct apply_state *state,
+			    const char *line,
+			    int len,
+			    unsigned int size,
+			    struct patch *patch)
 {
 	unsigned long offset;
 
@@ -1263,20 +1346,20 @@
 	 * or removing or adding empty files), so we get
 	 * the default name from the header.
 	 */
-	patch->def_name = git_header_name(line, len);
-	if (patch->def_name && root.len) {
-		char *s = xstrfmt("%s%s", root.buf, patch->def_name);
+	patch->def_name = git_header_name(state, line, len);
+	if (patch->def_name && state->root.len) {
+		char *s = xstrfmt("%s%s", state->root.buf, patch->def_name);
 		free(patch->def_name);
 		patch->def_name = s;
 	}
 
 	line += len;
 	size -= len;
-	linenr++;
-	for (offset = len ; size > 0 ; offset += len, size -= len, line += len, linenr++) {
+	state->linenr++;
+	for (offset = len ; size > 0 ; offset += len, size -= len, line += len, state->linenr++) {
 		static const struct opentry {
 			const char *str;
-			int (*fn)(const char *, struct patch *);
+			int (*fn)(struct apply_state *, const char *, struct patch *);
 		} optable[] = {
 			{ "@@ -", gitdiff_hdrend },
 			{ "--- ", gitdiff_oldname },
@@ -1306,7 +1389,7 @@
 			int oplen = strlen(p->str);
 			if (len < oplen || memcmp(p->str, line, oplen))
 				continue;
-			if (p->fn(line + oplen, patch) < 0)
+			if (p->fn(state, line + oplen, patch) < 0)
 				return offset;
 			break;
 		}
@@ -1431,7 +1514,11 @@
 	return offset;
 }
 
-static int find_header(const char *line, unsigned long size, int *hdrsize, struct patch *patch)
+static int find_header(struct apply_state *state,
+		       const char *line,
+		       unsigned long size,
+		       int *hdrsize,
+		       struct patch *patch)
 {
 	unsigned long offset, len;
 
@@ -1440,7 +1527,7 @@
 	patch->is_new = patch->is_delete = -1;
 	patch->old_mode = patch->new_mode = 0;
 	patch->old_name = patch->new_name = NULL;
-	for (offset = 0; size > 0; offset += len, size -= len, line += len, linenr++) {
+	for (offset = 0; size > 0; offset += len, size -= len, line += len, state->linenr++) {
 		unsigned long nextlen;
 
 		len = linelen(line, size);
@@ -1461,7 +1548,7 @@
 			if (parse_fragment_header(line, len, &dummy) < 0)
 				continue;
 			die(_("patch fragment without header at line %d: %.*s"),
-			    linenr, (int)len-1, line);
+			    state->linenr, (int)len-1, line);
 		}
 
 		if (size < len + 6)
@@ -1472,7 +1559,7 @@
 		 * or mode change, so we handle that specially
 		 */
 		if (!memcmp("diff --git ", line, 11)) {
-			int git_hdr_len = parse_git_header(line, len, size, patch);
+			int git_hdr_len = parse_git_header(state, line, len, size, patch);
 			if (git_hdr_len <= len)
 				continue;
 			if (!patch->old_name && !patch->new_name) {
@@ -1481,14 +1568,14 @@
 					       "%d leading pathname component (line %d)",
 					       "git diff header lacks filename information when removing "
 					       "%d leading pathname components (line %d)",
-					       p_value),
-					    p_value, linenr);
+					       state->p_value),
+					    state->p_value, state->linenr);
 				patch->old_name = xstrdup(patch->def_name);
 				patch->new_name = xstrdup(patch->def_name);
 			}
 			if (!patch->is_delete && !patch->new_name)
 				die("git diff header lacks filename information "
-				    "(line %d)", linenr);
+				    "(line %d)", state->linenr);
 			patch->is_toplevel_relative = 1;
 			*hdrsize = git_hdr_len;
 			return offset;
@@ -1508,37 +1595,44 @@
 			continue;
 
 		/* Ok, we'll consider it a patch */
-		parse_traditional_patch(line, line+len, patch);
+		parse_traditional_patch(state, line, line+len, patch);
 		*hdrsize = len + nextlen;
-		linenr += 2;
+		state->linenr += 2;
 		return offset;
 	}
 	return -1;
 }
 
-static void record_ws_error(unsigned result, const char *line, int len, int linenr)
+static void record_ws_error(struct apply_state *state,
+			    unsigned result,
+			    const char *line,
+			    int len,
+			    int linenr)
 {
 	char *err;
 
 	if (!result)
 		return;
 
-	whitespace_error++;
-	if (squelch_whitespace_errors &&
-	    squelch_whitespace_errors < whitespace_error)
+	state->whitespace_error++;
+	if (state->squelch_whitespace_errors &&
+	    state->squelch_whitespace_errors < state->whitespace_error)
 		return;
 
 	err = whitespace_error_string(result);
 	fprintf(stderr, "%s:%d: %s.\n%.*s\n",
-		patch_input_file, linenr, err, len, line);
+		state->patch_input_file, linenr, err, len, line);
 	free(err);
 }
 
-static void check_whitespace(const char *line, int len, unsigned ws_rule)
+static void check_whitespace(struct apply_state *state,
+			     const char *line,
+			     int len,
+			     unsigned ws_rule)
 {
 	unsigned result = ws_check(line + 1, len - 1, ws_rule);
 
-	record_ws_error(result, line + 1, len - 2, linenr);
+	record_ws_error(state, result, line + 1, len - 2, state->linenr);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -1547,8 +1641,11 @@
  * between a "---" that is part of a patch, and a "---" that starts
  * the next patch is to look at the line counts..
  */
-static int parse_fragment(const char *line, unsigned long size,
-			  struct patch *patch, struct fragment *fragment)
+static int parse_fragment(struct apply_state *state,
+			  const char *line,
+			  unsigned long size,
+			  struct patch *patch,
+			  struct fragment *fragment)
 {
 	int added, deleted;
 	int len = linelen(line, size), offset;
@@ -1568,11 +1665,11 @@
 	/* Parse the thing.. */
 	line += len;
 	size -= len;
-	linenr++;
+	state->linenr++;
 	added = deleted = 0;
 	for (offset = len;
 	     0 < size;
-	     offset += len, size -= len, line += len, linenr++) {
+	     offset += len, size -= len, line += len, state->linenr++) {
 		if (!oldlines && !newlines)
 			break;
 		len = linelen(line, size);
@@ -1588,22 +1685,22 @@
 			if (!deleted && !added)
 				leading++;
 			trailing++;
-			if (!apply_in_reverse &&
-			    ws_error_action == correct_ws_error)
-				check_whitespace(line, len, patch->ws_rule);
+			if (!state->apply_in_reverse &&
+			    state->ws_error_action == correct_ws_error)
+				check_whitespace(state, line, len, patch->ws_rule);
 			break;
 		case '-':
-			if (apply_in_reverse &&
-			    ws_error_action != nowarn_ws_error)
-				check_whitespace(line, len, patch->ws_rule);
+			if (state->apply_in_reverse &&
+			    state->ws_error_action != nowarn_ws_error)
+				check_whitespace(state, line, len, patch->ws_rule);
 			deleted++;
 			oldlines--;
 			trailing = 0;
 			break;
 		case '+':
-			if (!apply_in_reverse &&
-			    ws_error_action != nowarn_ws_error)
-				check_whitespace(line, len, patch->ws_rule);
+			if (!state->apply_in_reverse &&
+			    state->ws_error_action != nowarn_ws_error)
+				check_whitespace(state, line, len, patch->ws_rule);
 			added++;
 			newlines--;
 			trailing = 0;
@@ -1657,7 +1754,10 @@
  * The (fragment->patch, fragment->size) pair points into the memory given
  * by the caller, not a copy, when we return.
  */
-static int parse_single_patch(const char *line, unsigned long size, struct patch *patch)
+static int parse_single_patch(struct apply_state *state,
+			      const char *line,
+			      unsigned long size,
+			      struct patch *patch)
 {
 	unsigned long offset = 0;
 	unsigned long oldlines = 0, newlines = 0, context = 0;
@@ -1668,10 +1768,10 @@
 		int len;
 
 		fragment = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*fragment));
-		fragment->linenr = linenr;
-		len = parse_fragment(line, size, patch, fragment);
+		fragment->linenr = state->linenr;
+		len = parse_fragment(state, line, size, patch, fragment);
 		if (len <= 0)
-			die(_("corrupt patch at line %d"), linenr);
+			die(_("corrupt patch at line %d"), state->linenr);
 		fragment->patch = line;
 		fragment->size = len;
 		oldlines += fragment->oldlines;
@@ -1757,7 +1857,8 @@
  * points at an allocated memory that the caller must free, so
  * it is marked as "->free_patch = 1".
  */
-static struct fragment *parse_binary_hunk(char **buf_p,
+static struct fragment *parse_binary_hunk(struct apply_state *state,
+					  char **buf_p,
 					  unsigned long *sz_p,
 					  int *status_p,
 					  int *used_p)
@@ -1799,13 +1900,13 @@
 	else
 		return NULL;
 
-	linenr++;
+	state->linenr++;
 	buffer += llen;
 	while (1) {
 		int byte_length, max_byte_length, newsize;
 		llen = linelen(buffer, size);
 		used += llen;
-		linenr++;
+		state->linenr++;
 		if (llen == 1) {
 			/* consume the blank line */
 			buffer++;
@@ -1859,7 +1960,7 @@
 	free(data);
 	*status_p = -1;
 	error(_("corrupt binary patch at line %d: %.*s"),
-	      linenr-1, llen-1, buffer);
+	      state->linenr-1, llen-1, buffer);
 	return NULL;
 }
 
@@ -1868,7 +1969,10 @@
  *   -1 in case of error,
  *   the length of the parsed binary patch otherwise
  */
-static int parse_binary(char *buffer, unsigned long size, struct patch *patch)
+static int parse_binary(struct apply_state *state,
+			char *buffer,
+			unsigned long size,
+			struct patch *patch)
 {
 	/*
 	 * We have read "GIT binary patch\n"; what follows is a line
@@ -1889,15 +1993,15 @@
 	int status;
 	int used, used_1;
 
-	forward = parse_binary_hunk(&buffer, &size, &status, &used);
+	forward = parse_binary_hunk(state, &buffer, &size, &status, &used);
 	if (!forward && !status)
 		/* there has to be one hunk (forward hunk) */
-		return error(_("unrecognized binary patch at line %d"), linenr-1);
+		return error(_("unrecognized binary patch at line %d"), state->linenr-1);
 	if (status)
 		/* otherwise we already gave an error message */
 		return status;
 
-	reverse = parse_binary_hunk(&buffer, &size, &status, &used_1);
+	reverse = parse_binary_hunk(state, &buffer, &size, &status, &used_1);
 	if (reverse)
 		used += used_1;
 	else if (status) {
@@ -1915,53 +2019,53 @@
 	return used;
 }
 
-static void prefix_one(char **name)
+static void prefix_one(struct apply_state *state, char **name)
 {
 	char *old_name = *name;
 	if (!old_name)
 		return;
-	*name = xstrdup(prefix_filename(prefix, prefix_length, *name));
+	*name = xstrdup(prefix_filename(state->prefix, state->prefix_length, *name));
 	free(old_name);
 }
 
-static void prefix_patch(struct patch *p)
+static void prefix_patch(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *p)
 {
-	if (!prefix || p->is_toplevel_relative)
+	if (!state->prefix || p->is_toplevel_relative)
 		return;
-	prefix_one(&p->new_name);
-	prefix_one(&p->old_name);
+	prefix_one(state, &p->new_name);
+	prefix_one(state, &p->old_name);
 }
 
 /*
  * include/exclude
  */
 
-static struct string_list limit_by_name;
-static int has_include;
-static void add_name_limit(const char *name, int exclude)
+static void add_name_limit(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *name,
+			   int exclude)
 {
 	struct string_list_item *it;
 
-	it = string_list_append(&limit_by_name, name);
+	it = string_list_append(&state->limit_by_name, name);
 	it->util = exclude ? NULL : (void *) 1;
 }
 
-static int use_patch(struct patch *p)
+static int use_patch(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *p)
 {
 	const char *pathname = p->new_name ? p->new_name : p->old_name;
 	int i;
 
 	/* Paths outside are not touched regardless of "--include" */
-	if (0 < prefix_length) {
+	if (0 < state->prefix_length) {
 		int pathlen = strlen(pathname);
-		if (pathlen <= prefix_length ||
-		    memcmp(prefix, pathname, prefix_length))
+		if (pathlen <= state->prefix_length ||
+		    memcmp(state->prefix, pathname, state->prefix_length))
 			return 0;
 	}
 
 	/* See if it matches any of exclude/include rule */
-	for (i = 0; i < limit_by_name.nr; i++) {
-		struct string_list_item *it = &limit_by_name.items[i];
+	for (i = 0; i < state->limit_by_name.nr; i++) {
+		struct string_list_item *it = &state->limit_by_name.items[i];
 		if (!wildmatch(it->string, pathname, 0, NULL))
 			return (it->util != NULL);
 	}
@@ -1971,7 +2075,7 @@
 	 * not used.  Otherwise, we saw bunch of exclude rules (or none)
 	 * and such a path is used.
 	 */
-	return !has_include;
+	return !state->has_include;
 }
 
 
@@ -1982,25 +2086,27 @@
  * Return the number of bytes consumed, so that the caller can call us
  * again for the next patch.
  */
-static int parse_chunk(char *buffer, unsigned long size, struct patch *patch)
+static int parse_chunk(struct apply_state *state, char *buffer, unsigned long size, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	int hdrsize, patchsize;
-	int offset = find_header(buffer, size, &hdrsize, patch);
+	int offset = find_header(state, buffer, size, &hdrsize, patch);
 
 	if (offset < 0)
 		return offset;
 
-	prefix_patch(patch);
+	prefix_patch(state, patch);
 
-	if (!use_patch(patch))
+	if (!use_patch(state, patch))
 		patch->ws_rule = 0;
 	else
 		patch->ws_rule = whitespace_rule(patch->new_name
 						 ? patch->new_name
 						 : patch->old_name);
 
-	patchsize = parse_single_patch(buffer + offset + hdrsize,
-				       size - offset - hdrsize, patch);
+	patchsize = parse_single_patch(state,
+				       buffer + offset + hdrsize,
+				       size - offset - hdrsize,
+				       patch);
 
 	if (!patchsize) {
 		static const char git_binary[] = "GIT binary patch\n";
@@ -2010,8 +2116,8 @@
 		if (llen == sizeof(git_binary) - 1 &&
 		    !memcmp(git_binary, buffer + hd, llen)) {
 			int used;
-			linenr++;
-			used = parse_binary(buffer + hd + llen,
+			state->linenr++;
+			used = parse_binary(state, buffer + hd + llen,
 					    size - hd - llen, patch);
 			if (used < 0)
 				return -1;
@@ -2031,7 +2137,7 @@
 				int len = strlen(binhdr[i]);
 				if (len < size - hd &&
 				    !memcmp(binhdr[i], buffer + hd, len)) {
-					linenr++;
+					state->linenr++;
 					patch->is_binary = 1;
 					patchsize = llen;
 					break;
@@ -2043,9 +2149,9 @@
 		 * without metadata change.  A binary patch appears
 		 * empty to us here.
 		 */
-		if ((apply || check) &&
+		if ((state->apply || state->check) &&
 		    (!patch->is_binary && !metadata_changes(patch)))
-			die(_("patch with only garbage at line %d"), linenr);
+			die(_("patch with only garbage at line %d"), state->linenr);
 	}
 
 	return offset + hdrsize + patchsize;
@@ -2083,7 +2189,7 @@
 static const char minuses[]=
 "----------------------------------------------------------------------";
 
-static void show_stats(struct patch *patch)
+static void show_stats(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	struct strbuf qname = STRBUF_INIT;
 	char *cp = patch->new_name ? patch->new_name : patch->old_name;
@@ -2094,7 +2200,7 @@
 	/*
 	 * "scale" the filename
 	 */
-	max = max_len;
+	max = state->max_len;
 	if (max > 50)
 		max = 50;
 
@@ -2117,13 +2223,13 @@
 	/*
 	 * scale the add/delete
 	 */
-	max = max + max_change > 70 ? 70 - max : max_change;
+	max = max + state->max_change > 70 ? 70 - max : state->max_change;
 	add = patch->lines_added;
 	del = patch->lines_deleted;
 
-	if (max_change > 0) {
-		int total = ((add + del) * max + max_change / 2) / max_change;
-		add = (add * max + max_change / 2) / max_change;
+	if (state->max_change > 0) {
+		int total = ((add + del) * max + state->max_change / 2) / state->max_change;
+		add = (add * max + state->max_change / 2) / state->max_change;
 		del = total - add;
 	}
 	printf("%5d %.*s%.*s\n", patch->lines_added + patch->lines_deleted,
@@ -2194,17 +2300,17 @@
 	fixed = preimage->buf;
 
 	for (i = reduced = ctx = 0; i < postimage->nr; i++) {
-		size_t len = postimage->line[i].len;
+		size_t l_len = postimage->line[i].len;
 		if (!(postimage->line[i].flag & LINE_COMMON)) {
 			/* an added line -- no counterparts in preimage */
-			memmove(new, old, len);
-			old += len;
-			new += len;
+			memmove(new, old, l_len);
+			old += l_len;
+			new += l_len;
 			continue;
 		}
 
 		/* a common context -- skip it in the original postimage */
-		old += len;
+		old += l_len;
 
 		/* and find the corresponding one in the fixed preimage */
 		while (ctx < preimage->nr &&
@@ -2223,11 +2329,11 @@
 		}
 
 		/* and copy it in, while fixing the line length */
-		len = preimage->line[ctx].len;
-		memcpy(new, fixed, len);
-		new += len;
-		fixed += len;
-		postimage->line[i].len = len;
+		l_len = preimage->line[ctx].len;
+		memcpy(new, fixed, l_len);
+		new += l_len;
+		fixed += l_len;
+		postimage->line[i].len = l_len;
 		ctx++;
 	}
 
@@ -2242,7 +2348,76 @@
 	postimage->nr -= reduced;
 }
 
-static int match_fragment(struct image *img,
+static int line_by_line_fuzzy_match(struct image *img,
+				    struct image *preimage,
+				    struct image *postimage,
+				    unsigned long try,
+				    int try_lno,
+				    int preimage_limit)
+{
+	int i;
+	size_t imgoff = 0;
+	size_t preoff = 0;
+	size_t postlen = postimage->len;
+	size_t extra_chars;
+	char *buf;
+	char *preimage_eof;
+	char *preimage_end;
+	struct strbuf fixed;
+	char *fixed_buf;
+	size_t fixed_len;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < preimage_limit; i++) {
+		size_t prelen = preimage->line[i].len;
+		size_t imglen = img->line[try_lno+i].len;
+
+		if (!fuzzy_matchlines(img->buf + try + imgoff, imglen,
+				      preimage->buf + preoff, prelen))
+			return 0;
+		if (preimage->line[i].flag & LINE_COMMON)
+			postlen += imglen - prelen;
+		imgoff += imglen;
+		preoff += prelen;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Ok, the preimage matches with whitespace fuzz.
+	 *
+	 * imgoff now holds the true length of the target that
+	 * matches the preimage before the end of the file.
+	 *
+	 * Count the number of characters in the preimage that fall
+	 * beyond the end of the file and make sure that all of them
+	 * are whitespace characters. (This can only happen if
+	 * we are removing blank lines at the end of the file.)
+	 */
+	buf = preimage_eof = preimage->buf + preoff;
+	for ( ; i < preimage->nr; i++)
+		preoff += preimage->line[i].len;
+	preimage_end = preimage->buf + preoff;
+	for ( ; buf < preimage_end; buf++)
+		if (!isspace(*buf))
+			return 0;
+
+	/*
+	 * Update the preimage and the common postimage context
+	 * lines to use the same whitespace as the target.
+	 * If whitespace is missing in the target (i.e.
+	 * if the preimage extends beyond the end of the file),
+	 * use the whitespace from the preimage.
+	 */
+	extra_chars = preimage_end - preimage_eof;
+	strbuf_init(&fixed, imgoff + extra_chars);
+	strbuf_add(&fixed, img->buf + try, imgoff);
+	strbuf_add(&fixed, preimage_eof, extra_chars);
+	fixed_buf = strbuf_detach(&fixed, &fixed_len);
+	update_pre_post_images(preimage, postimage,
+			       fixed_buf, fixed_len, postlen);
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static int match_fragment(struct apply_state *state,
+			  struct image *img,
 			  struct image *preimage,
 			  struct image *postimage,
 			  unsigned long try,
@@ -2263,7 +2438,7 @@
 		preimage_limit = preimage->nr;
 		if (match_end && (preimage->nr + try_lno != img->nr))
 			return 0;
-	} else if (ws_error_action == correct_ws_error &&
+	} else if (state->ws_error_action == correct_ws_error &&
 		   (ws_rule & WS_BLANK_AT_EOF)) {
 		/*
 		 * This hunk extends beyond the end of img, and we are
@@ -2331,63 +2506,11 @@
 	 * fuzzy matching. We collect all the line length information because
 	 * we need it to adjust whitespace if we match.
 	 */
-	if (ws_ignore_action == ignore_ws_change) {
-		size_t imgoff = 0;
-		size_t preoff = 0;
-		size_t postlen = postimage->len;
-		size_t extra_chars;
-		char *preimage_eof;
-		char *preimage_end;
-		for (i = 0; i < preimage_limit; i++) {
-			size_t prelen = preimage->line[i].len;
-			size_t imglen = img->line[try_lno+i].len;
+	if (state->ws_ignore_action == ignore_ws_change)
+		return line_by_line_fuzzy_match(img, preimage, postimage,
+						try, try_lno, preimage_limit);
 
-			if (!fuzzy_matchlines(img->buf + try + imgoff, imglen,
-					      preimage->buf + preoff, prelen))
-				return 0;
-			if (preimage->line[i].flag & LINE_COMMON)
-				postlen += imglen - prelen;
-			imgoff += imglen;
-			preoff += prelen;
-		}
-
-		/*
-		 * Ok, the preimage matches with whitespace fuzz.
-		 *
-		 * imgoff now holds the true length of the target that
-		 * matches the preimage before the end of the file.
-		 *
-		 * Count the number of characters in the preimage that fall
-		 * beyond the end of the file and make sure that all of them
-		 * are whitespace characters. (This can only happen if
-		 * we are removing blank lines at the end of the file.)
-		 */
-		buf = preimage_eof = preimage->buf + preoff;
-		for ( ; i < preimage->nr; i++)
-			preoff += preimage->line[i].len;
-		preimage_end = preimage->buf + preoff;
-		for ( ; buf < preimage_end; buf++)
-			if (!isspace(*buf))
-				return 0;
-
-		/*
-		 * Update the preimage and the common postimage context
-		 * lines to use the same whitespace as the target.
-		 * If whitespace is missing in the target (i.e.
-		 * if the preimage extends beyond the end of the file),
-		 * use the whitespace from the preimage.
-		 */
-		extra_chars = preimage_end - preimage_eof;
-		strbuf_init(&fixed, imgoff + extra_chars);
-		strbuf_add(&fixed, img->buf + try, imgoff);
-		strbuf_add(&fixed, preimage_eof, extra_chars);
-		fixed_buf = strbuf_detach(&fixed, &fixed_len);
-		update_pre_post_images(preimage, postimage,
-				fixed_buf, fixed_len, postlen);
-		return 1;
-	}
-
-	if (ws_error_action != correct_ws_error)
+	if (state->ws_error_action != correct_ws_error)
 		return 0;
 
 	/*
@@ -2499,7 +2622,8 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int find_pos(struct image *img,
+static int find_pos(struct apply_state *state,
+		    struct image *img,
 		    struct image *preimage,
 		    struct image *postimage,
 		    int line,
@@ -2543,7 +2667,7 @@
 	try_lno = line;
 
 	for (i = 0; ; i++) {
-		if (match_fragment(img, preimage, postimage,
+		if (match_fragment(state, img, preimage, postimage,
 				   try, try_lno, ws_rule,
 				   match_beginning, match_end))
 			return try_lno;
@@ -2594,7 +2718,8 @@
  * apply at applied_pos (counts in line numbers) in "img".
  * Update "img" to remove "preimage" and replace it with "postimage".
  */
-static void update_image(struct image *img,
+static void update_image(struct apply_state *state,
+			 struct image *img,
 			 int applied_pos,
 			 struct image *preimage,
 			 struct image *postimage)
@@ -2659,7 +2784,7 @@
 	memcpy(img->line + applied_pos,
 	       postimage->line,
 	       postimage->nr * sizeof(*img->line));
-	if (!allow_overlap)
+	if (!state->allow_overlap)
 		for (i = 0; i < postimage->nr; i++)
 			img->line[applied_pos + i].flag |= LINE_PATCHED;
 	img->nr = nr;
@@ -2670,7 +2795,8 @@
  * postimage) for the hunk.  Find lines that match "preimage" in "img" and
  * replace the part of "img" with "postimage" text.
  */
-static int apply_one_fragment(struct image *img, struct fragment *frag,
+static int apply_one_fragment(struct apply_state *state,
+			      struct image *img, struct fragment *frag,
 			      int inaccurate_eof, unsigned ws_rule,
 			      int nth_fragment)
 {
@@ -2715,7 +2841,7 @@
 		if (len < size && patch[len] == '\\')
 			plen--;
 		first = *patch;
-		if (apply_in_reverse) {
+		if (state->apply_in_reverse) {
 			if (first == '-')
 				first = '+';
 			else if (first == '+')
@@ -2748,17 +2874,17 @@
 		/* Fall-through for ' ' */
 		case '+':
 			/* --no-add does not add new lines */
-			if (first == '+' && no_add)
+			if (first == '+' && state->no_add)
 				break;
 
 			start = newlines.len;
 			if (first != '+' ||
-			    !whitespace_error ||
-			    ws_error_action != correct_ws_error) {
+			    !state->whitespace_error ||
+			    state->ws_error_action != correct_ws_error) {
 				strbuf_add(&newlines, patch + 1, plen);
 			}
 			else {
-				ws_fix_copy(&newlines, patch + 1, plen, ws_rule, &applied_after_fixing_ws);
+				ws_fix_copy(&newlines, patch + 1, plen, ws_rule, &state->applied_after_fixing_ws);
 			}
 			add_line_info(&postimage, newlines.buf + start, newlines.len - start,
 				      (first == '+' ? 0 : LINE_COMMON));
@@ -2771,7 +2897,7 @@
 			/* Ignore it, we already handled it */
 			break;
 		default:
-			if (apply_verbosely)
+			if (state->apply_verbosely)
 				error(_("invalid start of line: '%c'"), first);
 			applied_pos = -1;
 			goto out;
@@ -2812,7 +2938,7 @@
 	 * without leading context must match at the beginning.
 	 */
 	match_beginning = (!frag->oldpos ||
-			   (frag->oldpos == 1 && !unidiff_zero));
+			   (frag->oldpos == 1 && !state->unidiff_zero));
 
 	/*
 	 * A hunk without trailing lines must match at the end.
@@ -2820,7 +2946,7 @@
 	 * from the lack of trailing lines if the patch was generated
 	 * with unidiff without any context.
 	 */
-	match_end = !unidiff_zero && !trailing;
+	match_end = !state->unidiff_zero && !trailing;
 
 	pos = frag->newpos ? (frag->newpos - 1) : 0;
 	preimage.buf = oldlines;
@@ -2832,14 +2958,14 @@
 
 	for (;;) {
 
-		applied_pos = find_pos(img, &preimage, &postimage, pos,
+		applied_pos = find_pos(state, img, &preimage, &postimage, pos,
 				       ws_rule, match_beginning, match_end);
 
 		if (applied_pos >= 0)
 			break;
 
 		/* Am I at my context limits? */
-		if ((leading <= p_context) && (trailing <= p_context))
+		if ((leading <= state->p_context) && (trailing <= state->p_context))
 			break;
 		if (match_beginning || match_end) {
 			match_beginning = match_end = 0;
@@ -2868,10 +2994,10 @@
 		if (new_blank_lines_at_end &&
 		    preimage.nr + applied_pos >= img->nr &&
 		    (ws_rule & WS_BLANK_AT_EOF) &&
-		    ws_error_action != nowarn_ws_error) {
-			record_ws_error(WS_BLANK_AT_EOF, "+", 1,
+		    state->ws_error_action != nowarn_ws_error) {
+			record_ws_error(state, WS_BLANK_AT_EOF, "+", 1,
 					found_new_blank_lines_at_end);
-			if (ws_error_action == correct_ws_error) {
+			if (state->ws_error_action == correct_ws_error) {
 				while (new_blank_lines_at_end--)
 					remove_last_line(&postimage);
 			}
@@ -2882,13 +3008,13 @@
 			 * apply_patch->check_patch_list->check_patch->
 			 * apply_data->apply_fragments->apply_one_fragment
 			 */
-			if (ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error)
-				apply = 0;
+			if (state->ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error)
+				state->apply = 0;
 		}
 
-		if (apply_verbosely && applied_pos != pos) {
+		if (state->apply_verbosely && applied_pos != pos) {
 			int offset = applied_pos - pos;
-			if (apply_in_reverse)
+			if (state->apply_in_reverse)
 				offset = 0 - offset;
 			fprintf_ln(stderr,
 				   Q_("Hunk #%d succeeded at %d (offset %d line).",
@@ -2906,9 +3032,9 @@
 			fprintf_ln(stderr, _("Context reduced to (%ld/%ld)"
 					     " to apply fragment at %d"),
 				   leading, trailing, applied_pos+1);
-		update_image(img, applied_pos, &preimage, &postimage);
+		update_image(state, img, applied_pos, &preimage, &postimage);
 	} else {
-		if (apply_verbosely)
+		if (state->apply_verbosely)
 			error(_("while searching for:\n%.*s"),
 			      (int)(old - oldlines), oldlines);
 	}
@@ -2922,7 +3048,9 @@
 	return (applied_pos < 0);
 }
 
-static int apply_binary_fragment(struct image *img, struct patch *patch)
+static int apply_binary_fragment(struct apply_state *state,
+				 struct image *img,
+				 struct patch *patch)
 {
 	struct fragment *fragment = patch->fragments;
 	unsigned long len;
@@ -2935,7 +3063,7 @@
 			     patch->old_name);
 
 	/* Binary patch is irreversible without the optional second hunk */
-	if (apply_in_reverse) {
+	if (state->apply_in_reverse) {
 		if (!fragment->next)
 			return error("cannot reverse-apply a binary patch "
 				     "without the reverse hunk to '%s'",
@@ -2968,7 +3096,9 @@
  * but the preimage prepared by the caller in "img" is freed here
  * or in the helper function apply_binary_fragment() this calls.
  */
-static int apply_binary(struct image *img, struct patch *patch)
+static int apply_binary(struct apply_state *state,
+			struct image *img,
+			struct patch *patch)
 {
 	const char *name = patch->old_name ? patch->old_name : patch->new_name;
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
@@ -3029,7 +3159,7 @@
 		 * apply the patch data to it, which is stored
 		 * in the patch->fragments->{patch,size}.
 		 */
-		if (apply_binary_fragment(img, patch))
+		if (apply_binary_fragment(state, img, patch))
 			return error(_("binary patch does not apply to '%s'"),
 				     name);
 
@@ -3043,7 +3173,7 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int apply_fragments(struct image *img, struct patch *patch)
+static int apply_fragments(struct apply_state *state, struct image *img, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	struct fragment *frag = patch->fragments;
 	const char *name = patch->old_name ? patch->old_name : patch->new_name;
@@ -3052,13 +3182,13 @@
 	int nth = 0;
 
 	if (patch->is_binary)
-		return apply_binary(img, patch);
+		return apply_binary(state, img, patch);
 
 	while (frag) {
 		nth++;
-		if (apply_one_fragment(img, frag, inaccurate_eof, ws_rule, nth)) {
+		if (apply_one_fragment(state, img, frag, inaccurate_eof, ws_rule, nth)) {
 			error(_("patch failed: %s:%ld"), name, frag->oldpos);
-			if (!apply_with_reject)
+			if (!state->apply_with_reject)
 				return -1;
 			frag->rejected = 1;
 		}
@@ -3093,14 +3223,14 @@
 	return read_blob_object(buf, ce->sha1, ce->ce_mode);
 }
 
-static struct patch *in_fn_table(const char *name)
+static struct patch *in_fn_table(struct apply_state *state, const char *name)
 {
 	struct string_list_item *item;
 
 	if (name == NULL)
 		return NULL;
 
-	item = string_list_lookup(&fn_table, name);
+	item = string_list_lookup(&state->fn_table, name);
 	if (item != NULL)
 		return (struct patch *)item->util;
 
@@ -3132,7 +3262,7 @@
 	return patch == PATH_WAS_DELETED;
 }
 
-static void add_to_fn_table(struct patch *patch)
+static void add_to_fn_table(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	struct string_list_item *item;
 
@@ -3142,7 +3272,7 @@
 	 * file creations and copies
 	 */
 	if (patch->new_name != NULL) {
-		item = string_list_insert(&fn_table, patch->new_name);
+		item = string_list_insert(&state->fn_table, patch->new_name);
 		item->util = patch;
 	}
 
@@ -3151,12 +3281,12 @@
 	 * later chunks shouldn't patch old names
 	 */
 	if ((patch->new_name == NULL) || (patch->is_rename)) {
-		item = string_list_insert(&fn_table, patch->old_name);
+		item = string_list_insert(&state->fn_table, patch->old_name);
 		item->util = PATH_WAS_DELETED;
 	}
 }
 
-static void prepare_fn_table(struct patch *patch)
+static void prepare_fn_table(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	/*
 	 * store information about incoming file deletion
@@ -3164,7 +3294,7 @@
 	while (patch) {
 		if ((patch->new_name == NULL) || (patch->is_rename)) {
 			struct string_list_item *item;
-			item = string_list_insert(&fn_table, patch->old_name);
+			item = string_list_insert(&state->fn_table, patch->old_name);
 			item->util = PATH_TO_BE_DELETED;
 		}
 		patch = patch->next;
@@ -3185,7 +3315,9 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static struct patch *previous_patch(struct patch *patch, int *gone)
+static struct patch *previous_patch(struct apply_state *state,
+				    struct patch *patch,
+				    int *gone)
 {
 	struct patch *previous;
 
@@ -3193,7 +3325,7 @@
 	if (patch->is_copy || patch->is_rename)
 		return NULL; /* "git" patches do not depend on the order */
 
-	previous = in_fn_table(patch->old_name);
+	previous = in_fn_table(state, patch->old_name);
 	if (!previous)
 		return NULL;
 
@@ -3218,15 +3350,16 @@
 
 #define SUBMODULE_PATCH_WITHOUT_INDEX 1
 
-static int load_patch_target(struct strbuf *buf,
+static int load_patch_target(struct apply_state *state,
+			     struct strbuf *buf,
 			     const struct cache_entry *ce,
 			     struct stat *st,
 			     const char *name,
 			     unsigned expected_mode)
 {
-	if (cached || check_index) {
+	if (state->cached || state->check_index) {
 		if (read_file_or_gitlink(ce, buf))
-			return error(_("read of %s failed"), name);
+			return error(_("failed to read %s"), name);
 	} else if (name) {
 		if (S_ISGITLINK(expected_mode)) {
 			if (ce)
@@ -3237,7 +3370,7 @@
 			return error(_("reading from '%s' beyond a symbolic link"), name);
 		} else {
 			if (read_old_data(st, name, buf))
-				return error(_("read of %s failed"), name);
+				return error(_("failed to read %s"), name);
 		}
 	}
 	return 0;
@@ -3250,7 +3383,8 @@
  * applying a non-git patch that incrementally updates the tree,
  * we read from the result of a previous diff.
  */
-static int load_preimage(struct image *image,
+static int load_preimage(struct apply_state *state,
+			 struct image *image,
 			 struct patch *patch, struct stat *st,
 			 const struct cache_entry *ce)
 {
@@ -3260,7 +3394,7 @@
 	struct patch *previous;
 	int status;
 
-	previous = previous_patch(patch, &status);
+	previous = previous_patch(state, patch, &status);
 	if (status)
 		return error(_("path %s has been renamed/deleted"),
 			     patch->old_name);
@@ -3268,7 +3402,7 @@
 		/* We have a patched copy in memory; use that. */
 		strbuf_add(&buf, previous->result, previous->resultsize);
 	} else {
-		status = load_patch_target(&buf, ce, st,
+		status = load_patch_target(state, &buf, ce, st,
 					   patch->old_name, patch->old_mode);
 		if (status < 0)
 			return status;
@@ -3282,7 +3416,7 @@
 			free_fragment_list(patch->fragments);
 			patch->fragments = NULL;
 		} else if (status) {
-			return error(_("read of %s failed"), patch->old_name);
+			return error(_("failed to read %s"), patch->old_name);
 		}
 	}
 
@@ -3327,7 +3461,9 @@
  * the current contents of the new_name.  In no cases other than that
  * this function will be called.
  */
-static int load_current(struct image *image, struct patch *patch)
+static int load_current(struct apply_state *state,
+			struct image *image,
+			struct patch *patch)
 {
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	int status, pos;
@@ -3354,7 +3490,7 @@
 	if (verify_index_match(ce, &st))
 		return error(_("%s: does not match index"), name);
 
-	status = load_patch_target(&buf, ce, &st, name, mode);
+	status = load_patch_target(state, &buf, ce, &st, name, mode);
 	if (status < 0)
 		return status;
 	else if (status)
@@ -3364,8 +3500,11 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int try_threeway(struct image *image, struct patch *patch,
-			struct stat *st, const struct cache_entry *ce)
+static int try_threeway(struct apply_state *state,
+			struct image *image,
+			struct patch *patch,
+			struct stat *st,
+			const struct cache_entry *ce)
 {
 	unsigned char pre_sha1[20], post_sha1[20], our_sha1[20];
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -3391,7 +3530,7 @@
 	img = strbuf_detach(&buf, &len);
 	prepare_image(&tmp_image, img, len, 1);
 	/* Apply the patch to get the post image */
-	if (apply_fragments(&tmp_image, patch) < 0) {
+	if (apply_fragments(state, &tmp_image, patch) < 0) {
 		clear_image(&tmp_image);
 		return -1;
 	}
@@ -3401,11 +3540,11 @@
 
 	/* our_sha1[] is ours */
 	if (patch->is_new) {
-		if (load_current(&tmp_image, patch))
+		if (load_current(state, &tmp_image, patch))
 			return error("cannot read the current contents of '%s'",
 				     patch->new_name);
 	} else {
-		if (load_preimage(&tmp_image, patch, st, ce))
+		if (load_preimage(state, &tmp_image, patch, st, ce))
 			return error("cannot read the current contents of '%s'",
 				     patch->old_name);
 	}
@@ -3435,22 +3574,23 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int apply_data(struct patch *patch, struct stat *st, const struct cache_entry *ce)
+static int apply_data(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch,
+		      struct stat *st, const struct cache_entry *ce)
 {
 	struct image image;
 
-	if (load_preimage(&image, patch, st, ce) < 0)
+	if (load_preimage(state, &image, patch, st, ce) < 0)
 		return -1;
 
 	if (patch->direct_to_threeway ||
-	    apply_fragments(&image, patch) < 0) {
+	    apply_fragments(state, &image, patch) < 0) {
 		/* Note: with --reject, apply_fragments() returns 0 */
-		if (!threeway || try_threeway(&image, patch, st, ce) < 0)
+		if (!state->threeway || try_threeway(state, &image, patch, st, ce) < 0)
 			return -1;
 	}
 	patch->result = image.buf;
 	patch->resultsize = image.len;
-	add_to_fn_table(patch);
+	add_to_fn_table(state, patch);
 	free(image.line_allocated);
 
 	if (0 < patch->is_delete && patch->resultsize)
@@ -3470,7 +3610,10 @@
  * check_patch() separately makes sure (and errors out otherwise) that
  * the path the patch creates does not exist in the current tree.
  */
-static int check_preimage(struct patch *patch, struct cache_entry **ce, struct stat *st)
+static int check_preimage(struct apply_state *state,
+			  struct patch *patch,
+			  struct cache_entry **ce,
+			  struct stat *st)
 {
 	const char *old_name = patch->old_name;
 	struct patch *previous = NULL;
@@ -3481,19 +3624,19 @@
 		return 0;
 
 	assert(patch->is_new <= 0);
-	previous = previous_patch(patch, &status);
+	previous = previous_patch(state, patch, &status);
 
 	if (status)
 		return error(_("path %s has been renamed/deleted"), old_name);
 	if (previous) {
 		st_mode = previous->new_mode;
-	} else if (!cached) {
+	} else if (!state->cached) {
 		stat_ret = lstat(old_name, st);
 		if (stat_ret && errno != ENOENT)
 			return error(_("%s: %s"), old_name, strerror(errno));
 	}
 
-	if (check_index && !previous) {
+	if (state->check_index && !previous) {
 		int pos = cache_name_pos(old_name, strlen(old_name));
 		if (pos < 0) {
 			if (patch->is_new < 0)
@@ -3505,9 +3648,9 @@
 			if (checkout_target(&the_index, *ce, st))
 				return -1;
 		}
-		if (!cached && verify_index_match(*ce, st))
+		if (!state->cached && verify_index_match(*ce, st))
 			return error(_("%s: does not match index"), old_name);
-		if (cached)
+		if (state->cached)
 			st_mode = (*ce)->ce_mode;
 	} else if (stat_ret < 0) {
 		if (patch->is_new < 0)
@@ -3515,7 +3658,7 @@
 		return error(_("%s: %s"), old_name, strerror(errno));
 	}
 
-	if (!cached && !previous)
+	if (!state->cached && !previous)
 		st_mode = ce_mode_from_stat(*ce, st->st_mode);
 
 	if (patch->is_new < 0)
@@ -3543,15 +3686,17 @@
 #define EXISTS_IN_INDEX 1
 #define EXISTS_IN_WORKTREE 2
 
-static int check_to_create(const char *new_name, int ok_if_exists)
+static int check_to_create(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *new_name,
+			   int ok_if_exists)
 {
 	struct stat nst;
 
-	if (check_index &&
+	if (state->check_index &&
 	    cache_name_pos(new_name, strlen(new_name)) >= 0 &&
 	    !ok_if_exists)
 		return EXISTS_IN_INDEX;
-	if (cached)
+	if (state->cached)
 		return 0;
 
 	if (!lstat(new_name, &nst)) {
@@ -3574,56 +3719,46 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-/*
- * We need to keep track of how symlinks in the preimage are
- * manipulated by the patches.  A patch to add a/b/c where a/b
- * is a symlink should not be allowed to affect the directory
- * the symlink points at, but if the same patch removes a/b,
- * it is perfectly fine, as the patch removes a/b to make room
- * to create a directory a/b so that a/b/c can be created.
- */
-static struct string_list symlink_changes;
-#define SYMLINK_GOES_AWAY 01
-#define SYMLINK_IN_RESULT 02
-
-static uintptr_t register_symlink_changes(const char *path, uintptr_t what)
+static uintptr_t register_symlink_changes(struct apply_state *state,
+					  const char *path,
+					  uintptr_t what)
 {
 	struct string_list_item *ent;
 
-	ent = string_list_lookup(&symlink_changes, path);
+	ent = string_list_lookup(&state->symlink_changes, path);
 	if (!ent) {
-		ent = string_list_insert(&symlink_changes, path);
+		ent = string_list_insert(&state->symlink_changes, path);
 		ent->util = (void *)0;
 	}
 	ent->util = (void *)(what | ((uintptr_t)ent->util));
 	return (uintptr_t)ent->util;
 }
 
-static uintptr_t check_symlink_changes(const char *path)
+static uintptr_t check_symlink_changes(struct apply_state *state, const char *path)
 {
 	struct string_list_item *ent;
 
-	ent = string_list_lookup(&symlink_changes, path);
+	ent = string_list_lookup(&state->symlink_changes, path);
 	if (!ent)
 		return 0;
 	return (uintptr_t)ent->util;
 }
 
-static void prepare_symlink_changes(struct patch *patch)
+static void prepare_symlink_changes(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	for ( ; patch; patch = patch->next) {
 		if ((patch->old_name && S_ISLNK(patch->old_mode)) &&
 		    (patch->is_rename || patch->is_delete))
 			/* the symlink at patch->old_name is removed */
-			register_symlink_changes(patch->old_name, SYMLINK_GOES_AWAY);
+			register_symlink_changes(state, patch->old_name, SYMLINK_GOES_AWAY);
 
 		if (patch->new_name && S_ISLNK(patch->new_mode))
 			/* the symlink at patch->new_name is created or remains */
-			register_symlink_changes(patch->new_name, SYMLINK_IN_RESULT);
+			register_symlink_changes(state, patch->new_name, SYMLINK_IN_RESULT);
 	}
 }
 
-static int path_is_beyond_symlink_1(struct strbuf *name)
+static int path_is_beyond_symlink_1(struct apply_state *state, struct strbuf *name)
 {
 	do {
 		unsigned int change;
@@ -3633,7 +3768,7 @@
 		if (!name->len)
 			break;
 		name->buf[name->len] = '\0';
-		change = check_symlink_changes(name->buf);
+		change = check_symlink_changes(state, name->buf);
 		if (change & SYMLINK_IN_RESULT)
 			return 1;
 		if (change & SYMLINK_GOES_AWAY)
@@ -3644,7 +3779,7 @@
 			continue;
 
 		/* otherwise, check the preimage */
-		if (check_index) {
+		if (state->check_index) {
 			struct cache_entry *ce;
 
 			ce = cache_file_exists(name->buf, name->len, ignore_case);
@@ -3659,14 +3794,14 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int path_is_beyond_symlink(const char *name_)
+static int path_is_beyond_symlink(struct apply_state *state, const char *name_)
 {
 	int ret;
 	struct strbuf name = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	assert(*name_ != '\0');
 	strbuf_addstr(&name, name_);
-	ret = path_is_beyond_symlink_1(&name);
+	ret = path_is_beyond_symlink_1(state, &name);
 	strbuf_release(&name);
 
 	return ret;
@@ -3693,7 +3828,7 @@
  * Check and apply the patch in-core; leave the result in patch->result
  * for the caller to write it out to the final destination.
  */
-static int check_patch(struct patch *patch)
+static int check_patch(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	struct stat st;
 	const char *old_name = patch->old_name;
@@ -3706,7 +3841,7 @@
 
 	patch->rejected = 1; /* we will drop this after we succeed */
 
-	status = check_preimage(patch, &ce, &st);
+	status = check_preimage(state, patch, &ce, &st);
 	if (status)
 		return status;
 	old_name = patch->old_name;
@@ -3725,7 +3860,7 @@
 	 * B and rename from A to B is handled the same way by asking
 	 * was_deleted().
 	 */
-	if ((tpatch = in_fn_table(new_name)) &&
+	if ((tpatch = in_fn_table(state, new_name)) &&
 	    (was_deleted(tpatch) || to_be_deleted(tpatch)))
 		ok_if_exists = 1;
 	else
@@ -3733,9 +3868,9 @@
 
 	if (new_name &&
 	    ((0 < patch->is_new) || patch->is_rename || patch->is_copy)) {
-		int err = check_to_create(new_name, ok_if_exists);
+		int err = check_to_create(state, new_name, ok_if_exists);
 
-		if (err && threeway) {
+		if (err && state->threeway) {
 			patch->direct_to_threeway = 1;
 		} else switch (err) {
 		case 0:
@@ -3776,7 +3911,7 @@
 		}
 	}
 
-	if (!unsafe_paths)
+	if (!state->unsafe_paths)
 		die_on_unsafe_path(patch);
 
 	/*
@@ -3788,27 +3923,27 @@
 	 * is not deposited to a path that is beyond a symbolic link
 	 * here.
 	 */
-	if (!patch->is_delete && path_is_beyond_symlink(patch->new_name))
+	if (!patch->is_delete && path_is_beyond_symlink(state, patch->new_name))
 		return error(_("affected file '%s' is beyond a symbolic link"),
 			     patch->new_name);
 
-	if (apply_data(patch, &st, ce) < 0)
+	if (apply_data(state, patch, &st, ce) < 0)
 		return error(_("%s: patch does not apply"), name);
 	patch->rejected = 0;
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int check_patch_list(struct patch *patch)
+static int check_patch_list(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	int err = 0;
 
-	prepare_symlink_changes(patch);
-	prepare_fn_table(patch);
+	prepare_symlink_changes(state, patch);
+	prepare_fn_table(state, patch);
 	while (patch) {
-		if (apply_verbosely)
+		if (state->apply_verbosely)
 			say_patch_name(stderr,
 				       _("Checking patch %s..."), patch);
-		err |= check_patch(patch);
+		err |= check_patch(state, patch);
 		patch = patch->next;
 	}
 	return err;
@@ -3912,7 +4047,7 @@
 	discard_index(&result);
 }
 
-static void stat_patch_list(struct patch *patch)
+static void stat_patch_list(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	int files, adds, dels;
 
@@ -3920,13 +4055,14 @@
 		files++;
 		adds += patch->lines_added;
 		dels += patch->lines_deleted;
-		show_stats(patch);
+		show_stats(state, patch);
 	}
 
 	print_stat_summary(stdout, files, adds, dels);
 }
 
-static void numstat_patch_list(struct patch *patch)
+static void numstat_patch_list(struct apply_state *state,
+			       struct patch *patch)
 {
 	for ( ; patch; patch = patch->next) {
 		const char *name;
@@ -3935,7 +4071,7 @@
 			printf("-\t-\t");
 		else
 			printf("%d\t%d\t", patch->lines_added, patch->lines_deleted);
-		write_name_quoted(name, stdout, line_termination);
+		write_name_quoted(name, stdout, state->line_termination);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -4017,49 +4153,53 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static void patch_stats(struct patch *patch)
+static void patch_stats(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	int lines = patch->lines_added + patch->lines_deleted;
 
-	if (lines > max_change)
-		max_change = lines;
+	if (lines > state->max_change)
+		state->max_change = lines;
 	if (patch->old_name) {
 		int len = quote_c_style(patch->old_name, NULL, NULL, 0);
 		if (!len)
 			len = strlen(patch->old_name);
-		if (len > max_len)
-			max_len = len;
+		if (len > state->max_len)
+			state->max_len = len;
 	}
 	if (patch->new_name) {
 		int len = quote_c_style(patch->new_name, NULL, NULL, 0);
 		if (!len)
 			len = strlen(patch->new_name);
-		if (len > max_len)
-			max_len = len;
+		if (len > state->max_len)
+			state->max_len = len;
 	}
 }
 
-static void remove_file(struct patch *patch, int rmdir_empty)
+static void remove_file(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch, int rmdir_empty)
 {
-	if (update_index) {
+	if (state->update_index) {
 		if (remove_file_from_cache(patch->old_name) < 0)
 			die(_("unable to remove %s from index"), patch->old_name);
 	}
-	if (!cached) {
+	if (!state->cached) {
 		if (!remove_or_warn(patch->old_mode, patch->old_name) && rmdir_empty) {
 			remove_path(patch->old_name);
 		}
 	}
 }
 
-static void add_index_file(const char *path, unsigned mode, void *buf, unsigned long size)
+static void add_index_file(struct apply_state *state,
+			   const char *path,
+			   unsigned mode,
+			   void *buf,
+			   unsigned long size)
 {
 	struct stat st;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 	int namelen = strlen(path);
 	unsigned ce_size = cache_entry_size(namelen);
 
-	if (!update_index)
+	if (!state->update_index)
 		return;
 
 	ce = xcalloc(1, ce_size);
@@ -4074,7 +4214,7 @@
 		    get_sha1_hex(s, ce->sha1))
 			die(_("corrupt patch for submodule %s"), path);
 	} else {
-		if (!cached) {
+		if (!state->cached) {
 			if (lstat(path, &st) < 0)
 				die_errno(_("unable to stat newly created file '%s'"),
 					  path);
@@ -4126,9 +4266,13 @@
  * which is true 99% of the time anyway. If they don't,
  * we create them and try again.
  */
-static void create_one_file(char *path, unsigned mode, const char *buf, unsigned long size)
+static void create_one_file(struct apply_state *state,
+			    char *path,
+			    unsigned mode,
+			    const char *buf,
+			    unsigned long size)
 {
-	if (cached)
+	if (state->cached)
 		return;
 	if (!try_create_file(path, mode, buf, size))
 		return;
@@ -4169,13 +4313,14 @@
 	die_errno(_("unable to write file '%s' mode %o"), path, mode);
 }
 
-static void add_conflicted_stages_file(struct patch *patch)
+static void add_conflicted_stages_file(struct apply_state *state,
+				       struct patch *patch)
 {
 	int stage, namelen;
 	unsigned ce_size, mode;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 
-	if (!update_index)
+	if (!state->update_index)
 		return;
 	namelen = strlen(patch->new_name);
 	ce_size = cache_entry_size(namelen);
@@ -4196,7 +4341,7 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static void create_file(struct patch *patch)
+static void create_file(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	char *path = patch->new_name;
 	unsigned mode = patch->new_mode;
@@ -4205,25 +4350,27 @@
 
 	if (!mode)
 		mode = S_IFREG | 0644;
-	create_one_file(path, mode, buf, size);
+	create_one_file(state, path, mode, buf, size);
 
 	if (patch->conflicted_threeway)
-		add_conflicted_stages_file(patch);
+		add_conflicted_stages_file(state, patch);
 	else
-		add_index_file(path, mode, buf, size);
+		add_index_file(state, path, mode, buf, size);
 }
 
 /* phase zero is to remove, phase one is to create */
-static void write_out_one_result(struct patch *patch, int phase)
+static void write_out_one_result(struct apply_state *state,
+				 struct patch *patch,
+				 int phase)
 {
 	if (patch->is_delete > 0) {
 		if (phase == 0)
-			remove_file(patch, 1);
+			remove_file(state, patch, 1);
 		return;
 	}
 	if (patch->is_new > 0 || patch->is_copy) {
 		if (phase == 1)
-			create_file(patch);
+			create_file(state, patch);
 		return;
 	}
 	/*
@@ -4231,12 +4378,12 @@
 	 * thing: remove the old, write the new
 	 */
 	if (phase == 0)
-		remove_file(patch, patch->is_rename);
+		remove_file(state, patch, patch->is_rename);
 	if (phase == 1)
-		create_file(patch);
+		create_file(state, patch);
 }
 
-static int write_out_one_reject(struct patch *patch)
+static int write_out_one_reject(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	FILE *rej;
 	char namebuf[PATH_MAX];
@@ -4251,7 +4398,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (!cnt) {
-		if (apply_verbosely)
+		if (state->apply_verbosely)
 			say_patch_name(stderr,
 				       _("Applied patch %s cleanly."), patch);
 		return 0;
@@ -4307,7 +4454,7 @@
 	return -1;
 }
 
-static int write_out_results(struct patch *list)
+static int write_out_results(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *list)
 {
 	int phase;
 	int errs = 0;
@@ -4320,9 +4467,9 @@
 			if (l->rejected)
 				errs = 1;
 			else {
-				write_out_one_result(l, phase);
+				write_out_one_result(state, l, phase);
 				if (phase == 1) {
-					if (write_out_one_reject(l))
+					if (write_out_one_reject(state, l))
 						errs = 1;
 					if (l->conflicted_threeway) {
 						string_list_append(&cpath, l->new_name);
@@ -4353,14 +4500,17 @@
 #define INACCURATE_EOF	(1<<0)
 #define RECOUNT		(1<<1)
 
-static int apply_patch(int fd, const char *filename, int options)
+static int apply_patch(struct apply_state *state,
+		       int fd,
+		       const char *filename,
+		       int options)
 {
 	size_t offset;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT; /* owns the patch text */
 	struct patch *list = NULL, **listp = &list;
 	int skipped_patch = 0;
 
-	patch_input_file = filename;
+	state->patch_input_file = filename;
 	read_patch_file(&buf, fd);
 	offset = 0;
 	while (offset < buf.len) {
@@ -4370,19 +4520,21 @@
 		patch = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*patch));
 		patch->inaccurate_eof = !!(options & INACCURATE_EOF);
 		patch->recount =  !!(options & RECOUNT);
-		nr = parse_chunk(buf.buf + offset, buf.len - offset, patch);
+		nr = parse_chunk(state, buf.buf + offset, buf.len - offset, patch);
 		if (nr < 0) {
 			free_patch(patch);
 			break;
 		}
-		if (apply_in_reverse)
+		if (state->apply_in_reverse)
 			reverse_patches(patch);
-		if (use_patch(patch)) {
-			patch_stats(patch);
+		if (use_patch(state, patch)) {
+			patch_stats(state, patch);
 			*listp = patch;
 			listp = &patch->next;
 		}
 		else {
+			if (state->apply_verbosely)
+				say_patch_name(stderr, _("Skipped patch '%s'."), patch);
 			free_patch(patch);
 			skipped_patch++;
 		}
@@ -4392,45 +4544,45 @@
 	if (!list && !skipped_patch)
 		die(_("unrecognized input"));
 
-	if (whitespace_error && (ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error))
-		apply = 0;
+	if (state->whitespace_error && (state->ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error))
+		state->apply = 0;
 
-	update_index = check_index && apply;
-	if (update_index && newfd < 0)
-		newfd = hold_locked_index(&lock_file, 1);
+	state->update_index = state->check_index && state->apply;
+	if (state->update_index && state->newfd < 0)
+		state->newfd = hold_locked_index(state->lock_file, 1);
 
-	if (check_index) {
+	if (state->check_index) {
 		if (read_cache() < 0)
 			die(_("unable to read index file"));
 	}
 
-	if ((check || apply) &&
-	    check_patch_list(list) < 0 &&
-	    !apply_with_reject)
+	if ((state->check || state->apply) &&
+	    check_patch_list(state, list) < 0 &&
+	    !state->apply_with_reject)
 		exit(1);
 
-	if (apply && write_out_results(list)) {
-		if (apply_with_reject)
+	if (state->apply && write_out_results(state, list)) {
+		if (state->apply_with_reject)
 			exit(1);
 		/* with --3way, we still need to write the index out */
 		return 1;
 	}
 
-	if (fake_ancestor)
-		build_fake_ancestor(list, fake_ancestor);
+	if (state->fake_ancestor)
+		build_fake_ancestor(list, state->fake_ancestor);
 
-	if (diffstat)
-		stat_patch_list(list);
+	if (state->diffstat)
+		stat_patch_list(state, list);
 
-	if (numstat)
-		numstat_patch_list(list);
+	if (state->numstat)
+		numstat_patch_list(state, list);
 
-	if (summary)
+	if (state->summary)
 		summary_patch_list(list);
 
 	free_patch_list(list);
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
-	string_list_clear(&fn_table, 0);
+	string_list_clear(&state->fn_table, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -4444,220 +4596,284 @@
 static int option_parse_exclude(const struct option *opt,
 				const char *arg, int unset)
 {
-	add_name_limit(arg, 1);
+	struct apply_state *state = opt->value;
+	add_name_limit(state, arg, 1);
 	return 0;
 }
 
 static int option_parse_include(const struct option *opt,
 				const char *arg, int unset)
 {
-	add_name_limit(arg, 0);
-	has_include = 1;
+	struct apply_state *state = opt->value;
+	add_name_limit(state, arg, 0);
+	state->has_include = 1;
 	return 0;
 }
 
 static int option_parse_p(const struct option *opt,
-			  const char *arg, int unset)
+			  const char *arg,
+			  int unset)
 {
-	p_value = atoi(arg);
-	p_value_known = 1;
+	struct apply_state *state = opt->value;
+	state->p_value = atoi(arg);
+	state->p_value_known = 1;
 	return 0;
 }
 
 static int option_parse_space_change(const struct option *opt,
-			  const char *arg, int unset)
+				     const char *arg, int unset)
 {
+	struct apply_state *state = opt->value;
 	if (unset)
-		ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_none;
+		state->ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_none;
 	else
-		ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_change;
+		state->ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_change;
 	return 0;
 }
 
 static int option_parse_whitespace(const struct option *opt,
 				   const char *arg, int unset)
 {
-	const char **whitespace_option = opt->value;
-
-	*whitespace_option = arg;
-	parse_whitespace_option(arg);
+	struct apply_state *state = opt->value;
+	state->whitespace_option = arg;
+	parse_whitespace_option(state, arg);
 	return 0;
 }
 
 static int option_parse_directory(const struct option *opt,
 				  const char *arg, int unset)
 {
-	strbuf_reset(&root);
-	strbuf_addstr(&root, arg);
-	strbuf_complete(&root, '/');
+	struct apply_state *state = opt->value;
+	strbuf_reset(&state->root);
+	strbuf_addstr(&state->root, arg);
+	strbuf_complete(&state->root, '/');
 	return 0;
 }
 
-int cmd_apply(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix_)
+static void init_apply_state(struct apply_state *state,
+			     const char *prefix,
+			     struct lock_file *lock_file)
+{
+	memset(state, 0, sizeof(*state));
+	state->prefix = prefix;
+	state->prefix_length = state->prefix ? strlen(state->prefix) : 0;
+	state->lock_file = lock_file;
+	state->newfd = -1;
+	state->apply = 1;
+	state->line_termination = '\n';
+	state->p_value = 1;
+	state->p_context = UINT_MAX;
+	state->squelch_whitespace_errors = 5;
+	state->ws_error_action = warn_on_ws_error;
+	state->ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_none;
+	state->linenr = 1;
+	string_list_init(&state->fn_table, 0);
+	string_list_init(&state->limit_by_name, 0);
+	string_list_init(&state->symlink_changes, 0);
+	strbuf_init(&state->root, 0);
+
+	git_apply_config();
+	if (apply_default_whitespace)
+		parse_whitespace_option(state, apply_default_whitespace);
+	if (apply_default_ignorewhitespace)
+		parse_ignorewhitespace_option(state, apply_default_ignorewhitespace);
+}
+
+static void clear_apply_state(struct apply_state *state)
+{
+	string_list_clear(&state->limit_by_name, 0);
+	string_list_clear(&state->symlink_changes, 0);
+	strbuf_release(&state->root);
+
+	/* &state->fn_table is cleared at the end of apply_patch() */
+}
+
+static void check_apply_state(struct apply_state *state, int force_apply)
+{
+	int is_not_gitdir = !startup_info->have_repository;
+
+	if (state->apply_with_reject && state->threeway)
+		die("--reject and --3way cannot be used together.");
+	if (state->cached && state->threeway)
+		die("--cached and --3way cannot be used together.");
+	if (state->threeway) {
+		if (is_not_gitdir)
+			die(_("--3way outside a repository"));
+		state->check_index = 1;
+	}
+	if (state->apply_with_reject)
+		state->apply = state->apply_verbosely = 1;
+	if (!force_apply && (state->diffstat || state->numstat || state->summary || state->check || state->fake_ancestor))
+		state->apply = 0;
+	if (state->check_index && is_not_gitdir)
+		die(_("--index outside a repository"));
+	if (state->cached) {
+		if (is_not_gitdir)
+			die(_("--cached outside a repository"));
+		state->check_index = 1;
+	}
+	if (state->check_index)
+		state->unsafe_paths = 0;
+	if (!state->lock_file)
+		die("BUG: state->lock_file should not be NULL");
+}
+
+static int apply_all_patches(struct apply_state *state,
+			     int argc,
+			     const char **argv,
+			     int options)
 {
 	int i;
 	int errs = 0;
-	int is_not_gitdir = !startup_info->have_repository;
-	int force_apply = 0;
-
-	const char *whitespace_option = NULL;
-
-	struct option builtin_apply_options[] = {
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "exclude", NULL, N_("path"),
-			N_("don't apply changes matching the given path"),
-			0, option_parse_exclude },
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "include", NULL, N_("path"),
-			N_("apply changes matching the given path"),
-			0, option_parse_include },
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'p', NULL, NULL, N_("num"),
-			N_("remove <num> leading slashes from traditional diff paths"),
-			0, option_parse_p },
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "no-add", &no_add,
-			N_("ignore additions made by the patch")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "stat", &diffstat,
-			N_("instead of applying the patch, output diffstat for the input")),
-		OPT_NOOP_NOARG(0, "allow-binary-replacement"),
-		OPT_NOOP_NOARG(0, "binary"),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "numstat", &numstat,
-			N_("show number of added and deleted lines in decimal notation")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "summary", &summary,
-			N_("instead of applying the patch, output a summary for the input")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "check", &check,
-			N_("instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is applicable")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "index", &check_index,
-			N_("make sure the patch is applicable to the current index")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "cached", &cached,
-			N_("apply a patch without touching the working tree")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "unsafe-paths", &unsafe_paths,
-			N_("accept a patch that touches outside the working area")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "apply", &force_apply,
-			N_("also apply the patch (use with --stat/--summary/--check)")),
-		OPT_BOOL('3', "3way", &threeway,
-			 N_( "attempt three-way merge if a patch does not apply")),
-		OPT_FILENAME(0, "build-fake-ancestor", &fake_ancestor,
-			N_("build a temporary index based on embedded index information")),
-		/* Think twice before adding "--nul" synonym to this */
-		OPT_SET_INT('z', NULL, &line_termination,
-			N_("paths are separated with NUL character"), '\0'),
-		OPT_INTEGER('C', NULL, &p_context,
-				N_("ensure at least <n> lines of context match")),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "whitespace", &whitespace_option, N_("action"),
-			N_("detect new or modified lines that have whitespace errors"),
-			0, option_parse_whitespace },
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "ignore-space-change", NULL, NULL,
-			N_("ignore changes in whitespace when finding context"),
-			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, option_parse_space_change },
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "ignore-whitespace", NULL, NULL,
-			N_("ignore changes in whitespace when finding context"),
-			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, option_parse_space_change },
-		OPT_BOOL('R', "reverse", &apply_in_reverse,
-			N_("apply the patch in reverse")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "unidiff-zero", &unidiff_zero,
-			N_("don't expect at least one line of context")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "reject", &apply_with_reject,
-			N_("leave the rejected hunks in corresponding *.rej files")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "allow-overlap", &allow_overlap,
-			N_("allow overlapping hunks")),
-		OPT__VERBOSE(&apply_verbosely, N_("be verbose")),
-		OPT_BIT(0, "inaccurate-eof", &options,
-			N_("tolerate incorrectly detected missing new-line at the end of file"),
-			INACCURATE_EOF),
-		OPT_BIT(0, "recount", &options,
-			N_("do not trust the line counts in the hunk headers"),
-			RECOUNT),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "directory", NULL, N_("root"),
-			N_("prepend <root> to all filenames"),
-			0, option_parse_directory },
-		OPT_END()
-	};
-
-	prefix = prefix_;
-	prefix_length = prefix ? strlen(prefix) : 0;
-	git_apply_config();
-	if (apply_default_whitespace)
-		parse_whitespace_option(apply_default_whitespace);
-	if (apply_default_ignorewhitespace)
-		parse_ignorewhitespace_option(apply_default_ignorewhitespace);
-
-	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, builtin_apply_options,
-			apply_usage, 0);
-
-	if (apply_with_reject && threeway)
-		die("--reject and --3way cannot be used together.");
-	if (cached && threeway)
-		die("--cached and --3way cannot be used together.");
-	if (threeway) {
-		if (is_not_gitdir)
-			die(_("--3way outside a repository"));
-		check_index = 1;
-	}
-	if (apply_with_reject)
-		apply = apply_verbosely = 1;
-	if (!force_apply && (diffstat || numstat || summary || check || fake_ancestor))
-		apply = 0;
-	if (check_index && is_not_gitdir)
-		die(_("--index outside a repository"));
-	if (cached) {
-		if (is_not_gitdir)
-			die(_("--cached outside a repository"));
-		check_index = 1;
-	}
-	if (check_index)
-		unsafe_paths = 0;
+	int read_stdin = 1;
 
 	for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
 		const char *arg = argv[i];
 		int fd;
 
 		if (!strcmp(arg, "-")) {
-			errs |= apply_patch(0, "<stdin>", options);
+			errs |= apply_patch(state, 0, "<stdin>", options);
 			read_stdin = 0;
 			continue;
-		} else if (0 < prefix_length)
-			arg = prefix_filename(prefix, prefix_length, arg);
+		} else if (0 < state->prefix_length)
+			arg = prefix_filename(state->prefix,
+					      state->prefix_length,
+					      arg);
 
 		fd = open(arg, O_RDONLY);
 		if (fd < 0)
 			die_errno(_("can't open patch '%s'"), arg);
 		read_stdin = 0;
-		set_default_whitespace_mode(whitespace_option);
-		errs |= apply_patch(fd, arg, options);
+		set_default_whitespace_mode(state);
+		errs |= apply_patch(state, fd, arg, options);
 		close(fd);
 	}
-	set_default_whitespace_mode(whitespace_option);
+	set_default_whitespace_mode(state);
 	if (read_stdin)
-		errs |= apply_patch(0, "<stdin>", options);
-	if (whitespace_error) {
-		if (squelch_whitespace_errors &&
-		    squelch_whitespace_errors < whitespace_error) {
+		errs |= apply_patch(state, 0, "<stdin>", options);
+
+	if (state->whitespace_error) {
+		if (state->squelch_whitespace_errors &&
+		    state->squelch_whitespace_errors < state->whitespace_error) {
 			int squelched =
-				whitespace_error - squelch_whitespace_errors;
+				state->whitespace_error - state->squelch_whitespace_errors;
 			warning(Q_("squelched %d whitespace error",
 				   "squelched %d whitespace errors",
 				   squelched),
 				squelched);
 		}
-		if (ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error)
+		if (state->ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error)
 			die(Q_("%d line adds whitespace errors.",
 			       "%d lines add whitespace errors.",
-			       whitespace_error),
-			    whitespace_error);
-		if (applied_after_fixing_ws && apply)
+			       state->whitespace_error),
+			    state->whitespace_error);
+		if (state->applied_after_fixing_ws && state->apply)
 			warning("%d line%s applied after"
 				" fixing whitespace errors.",
-				applied_after_fixing_ws,
-				applied_after_fixing_ws == 1 ? "" : "s");
-		else if (whitespace_error)
+				state->applied_after_fixing_ws,
+				state->applied_after_fixing_ws == 1 ? "" : "s");
+		else if (state->whitespace_error)
 			warning(Q_("%d line adds whitespace errors.",
 				   "%d lines add whitespace errors.",
-				   whitespace_error),
-				whitespace_error);
+				   state->whitespace_error),
+				state->whitespace_error);
 	}
 
-	if (update_index) {
-		if (write_locked_index(&the_index, &lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK))
+	if (state->update_index) {
+		if (write_locked_index(&the_index, state->lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK))
 			die(_("Unable to write new index file"));
+		state->newfd = -1;
 	}
 
 	return !!errs;
 }
+
+int cmd_apply(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	int force_apply = 0;
+	int options = 0;
+	int ret;
+	struct apply_state state;
+
+	struct option builtin_apply_options[] = {
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "exclude", &state, N_("path"),
+			N_("don't apply changes matching the given path"),
+			0, option_parse_exclude },
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "include", &state, N_("path"),
+			N_("apply changes matching the given path"),
+			0, option_parse_include },
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'p', NULL, &state, N_("num"),
+			N_("remove <num> leading slashes from traditional diff paths"),
+			0, option_parse_p },
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "no-add", &state.no_add,
+			N_("ignore additions made by the patch")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "stat", &state.diffstat,
+			N_("instead of applying the patch, output diffstat for the input")),
+		OPT_NOOP_NOARG(0, "allow-binary-replacement"),
+		OPT_NOOP_NOARG(0, "binary"),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "numstat", &state.numstat,
+			N_("show number of added and deleted lines in decimal notation")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "summary", &state.summary,
+			N_("instead of applying the patch, output a summary for the input")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "check", &state.check,
+			N_("instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is applicable")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "index", &state.check_index,
+			N_("make sure the patch is applicable to the current index")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "cached", &state.cached,
+			N_("apply a patch without touching the working tree")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "unsafe-paths", &state.unsafe_paths,
+			N_("accept a patch that touches outside the working area")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "apply", &force_apply,
+			N_("also apply the patch (use with --stat/--summary/--check)")),
+		OPT_BOOL('3', "3way", &state.threeway,
+			 N_( "attempt three-way merge if a patch does not apply")),
+		OPT_FILENAME(0, "build-fake-ancestor", &state.fake_ancestor,
+			N_("build a temporary index based on embedded index information")),
+		/* Think twice before adding "--nul" synonym to this */
+		OPT_SET_INT('z', NULL, &state.line_termination,
+			N_("paths are separated with NUL character"), '\0'),
+		OPT_INTEGER('C', NULL, &state.p_context,
+				N_("ensure at least <n> lines of context match")),
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "whitespace", &state, N_("action"),
+			N_("detect new or modified lines that have whitespace errors"),
+			0, option_parse_whitespace },
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "ignore-space-change", &state, NULL,
+			N_("ignore changes in whitespace when finding context"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, option_parse_space_change },
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "ignore-whitespace", &state, NULL,
+			N_("ignore changes in whitespace when finding context"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, option_parse_space_change },
+		OPT_BOOL('R', "reverse", &state.apply_in_reverse,
+			N_("apply the patch in reverse")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "unidiff-zero", &state.unidiff_zero,
+			N_("don't expect at least one line of context")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "reject", &state.apply_with_reject,
+			N_("leave the rejected hunks in corresponding *.rej files")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "allow-overlap", &state.allow_overlap,
+			N_("allow overlapping hunks")),
+		OPT__VERBOSE(&state.apply_verbosely, N_("be verbose")),
+		OPT_BIT(0, "inaccurate-eof", &options,
+			N_("tolerate incorrectly detected missing new-line at the end of file"),
+			INACCURATE_EOF),
+		OPT_BIT(0, "recount", &options,
+			N_("do not trust the line counts in the hunk headers"),
+			RECOUNT),
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "directory", &state, N_("root"),
+			N_("prepend <root> to all filenames"),
+			0, option_parse_directory },
+		OPT_END()
+	};
+
+	init_apply_state(&state, prefix, &lock_file);
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, state.prefix, builtin_apply_options,
+			apply_usage, 0);
+
+	check_apply_state(&state, force_apply);
+
+	ret = apply_all_patches(&state, argc, argv, options);
+
+	clear_apply_state(&state);
+
+	return ret;
+}
diff --git a/builtin/blame.c b/builtin/blame.c
index 21f42b0..a5bbf91 100644
--- a/builtin/blame.c
+++ b/builtin/blame.c
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@
 static struct date_mode blame_date_mode = { DATE_ISO8601 };
 static size_t blame_date_width;
 
-static struct string_list mailmap;
+static struct string_list mailmap = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 
 #ifndef DEBUG
 #define DEBUG 0
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@
 	int blamed_lines;
 };
 
-static int diff_hunks(mmfile_t *file_a, mmfile_t *file_b, long ctxlen,
+static int diff_hunks(mmfile_t *file_a, mmfile_t *file_b,
 		      xdl_emit_hunk_consume_func_t hunk_func, void *cb_data)
 {
 	xpparam_t xpp = {0};
@@ -142,7 +142,6 @@
 	xdemitcb_t ecb = {NULL};
 
 	xpp.flags = xdl_opts;
-	xecfg.ctxlen = ctxlen;
 	xecfg.hunk_func = hunk_func;
 	ecb.priv = cb_data;
 	return xdi_diff(file_a, file_b, &xpp, &xecfg, &ecb);
@@ -599,7 +598,7 @@
 			    p->status);
 		case 'M':
 			porigin = get_origin(sb, parent, origin->path);
-			hashcpy(porigin->blob_sha1, p->one->sha1);
+			hashcpy(porigin->blob_sha1, p->one->oid.hash);
 			porigin->mode = p->one->mode;
 			break;
 		case 'A':
@@ -609,7 +608,7 @@
 		}
 	}
 	diff_flush(&diff_opts);
-	free_pathspec(&diff_opts.pathspec);
+	clear_pathspec(&diff_opts.pathspec);
 	return porigin;
 }
 
@@ -645,13 +644,13 @@
 		if ((p->status == 'R' || p->status == 'C') &&
 		    !strcmp(p->two->path, origin->path)) {
 			porigin = get_origin(sb, parent, p->one->path);
-			hashcpy(porigin->blob_sha1, p->one->sha1);
+			hashcpy(porigin->blob_sha1, p->one->oid.hash);
 			porigin->mode = p->one->mode;
 			break;
 		}
 	}
 	diff_flush(&diff_opts);
-	free_pathspec(&diff_opts.pathspec);
+	clear_pathspec(&diff_opts.pathspec);
 	return porigin;
 }
 
@@ -980,7 +979,7 @@
 	fill_origin_blob(&sb->revs->diffopt, target, &file_o);
 	num_get_patch++;
 
-	if (diff_hunks(&file_p, &file_o, 0, blame_chunk_cb, &d))
+	if (diff_hunks(&file_p, &file_o, blame_chunk_cb, &d))
 		die("unable to generate diff (%s -> %s)",
 		    oid_to_hex(&parent->commit->object.oid),
 		    oid_to_hex(&target->commit->object.oid));
@@ -1129,7 +1128,7 @@
 	 * file_p partially may match that image.
 	 */
 	memset(split, 0, sizeof(struct blame_entry [3]));
-	if (diff_hunks(file_p, &file_o, 1, handle_split_cb, &d))
+	if (diff_hunks(file_p, &file_o, handle_split_cb, &d))
 		die("unable to generate diff (%s)",
 		    oid_to_hex(&parent->commit->object.oid));
 	/* remainder, if any, all match the preimage */
@@ -1309,7 +1308,7 @@
 				continue;
 
 			norigin = get_origin(sb, parent, p->one->path);
-			hashcpy(norigin->blob_sha1, p->one->sha1);
+			hashcpy(norigin->blob_sha1, p->one->oid.hash);
 			norigin->mode = p->one->mode;
 			fill_origin_blob(&sb->revs->diffopt, norigin, &file_p);
 			if (!file_p.ptr)
@@ -1343,7 +1342,7 @@
 	} while (unblamed);
 	target->suspects = reverse_blame(leftover, NULL);
 	diff_flush(&diff_opts);
-	free_pathspec(&diff_opts.pathspec);
+	clear_pathspec(&diff_opts.pathspec);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -2230,6 +2229,7 @@
 static void verify_working_tree_path(struct commit *work_tree, const char *path)
 {
 	struct commit_list *parents;
+	int pos;
 
 	for (parents = work_tree->parents; parents; parents = parents->next) {
 		const unsigned char *commit_sha1 = parents->item->object.oid.hash;
@@ -2240,7 +2240,15 @@
 		    sha1_object_info(blob_sha1, NULL) == OBJ_BLOB)
 			return;
 	}
-	die("no such path '%s' in HEAD", path);
+
+	pos = cache_name_pos(path, strlen(path));
+	if (pos >= 0)
+		; /* path is in the index */
+	else if (-1 - pos < active_nr &&
+		 !strcmp(active_cache[-1 - pos]->name, path))
+		; /* path is in the index, unmerged */
+	else
+		die("no such path '%s' in HEAD", path);
 }
 
 static struct commit_list **append_parent(struct commit_list **tail, const unsigned char *sha1)
@@ -2425,8 +2433,7 @@
 		struct object *obj = revs->pending.objects[i].item;
 		if (obj->flags & UNINTERESTING)
 			continue;
-		while (obj->type == OBJ_TAG)
-			obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
+		obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
 		if (obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
 			die("Non commit %s?", revs->pending.objects[i].name);
 		if (found)
@@ -2461,8 +2468,7 @@
 		struct object *obj = revs->pending.objects[i].item;
 		if (!(obj->flags & UNINTERESTING))
 			continue;
-		while (obj->type == OBJ_TAG)
-			obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
+		obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
 		if (obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
 			die("Non commit %s?", revs->pending.objects[i].name);
 		if (sb->final)
@@ -2522,12 +2528,12 @@
 	enum object_type type;
 	struct commit *final_commit = NULL;
 
-	static struct string_list range_list;
-	static int output_option = 0, opt = 0;
-	static int show_stats = 0;
-	static const char *revs_file = NULL;
-	static const char *contents_from = NULL;
-	static const struct option options[] = {
+	struct string_list range_list = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+	int output_option = 0, opt = 0;
+	int show_stats = 0;
+	const char *revs_file = NULL;
+	const char *contents_from = NULL;
+	const struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "incremental", &incremental, N_("Show blame entries as we find them, incrementally")),
 		OPT_BOOL('b', NULL, &blank_boundary, N_("Show blank SHA-1 for boundary commits (Default: off)")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "root", &show_root, N_("Do not treat root commits as boundaries (Default: off)")),
@@ -2628,6 +2634,9 @@
 	case DATE_RAW:
 		blame_date_width = sizeof("1161298804 -0700");
 		break;
+	case DATE_UNIX:
+		blame_date_width = sizeof("1161298804");
+		break;
 	case DATE_SHORT:
 		blame_date_width = sizeof("2006-10-19");
 		break;
@@ -2800,7 +2809,7 @@
 	lno = prepare_lines(&sb);
 
 	if (lno && !range_list.nr)
-		string_list_append(&range_list, xstrdup("1"));
+		string_list_append(&range_list, "1");
 
 	anchor = 1;
 	range_set_init(&ranges, range_list.nr);
diff --git a/builtin/branch.c b/builtin/branch.c
index 37af771..7df0543 100644
--- a/builtin/branch.c
+++ b/builtin/branch.c
@@ -212,7 +212,7 @@
 			die(_("Couldn't look up commit object for HEAD"));
 	}
 	for (i = 0; i < argc; i++, strbuf_release(&bname)) {
-		const char *target;
+		char *target = NULL;
 		int flags = 0;
 
 		strbuf_branchname(&bname, argv[i]);
@@ -220,22 +220,22 @@
 		name = mkpathdup(fmt, bname.buf);
 
 		if (kinds == FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES) {
-			char *worktree = find_shared_symref("HEAD", name);
-			if (worktree) {
+			const struct worktree *wt =
+				find_shared_symref("HEAD", name);
+			if (wt) {
 				error(_("Cannot delete branch '%s' "
 					"checked out at '%s'"),
-				      bname.buf, worktree);
-				free(worktree);
+				      bname.buf, wt->path);
 				ret = 1;
 				continue;
 			}
 		}
 
-		target = resolve_ref_unsafe(name,
-					    RESOLVE_REF_READING
-					    | RESOLVE_REF_NO_RECURSE
-					    | RESOLVE_REF_ALLOW_BAD_NAME,
-					    sha1, &flags);
+		target = resolve_refdup(name,
+					RESOLVE_REF_READING
+					| RESOLVE_REF_NO_RECURSE
+					| RESOLVE_REF_ALLOW_BAD_NAME,
+					sha1, &flags);
 		if (!target) {
 			error(remote_branch
 			      ? _("remote-tracking branch '%s' not found.")
@@ -248,7 +248,7 @@
 		    check_branch_commit(bname.buf, name, sha1, head_rev, kinds,
 					force)) {
 			ret = 1;
-			continue;
+			goto next;
 		}
 
 		if (delete_ref(name, is_null_sha1(sha1) ? NULL : sha1,
@@ -258,7 +258,7 @@
 			      : _("Error deleting branch '%s'"),
 			      bname.buf);
 			ret = 1;
-			continue;
+			goto next;
 		}
 		if (!quiet) {
 			printf(remote_branch
@@ -270,6 +270,9 @@
 			       : find_unique_abbrev(sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
 		}
 		delete_branch_config(bname.buf);
+
+	next:
+		free(target);
 	}
 
 	free(name);
@@ -526,6 +529,29 @@
 	ref_array_clear(&array);
 }
 
+static void reject_rebase_or_bisect_branch(const char *target)
+{
+	struct worktree **worktrees = get_worktrees();
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; worktrees[i]; i++) {
+		struct worktree *wt = worktrees[i];
+
+		if (!wt->is_detached)
+			continue;
+
+		if (is_worktree_being_rebased(wt, target))
+			die(_("Branch %s is being rebased at %s"),
+			    target, wt->path);
+
+		if (is_worktree_being_bisected(wt, target))
+			die(_("Branch %s is being bisected at %s"),
+			    target, wt->path);
+	}
+
+	free_worktrees(worktrees);
+}
+
 static void rename_branch(const char *oldname, const char *newname, int force)
 {
 	struct strbuf oldref = STRBUF_INIT, newref = STRBUF_INIT, logmsg = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -555,6 +581,8 @@
 
 	validate_new_branchname(newname, &newref, force, clobber_head_ok);
 
+	reject_rebase_or_bisect_branch(oldref.buf);
+
 	strbuf_addf(&logmsg, "Branch: renamed %s to %s",
 		 oldref.buf, newref.buf);
 
@@ -589,15 +617,11 @@
 	if (!buf.len || buf.buf[buf.len-1] != '\n')
 		strbuf_addch(&buf, '\n');
 	strbuf_commented_addf(&buf,
-		    "Please edit the description for the branch\n"
-		    "  %s\n"
-		    "Lines starting with '%c' will be stripped.\n",
+		    _("Please edit the description for the branch\n"
+		      "  %s\n"
+		      "Lines starting with '%c' will be stripped.\n"),
 		    branch_name, comment_line_char);
-	if (write_file_gently(git_path(edit_description), "%s", buf.buf)) {
-		strbuf_release(&buf);
-		return error(_("could not write branch description template: %s"),
-			     strerror(errno));
-	}
+	write_file_buf(git_path(edit_description), buf.buf, buf.len);
 	strbuf_reset(&buf);
 	if (launch_editor(git_path(edit_description), &buf, NULL)) {
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 54db118..560f6c2 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -131,7 +131,7 @@
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	enum object_type type;
 	unsigned long size;
-	unsigned long disk_size;
+	off_t disk_size;
 	const char *rest;
 	unsigned char delta_base_sha1[20];
 
@@ -154,6 +154,13 @@
 	 * elements above, so you can retrieve the response from there.
 	 */
 	struct object_info info;
+
+	/*
+	 * This flag will be true if the requested batch format and options
+	 * don't require us to call sha1_object_info, which can then be
+	 * optimized out.
+	 */
+	unsigned skip_object_info : 1;
 };
 
 static int is_atom(const char *atom, const char *s, int slen)
@@ -184,7 +191,7 @@
 		if (data->mark_query)
 			data->info.disk_sizep = &data->disk_size;
 		else
-			strbuf_addf(sb, "%lu", data->disk_size);
+			strbuf_addf(sb, "%"PRIuMAX, (uintmax_t)data->disk_size);
 	} else if (is_atom("rest", atom, len)) {
 		if (data->mark_query)
 			data->split_on_whitespace = 1;
@@ -258,7 +265,8 @@
 {
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-	if (sha1_object_info_extended(data->sha1, &data->info, LOOKUP_REPLACE_OBJECT) < 0) {
+	if (!data->skip_object_info &&
+	    sha1_object_info_extended(data->sha1, &data->info, LOOKUP_REPLACE_OBJECT) < 0) {
 		printf("%s missing\n", obj_name ? obj_name : sha1_to_hex(data->sha1));
 		fflush(stdout);
 		return;
@@ -369,6 +377,13 @@
 	strbuf_expand(&buf, opt->format, expand_format, &data);
 	data.mark_query = 0;
 
+	if (opt->all_objects) {
+		struct object_info empty;
+		memset(&empty, 0, sizeof(empty));
+		if (!memcmp(&data.info, &empty, sizeof(empty)))
+			data.skip_object_info = 1;
+	}
+
 	/*
 	 * If we are printing out the object, then always fill in the type,
 	 * since we will want to decide whether or not to stream.
@@ -425,7 +440,7 @@
 }
 
 static const char * const cat_file_usage[] = {
-	N_("git cat-file (-t [--allow-unknown-type]|-s [--allow-unknown-type]|-e|-p|<type>|--textconv) <object>"),
+	N_("git cat-file (-t [--allow-unknown-type] | -s [--allow-unknown-type] | -e | -p | <type> | --textconv) <object>"),
 	N_("git cat-file (--batch | --batch-check) [--follow-symlinks]"),
 	NULL
 };
@@ -489,6 +504,7 @@
 
 	git_config(git_cat_file_config, NULL);
 
+	batch.buffer_output = -1;
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, cat_file_usage, 0);
 
 	if (opt) {
@@ -512,6 +528,9 @@
 		usage_with_options(cat_file_usage, options);
 	}
 
+	if (batch.buffer_output < 0)
+		batch.buffer_output = batch.all_objects;
+
 	if (batch.enabled)
 		return batch_objects(&batch);
 
diff --git a/builtin/checkout.c b/builtin/checkout.c
index efcbd8f..32cf317 100644
--- a/builtin/checkout.c
+++ b/builtin/checkout.c
@@ -154,8 +154,8 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int checkout_stage(int stage, struct cache_entry *ce, int pos,
-			  struct checkout *state)
+static int checkout_stage(int stage, const struct cache_entry *ce, int pos,
+			  const struct checkout *state)
 {
 	while (pos < active_nr &&
 	       !strcmp(active_cache[pos]->name, ce->name)) {
@@ -169,7 +169,7 @@
 		return error(_("path '%s' does not have their version"), ce->name);
 }
 
-static int checkout_merged(int pos, struct checkout *state)
+static int checkout_merged(int pos, const struct checkout *state)
 {
 	struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[pos];
 	const char *path = ce->name;
@@ -242,7 +242,6 @@
 	struct checkout state;
 	static char *ps_matched;
 	unsigned char rev[20];
-	int flag;
 	struct commit *head;
 	int errs = 0;
 	struct lock_file *lock_file;
@@ -277,7 +276,7 @@
 
 	hold_locked_index(lock_file, 1);
 	if (read_cache_preload(&opts->pathspec) < 0)
-		return error(_("corrupt index file"));
+		return error(_("index file corrupt"));
 
 	if (opts->source_tree)
 		read_tree_some(opts->source_tree, &opts->pathspec);
@@ -375,7 +374,7 @@
 	if (write_locked_index(&the_index, lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK))
 		die(_("unable to write new index file"));
 
-	read_ref_full("HEAD", 0, rev, &flag);
+	read_ref_full("HEAD", 0, rev, NULL);
 	head = lookup_commit_reference_gently(rev, 1);
 
 	errs |= post_checkout_hook(head, head, 0);
@@ -471,7 +470,7 @@
 
 	hold_locked_index(lock_file, 1);
 	if (read_cache_preload(NULL) < 0)
-		return error(_("corrupt index file"));
+		return error(_("index file corrupt"));
 
 	resolve_undo_clear();
 	if (opts->force) {
@@ -568,10 +567,13 @@
 			o.ancestor = old->name;
 			o.branch1 = new->name;
 			o.branch2 = "local";
-			merge_trees(&o, new->commit->tree, work,
+			ret = merge_trees(&o, new->commit->tree, work,
 				old->commit->tree, &result);
+			if (ret < 0)
+				exit(128);
 			ret = reset_tree(new->commit->tree, opts, 0,
 					 writeout_error);
+			strbuf_release(&o.obuf);
 			if (ret)
 				return ret;
 		}
@@ -656,7 +658,8 @@
 		update_ref(msg.buf, "HEAD", new->commit->object.oid.hash, NULL,
 			   REF_NODEREF, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 		if (!opts->quiet) {
-			if (old->path && advice_detached_head)
+			if (old->path &&
+			    advice_detached_head && !opts->force_detach)
 				detach_advice(new->name);
 			describe_detached_head(_("HEAD is now at"), new->commit);
 		}
@@ -704,8 +707,7 @@
 static void describe_one_orphan(struct strbuf *sb, struct commit *commit)
 {
 	strbuf_addstr(sb, "  ");
-	strbuf_addstr(sb,
-		find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
+	strbuf_add_unique_abbrev(sb, commit->object.oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV);
 	strbuf_addch(sb, ' ');
 	if (!parse_commit(commit))
 		pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, sb);
@@ -983,7 +985,7 @@
 		int recover_with_dwim = dwim_new_local_branch_ok;
 
 		if (!has_dash_dash &&
-		    (check_filename(NULL, arg) || !no_wildcard(arg)))
+		    (check_filename(opts->prefix, arg) || !no_wildcard(arg)))
 			recover_with_dwim = 0;
 		/*
 		 * Accept "git checkout foo" and "git checkout foo --"
@@ -1036,7 +1038,7 @@
 
 	if (!*source_tree)                   /* case (1): want a tree */
 		die(_("reference is not a tree: %s"), arg);
-	if (!has_dash_dash) {/* case (3).(d) -> (1) */
+	if (!has_dash_dash) {	/* case (3).(d) -> (1) */
 		/*
 		 * Do not complain the most common case
 		 *	git checkout branch
@@ -1044,7 +1046,7 @@
 		 * it would be extremely annoying.
 		 */
 		if (argc)
-			verify_non_filename(NULL, arg);
+			verify_non_filename(opts->prefix, arg);
 	} else {
 		argcount++;
 		argv++;
@@ -1111,7 +1113,7 @@
 		char *head_ref = resolve_refdup("HEAD", 0, sha1, &flag);
 		if (head_ref &&
 		    (!(flag & REF_ISSYMREF) || strcmp(head_ref, new->path)))
-			die_if_checked_out(new->path);
+			die_if_checked_out(new->path, 1);
 		free(head_ref);
 	}
 
@@ -1139,7 +1141,7 @@
 		OPT_STRING('B', NULL, &opts.new_branch_force, N_("branch"),
 			   N_("create/reset and checkout a branch")),
 		OPT_BOOL('l', NULL, &opts.new_branch_log, N_("create reflog for new branch")),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "detach", &opts.force_detach, N_("detach the HEAD at named commit")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "detach", &opts.force_detach, N_("detach HEAD at named commit")),
 		OPT_SET_INT('t', "track",  &opts.track, N_("set upstream info for new branch"),
 			BRANCH_TRACK_EXPLICIT),
 		OPT_STRING(0, "orphan", &opts.new_orphan_branch, N_("new-branch"), N_("new unparented branch")),
diff --git a/builtin/clone.c b/builtin/clone.c
index 6616392..f044a8c 100644
--- a/builtin/clone.c
+++ b/builtin/clone.c
@@ -40,6 +40,7 @@
 
 static int option_no_checkout, option_bare, option_mirror, option_single_branch = -1;
 static int option_local = -1, option_no_hardlinks, option_shared, option_recursive;
+static int option_shallow_submodules;
 static char *option_template, *option_depth;
 static char *option_origin = NULL;
 static char *option_branch = NULL;
@@ -48,9 +49,10 @@
 static int option_verbosity;
 static int option_progress = -1;
 static enum transport_family family;
-static struct string_list option_config;
-static struct string_list option_reference;
+static struct string_list option_config = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+static struct string_list option_reference = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 static int option_dissociate;
+static int max_jobs = -1;
 
 static struct option builtin_clone_options[] = {
 	OPT__VERBOSITY(&option_verbosity),
@@ -73,6 +75,8 @@
 		    N_("initialize submodules in the clone")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "recurse-submodules", &option_recursive,
 		    N_("initialize submodules in the clone")),
+	OPT_INTEGER('j', "jobs", &max_jobs,
+		    N_("number of submodules cloned in parallel")),
 	OPT_STRING(0, "template", &option_template, N_("template-directory"),
 		   N_("directory from which templates will be used")),
 	OPT_STRING_LIST(0, "reference", &option_reference, N_("repo"),
@@ -89,6 +93,8 @@
 		    N_("create a shallow clone of that depth")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "single-branch", &option_single_branch,
 		    N_("clone only one branch, HEAD or --branch")),
+	OPT_BOOL(0, "shallow-submodules", &option_shallow_submodules,
+		    N_("any cloned submodules will be shallow")),
 	OPT_STRING(0, "separate-git-dir", &real_git_dir, N_("gitdir"),
 		   N_("separate git dir from working tree")),
 	OPT_STRING_LIST('c', "config", &option_config, N_("key=value"),
@@ -100,10 +106,6 @@
 	OPT_END()
 };
 
-static const char *argv_submodule[] = {
-	"submodule", "update", "--init", "--recursive", NULL
-};
-
 static const char *get_repo_path_1(struct strbuf *path, int *is_bundle)
 {
 	static char *suffix[] = { "/.git", "", ".git/.git", ".git" };
@@ -622,13 +624,13 @@
 	const struct ref *rm = mapped_refs;
 
 	if (check_connectivity) {
-		if (transport->progress)
-			fprintf(stderr, _("Checking connectivity... "));
-		if (check_everything_connected_with_transport(iterate_ref_map,
-							      0, &rm, transport))
+		struct check_connected_options opt = CHECK_CONNECTED_INIT;
+
+		opt.transport = transport;
+		opt.progress = transport->progress;
+
+		if (check_connected(iterate_ref_map, &rm, &opt))
 			die(_("remote did not send all necessary objects"));
-		if (transport->progress)
-			fprintf(stderr, _("done.\n"));
 	}
 
 	if (refs) {
@@ -732,8 +734,19 @@
 	err |= run_hook_le(NULL, "post-checkout", sha1_to_hex(null_sha1),
 			   sha1_to_hex(sha1), "1", NULL);
 
-	if (!err && option_recursive)
-		err = run_command_v_opt(argv_submodule, RUN_GIT_CMD);
+	if (!err && option_recursive) {
+		struct argv_array args = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
+		argv_array_pushl(&args, "submodule", "update", "--init", "--recursive", NULL);
+
+		if (option_shallow_submodules == 1)
+			argv_array_push(&args, "--depth=1");
+
+		if (max_jobs != -1)
+			argv_array_pushf(&args, "--jobs=%d", max_jobs);
+
+		err = run_command_v_opt(args.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD);
+		argv_array_clear(&args);
+	}
 
 	return err;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/commit-tree.c b/builtin/commit-tree.c
index 3feeffe..8a674bc 100644
--- a/builtin/commit-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/commit-tree.c
@@ -33,10 +33,6 @@
 	int status = git_gpg_config(var, value, NULL);
 	if (status)
 		return status;
-	if (!strcmp(var, "commit.gpgsign")) {
-		sign_commit = git_config_bool(var, value) ? "" : NULL;
-		return 0;
-	}
 	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
 }
 
diff --git a/builtin/commit.c b/builtin/commit.c
index e133037..7a1ade0 100644
--- a/builtin/commit.c
+++ b/builtin/commit.c
@@ -92,8 +92,9 @@
 "Then \"git cherry-pick --continue\" will resume cherry-picking\n"
 "the remaining commits.\n");
 
+static GIT_PATH_FUNC(git_path_commit_editmsg, "COMMIT_EDITMSG")
+
 static const char *use_message_buffer;
-static const char commit_editmsg[] = "COMMIT_EDITMSG";
 static struct lock_file index_lock; /* real index */
 static struct lock_file false_lock; /* used only for partial commits */
 static enum {
@@ -114,6 +115,7 @@
 static int all, also, interactive, patch_interactive, only, amend, signoff;
 static int edit_flag = -1; /* unspecified */
 static int quiet, verbose, no_verify, allow_empty, dry_run, renew_authorship;
+static int config_commit_verbose = -1; /* unspecified */
 static int no_post_rewrite, allow_empty_message;
 static char *untracked_files_arg, *force_date, *ignore_submodule_arg;
 static char *sign_commit;
@@ -186,6 +188,7 @@
 	gitmodules_config();
 	git_config(fn, s);
 	determine_whence(s);
+	init_diff_ui_defaults();
 	s->hints = advice_status_hints; /* must come after git_config() */
 }
 
@@ -712,7 +715,7 @@
 		char *buffer;
 		buffer = strstr(use_message_buffer, "\n\n");
 		if (buffer)
-			strbuf_addstr(&sb, buffer + 2);
+			strbuf_addstr(&sb, skip_blank_lines(buffer + 2));
 		hook_arg1 = "commit";
 		hook_arg2 = use_message;
 	} else if (fixup_message) {
@@ -770,9 +773,9 @@
 		hook_arg2 = "";
 	}
 
-	s->fp = fopen_for_writing(git_path(commit_editmsg));
+	s->fp = fopen_for_writing(git_path_commit_editmsg());
 	if (s->fp == NULL)
-		die_errno(_("could not open '%s'"), git_path(commit_editmsg));
+		die_errno(_("could not open '%s'"), git_path_commit_editmsg());
 
 	/* Ignore status.displayCommentPrefix: we do need comments in COMMIT_EDITMSG. */
 	old_display_comment_prefix = s->display_comment_prefix;
@@ -949,7 +952,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (run_commit_hook(use_editor, index_file, "prepare-commit-msg",
-			    git_path(commit_editmsg), hook_arg1, hook_arg2, NULL))
+			    git_path_commit_editmsg(), hook_arg1, hook_arg2, NULL))
 		return 0;
 
 	if (use_editor) {
@@ -957,7 +960,7 @@
 		const char *env[2] = { NULL };
 		env[0] =  index;
 		snprintf(index, sizeof(index), "GIT_INDEX_FILE=%s", index_file);
-		if (launch_editor(git_path(commit_editmsg), NULL, env)) {
+		if (launch_editor(git_path_commit_editmsg(), NULL, env)) {
 			fprintf(stderr,
 			_("Please supply the message using either -m or -F option.\n"));
 			exit(1);
@@ -965,7 +968,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (!no_verify &&
-	    run_commit_hook(use_editor, index_file, "commit-msg", git_path(commit_editmsg), NULL)) {
+	    run_commit_hook(use_editor, index_file, "commit-msg", git_path_commit_editmsg(), NULL)) {
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -1514,6 +1517,11 @@
 		sign_commit = git_config_bool(k, v) ? "" : NULL;
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(k, "commit.verbose")) {
+		int is_bool;
+		config_commit_verbose = git_config_bool_or_int(k, v, &is_bool);
+		return 0;
+	}
 
 	status = git_gpg_config(k, v, NULL);
 	if (status)
@@ -1609,7 +1617,7 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "interactive", &interactive, N_("interactively add files")),
 		OPT_BOOL('p', "patch", &patch_interactive, N_("interactively add changes")),
 		OPT_BOOL('o', "only", &only, N_("commit only specified files")),
-		OPT_BOOL('n', "no-verify", &no_verify, N_("bypass pre-commit hook")),
+		OPT_BOOL('n', "no-verify", &no_verify, N_("bypass pre-commit and commit-msg hooks")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "dry-run", &dry_run, N_("show what would be committed")),
 		OPT_SET_INT(0, "short", &status_format, N_("show status concisely"),
 			    STATUS_FORMAT_SHORT),
@@ -1660,9 +1668,13 @@
 		if (parse_commit(current_head))
 			die(_("could not parse HEAD commit"));
 	}
+	verbose = -1; /* unspecified */
 	argc = parse_and_validate_options(argc, argv, builtin_commit_options,
 					  builtin_commit_usage,
 					  prefix, current_head, &s);
+	if (verbose == -1)
+		verbose = (config_commit_verbose < 0) ? 0 : config_commit_verbose;
+
 	if (dry_run)
 		return dry_run_commit(argc, argv, prefix, current_head, &s);
 	index_file = prepare_index(argc, argv, prefix, current_head, 0);
@@ -1727,7 +1739,7 @@
 
 	/* Finally, get the commit message */
 	strbuf_reset(&sb);
-	if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path(commit_editmsg), 0) < 0) {
+	if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_commit_editmsg(), 0) < 0) {
 		int saved_errno = errno;
 		rollback_index_files();
 		die(_("could not read commit message: %s"), strerror(saved_errno));
diff --git a/builtin/config.c b/builtin/config.c
index 1d7c6ef..6cbf733 100644
--- a/builtin/config.c
+++ b/builtin/config.c
@@ -25,7 +25,6 @@
 static int use_global_config, use_system_config, use_local_config;
 static struct git_config_source given_config_source;
 static int actions, types;
-static const char *get_color_slot, *get_colorbool_slot;
 static int end_null;
 static int respect_includes = -1;
 static int show_origin;
@@ -604,7 +603,7 @@
 				      given_config_source.file : git_path("config"));
 		if (use_global_config) {
 			int fd = open(config_file, O_CREAT | O_EXCL | O_WRONLY, 0666);
-			if (fd) {
+			if (fd >= 0) {
 				char *content = default_user_config();
 				write_str_in_full(fd, content);
 				free(content);
diff --git a/builtin/diff.c b/builtin/diff.c
index d6b8f98..b7a9405 100644
--- a/builtin/diff.c
+++ b/builtin/diff.c
@@ -318,6 +318,7 @@
 
 	if (!no_index)
 		gitmodules_config();
+	init_diff_ui_defaults();
 	git_config(git_diff_ui_config, NULL);
 	precompose_argv(argc, argv);
 
diff --git a/builtin/fast-export.c b/builtin/fast-export.c
index 8164b58..c0652a7 100644
--- a/builtin/fast-export.c
+++ b/builtin/fast-export.c
@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@
 			print_path(spec->path);
 			putchar('\n');
 
-			if (!hashcmp(ospec->sha1, spec->sha1) &&
+			if (!oidcmp(&ospec->oid, &spec->oid) &&
 			    ospec->mode == spec->mode)
 				break;
 			/* fallthrough */
@@ -383,10 +383,10 @@
 			if (no_data || S_ISGITLINK(spec->mode))
 				printf("M %06o %s ", spec->mode,
 				       sha1_to_hex(anonymize ?
-						   anonymize_sha1(spec->sha1) :
-						   spec->sha1));
+						   anonymize_sha1(spec->oid.hash) :
+						   spec->oid.hash));
 			else {
-				struct object *object = lookup_object(spec->sha1);
+				struct object *object = lookup_object(spec->oid.hash);
 				printf("M %06o :%d ", spec->mode,
 				       get_object_mark(object));
 			}
@@ -572,7 +572,7 @@
 	/* Export the referenced blobs, and remember the marks. */
 	for (i = 0; i < diff_queued_diff.nr; i++)
 		if (!S_ISGITLINK(diff_queued_diff.queue[i]->two->mode))
-			export_blob(diff_queued_diff.queue[i]->two->sha1);
+			export_blob(diff_queued_diff.queue[i]->two->oid.hash);
 
 	refname = commit->util;
 	if (anonymize) {
diff --git a/builtin/fetch.c b/builtin/fetch.c
index e4639d8..164623b 100644
--- a/builtin/fetch.c
+++ b/builtin/fetch.c
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@
 #include "submodule.h"
 #include "connected.h"
 #include "argv-array.h"
+#include "utf8.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_fetch_usage[] = {
 	N_("git fetch [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]"),
@@ -37,7 +38,7 @@
 static int all, append, dry_run, force, keep, multiple, update_head_ok, verbosity;
 static int progress = -1, recurse_submodules = RECURSE_SUBMODULES_DEFAULT;
 static int tags = TAGS_DEFAULT, unshallow, update_shallow;
-static int max_children = 1;
+static int max_children = -1;
 static enum transport_family family;
 static const char *depth;
 static const char *upload_pack;
@@ -449,7 +450,132 @@
 			   : STORE_REF_ERROR_OTHER;
 }
 
-#define REFCOL_WIDTH  10
+static int refcol_width = 10;
+static int compact_format;
+
+static void adjust_refcol_width(const struct ref *ref)
+{
+	int max, rlen, llen, len;
+
+	/* uptodate lines are only shown on high verbosity level */
+	if (!verbosity && !oidcmp(&ref->peer_ref->old_oid, &ref->old_oid))
+		return;
+
+	max    = term_columns();
+	rlen   = utf8_strwidth(prettify_refname(ref->name));
+
+	llen   = utf8_strwidth(prettify_refname(ref->peer_ref->name));
+
+	/*
+	 * rough estimation to see if the output line is too long and
+	 * should not be counted (we can't do precise calculation
+	 * anyway because we don't know if the error explanation part
+	 * will be printed in update_local_ref)
+	 */
+	if (compact_format) {
+		llen = 0;
+		max = max * 2 / 3;
+	}
+	len = 21 /* flag and summary */ + rlen + 4 /* -> */ + llen;
+	if (len >= max)
+		return;
+
+	/*
+	 * Not precise calculation for compact mode because '*' can
+	 * appear on the left hand side of '->' and shrink the column
+	 * back.
+	 */
+	if (refcol_width < rlen)
+		refcol_width = rlen;
+}
+
+static void prepare_format_display(struct ref *ref_map)
+{
+	struct ref *rm;
+	const char *format = "full";
+
+	git_config_get_string_const("fetch.output", &format);
+	if (!strcasecmp(format, "full"))
+		compact_format = 0;
+	else if (!strcasecmp(format, "compact"))
+		compact_format = 1;
+	else
+		die(_("configuration fetch.output contains invalid value %s"),
+		    format);
+
+	for (rm = ref_map; rm; rm = rm->next) {
+		if (rm->status == REF_STATUS_REJECT_SHALLOW ||
+		    !rm->peer_ref ||
+		    !strcmp(rm->name, "HEAD"))
+			continue;
+
+		adjust_refcol_width(rm);
+	}
+}
+
+static void print_remote_to_local(struct strbuf *display,
+				  const char *remote, const char *local)
+{
+	strbuf_addf(display, "%-*s -> %s", refcol_width, remote, local);
+}
+
+static int find_and_replace(struct strbuf *haystack,
+			    const char *needle,
+			    const char *placeholder)
+{
+	const char *p = strstr(haystack->buf, needle);
+	int plen, nlen;
+
+	if (!p)
+		return 0;
+
+	if (p > haystack->buf && p[-1] != '/')
+		return 0;
+
+	plen = strlen(p);
+	nlen = strlen(needle);
+	if (plen > nlen && p[nlen] != '/')
+		return 0;
+
+	strbuf_splice(haystack, p - haystack->buf, nlen,
+		      placeholder, strlen(placeholder));
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static void print_compact(struct strbuf *display,
+			  const char *remote, const char *local)
+{
+	struct strbuf r = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf l = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	if (!strcmp(remote, local)) {
+		strbuf_addf(display, "%-*s -> *", refcol_width, remote);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&r, remote);
+	strbuf_addstr(&l, local);
+
+	if (!find_and_replace(&r, local, "*"))
+		find_and_replace(&l, remote, "*");
+	print_remote_to_local(display, r.buf, l.buf);
+
+	strbuf_release(&r);
+	strbuf_release(&l);
+}
+
+static void format_display(struct strbuf *display, char code,
+			   const char *summary, const char *error,
+			   const char *remote, const char *local)
+{
+	strbuf_addf(display, "%c %-*s ", code, TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(summary));
+	if (!compact_format)
+		print_remote_to_local(display, remote, local);
+	else
+		print_compact(display, remote, local);
+	if (error)
+		strbuf_addf(display, "  (%s)", error);
+}
 
 static int update_local_ref(struct ref *ref,
 			    const char *remote,
@@ -467,9 +593,8 @@
 
 	if (!oidcmp(&ref->old_oid, &ref->new_oid)) {
 		if (verbosity > 0)
-			strbuf_addf(display, "= %-*s %-*s -> %s",
-				    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(_("[up to date]")),
-				    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref);
+			format_display(display, '=', _("[up to date]"), NULL,
+				       remote, pretty_ref);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -481,10 +606,9 @@
 		 * If this is the head, and it's not okay to update
 		 * the head, and the old value of the head isn't empty...
 		 */
-		strbuf_addf(display,
-			    _("! %-*s %-*s -> %s  (can't fetch in current branch)"),
-			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(_("[rejected]")),
-			    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref);
+		format_display(display, '!', _("[rejected]"),
+			       _("can't fetch in current branch"),
+			       remote, pretty_ref);
 		return 1;
 	}
 
@@ -492,11 +616,9 @@
 	    starts_with(ref->name, "refs/tags/")) {
 		int r;
 		r = s_update_ref("updating tag", ref, 0);
-		strbuf_addf(display, "%c %-*s %-*s -> %s%s",
-			    r ? '!' : '-',
-			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(_("[tag update]")),
-			    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref,
-			    r ? _("  (unable to update local ref)") : "");
+		format_display(display, r ? '!' : 't', _("[tag update]"),
+			       r ? _("unable to update local ref") : NULL,
+			       remote, pretty_ref);
 		return r;
 	}
 
@@ -527,11 +649,9 @@
 		    (recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON))
 			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_oid.hash);
 		r = s_update_ref(msg, ref, 0);
-		strbuf_addf(display, "%c %-*s %-*s -> %s%s",
-			    r ? '!' : '*',
-			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(what),
-			    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref,
-			    r ? _("  (unable to update local ref)") : "");
+		format_display(display, r ? '!' : '*', what,
+			       r ? _("unable to update local ref") : NULL,
+			       remote, pretty_ref);
 		return r;
 	}
 
@@ -545,11 +665,9 @@
 		    (recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON))
 			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_oid.hash);
 		r = s_update_ref("fast-forward", ref, 1);
-		strbuf_addf(display, "%c %-*s %-*s -> %s%s",
-			    r ? '!' : ' ',
-			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY_WIDTH, quickref.buf,
-			    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref,
-			    r ? _("  (unable to update local ref)") : "");
+		format_display(display, r ? '!' : ' ', quickref.buf,
+			       r ? _("unable to update local ref") : NULL,
+			       remote, pretty_ref);
 		strbuf_release(&quickref);
 		return r;
 	} else if (force || ref->force) {
@@ -562,18 +680,14 @@
 		    (recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON))
 			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_oid.hash);
 		r = s_update_ref("forced-update", ref, 1);
-		strbuf_addf(display, "%c %-*s %-*s -> %s  (%s)",
-			    r ? '!' : '+',
-			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY_WIDTH, quickref.buf,
-			    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref,
-			    r ? _("unable to update local ref") : _("forced update"));
+		format_display(display, r ? '!' : '+', quickref.buf,
+			       r ? _("unable to update local ref") : _("forced update"),
+			       remote, pretty_ref);
 		strbuf_release(&quickref);
 		return r;
 	} else {
-		strbuf_addf(display, "! %-*s %-*s -> %s  %s",
-			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(_("[rejected]")),
-			    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref,
-			    _("(non-fast-forward)"));
+		format_display(display, '!', _("[rejected]"), _("non-fast-forward"),
+			       remote, pretty_ref);
 		return 1;
 	}
 }
@@ -607,7 +721,7 @@
 
 	fp = fopen(filename, "a");
 	if (!fp)
-		return error(_("cannot open %s: %s\n"), filename, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("cannot open %s"), filename);
 
 	if (raw_url)
 		url = transport_anonymize_url(raw_url);
@@ -615,11 +729,13 @@
 		url = xstrdup("foreign");
 
 	rm = ref_map;
-	if (check_everything_connected(iterate_ref_map, 0, &rm)) {
+	if (check_connected(iterate_ref_map, &rm, NULL)) {
 		rc = error(_("%s did not send all necessary objects\n"), url);
 		goto abort;
 	}
 
+	prepare_format_display(ref_map);
+
 	/*
 	 * We do a pass for each fetch_head_status type in their enum order, so
 	 * merged entries are written before not-for-merge. That lets readers
@@ -714,11 +830,10 @@
 				rc |= update_local_ref(ref, what, rm, &note);
 				free(ref);
 			} else
-				strbuf_addf(&note, "* %-*s %-*s -> FETCH_HEAD",
-					    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY_WIDTH,
-					    *kind ? kind : "branch",
-					    REFCOL_WIDTH,
-					    *what ? what : "HEAD");
+				format_display(&note, '*',
+					       *kind ? kind : "branch", NULL,
+					       *what ? what : "HEAD",
+					       "FETCH_HEAD");
 			if (note.len) {
 				if (verbosity >= 0 && !shown_url) {
 					fprintf(stderr, _("From %.*s\n"),
@@ -751,6 +866,7 @@
 static int quickfetch(struct ref *ref_map)
 {
 	struct ref *rm = ref_map;
+	struct check_connected_options opt = CHECK_CONNECTED_INIT;
 
 	/*
 	 * If we are deepening a shallow clone we already have these
@@ -761,7 +877,8 @@
 	 */
 	if (depth)
 		return -1;
-	return check_everything_connected(iterate_ref_map, 1, &rm);
+	opt.quiet = 1;
+	return check_connected(iterate_ref_map, &rm, &opt);
 }
 
 static int fetch_refs(struct transport *transport, struct ref *ref_map)
@@ -806,19 +923,21 @@
 		for (ref = stale_refs; ref; ref = ref->next)
 			string_list_append(&refnames, ref->name);
 
-		result = delete_refs(&refnames);
+		result = delete_refs(&refnames, 0);
 		string_list_clear(&refnames, 0);
 	}
 
 	if (verbosity >= 0) {
 		for (ref = stale_refs; ref; ref = ref->next) {
+			struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 			if (!shown_url) {
 				fprintf(stderr, _("From %.*s\n"), url_len, url);
 				shown_url = 1;
 			}
-			fprintf(stderr, " x %-*s %-*s -> %s\n",
-				TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(_("[deleted]")),
-				REFCOL_WIDTH, _("(none)"), prettify_refname(ref->name));
+			format_display(&sb, '-', _("[deleted]"), NULL,
+				       _("(none)"), prettify_refname(ref->name));
+			fprintf(stderr, " %s\n",sb.buf);
+			strbuf_release(&sb);
 			warn_dangling_symref(stderr, dangling_msg, ref->name);
 		}
 	}
@@ -848,7 +967,7 @@
 	FILE *fp = fopen_for_writing(filename);
 
 	if (!fp)
-		return error(_("cannot open %s: %s\n"), filename, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("cannot open %s"), filename);
 	fclose(fp);
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -1005,7 +1124,7 @@
 			size_t wordlen = strcspn(value, " \t\n");
 
 			if (wordlen >= 1)
-				string_list_append(g->list,
+				string_list_append_nodup(g->list,
 						   xstrndup(value, wordlen));
 			value += wordlen + (value[wordlen] != '\0');
 		}
@@ -1143,7 +1262,7 @@
 int cmd_fetch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int i;
-	struct string_list list = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+	struct string_list list = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 	struct remote *remote;
 	int result = 0;
 	struct argv_array argv_gc_auto = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
@@ -1226,8 +1345,6 @@
 		argv_array_clear(&options);
 	}
 
-	/* All names were strdup()ed or strndup()ed */
-	list.strdup_strings = 1;
 	string_list_clear(&list, 0);
 
 	close_all_packs();
diff --git a/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c b/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
index e5658c3..ac84e99 100644
--- a/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
+++ b/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
@@ -272,7 +272,7 @@
 static void add_people_count(struct strbuf *out, struct string_list *people)
 {
 	if (people->nr == 1)
-		strbuf_addf(out, "%s", people->items[0].string);
+		strbuf_addstr(out, people->items[0].string);
 	else if (people->nr == 2)
 		strbuf_addf(out, "%s (%d) and %s (%d)",
 			    people->items[0].string,
diff --git a/builtin/fsck.c b/builtin/fsck.c
index 55eac75..2de272e 100644
--- a/builtin/fsck.c
+++ b/builtin/fsck.c
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
 #include "dir.h"
 #include "progress.h"
 #include "streaming.h"
+#include "decorate.h"
 
 #define REACHABLE 0x0001
 #define SEEN      0x0002
@@ -35,11 +36,26 @@
 static int verbose;
 static int show_progress = -1;
 static int show_dangling = 1;
+static int name_objects;
 #define ERROR_OBJECT 01
 #define ERROR_REACHABLE 02
 #define ERROR_PACK 04
 #define ERROR_REFS 010
 
+static const char *describe_object(struct object *obj)
+{
+	static struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	char *name = name_objects ?
+		lookup_decoration(fsck_walk_options.object_names, obj) : NULL;
+
+	strbuf_reset(&buf);
+	strbuf_addstr(&buf, oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+	if (name)
+		strbuf_addf(&buf, " (%s)", name);
+
+	return buf.buf;
+}
+
 static int fsck_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
 	if (strcmp(var, "fsck.skiplist") == 0) {
@@ -67,7 +83,7 @@
 			const char *err)
 {
 	fprintf(stderr, "%s in %s %s: %s\n",
-		msg_type, typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid), err);
+		msg_type, typename(obj->type), describe_object(obj), err);
 }
 
 static int objerror(struct object *obj, const char *err)
@@ -77,7 +93,8 @@
 	return -1;
 }
 
-static int fsck_error_func(struct object *obj, int type, const char *message)
+static int fsck_error_func(struct fsck_options *o,
+	struct object *obj, int type, const char *message)
 {
 	objreport(obj, (type == FSCK_WARN) ? "warning" : "error", message);
 	return (type == FSCK_WARN) ? 0 : 1;
@@ -97,7 +114,7 @@
 	if (!obj) {
 		/* ... these references to parent->fld are safe here */
 		printf("broken link from %7s %s\n",
-			   typename(parent->type), oid_to_hex(&parent->oid));
+			   typename(parent->type), describe_object(parent));
 		printf("broken link from %7s %s\n",
 			   (type == OBJ_ANY ? "unknown" : typename(type)), "unknown");
 		errors_found |= ERROR_REACHABLE;
@@ -114,9 +131,9 @@
 	if (!(obj->flags & HAS_OBJ)) {
 		if (parent && !has_object_file(&obj->oid)) {
 			printf("broken link from %7s %s\n",
-				 typename(parent->type), oid_to_hex(&parent->oid));
+				 typename(parent->type), describe_object(parent));
 			printf("              to %7s %s\n",
-				 typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+				 typename(obj->type), describe_object(obj));
 			errors_found |= ERROR_REACHABLE;
 		}
 		return 1;
@@ -190,7 +207,8 @@
 			return; /* it is in pack - forget about it */
 		if (connectivity_only && has_object_file(&obj->oid))
 			return;
-		printf("missing %s %s\n", typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+		printf("missing %s %s\n", typename(obj->type),
+			describe_object(obj));
 		errors_found |= ERROR_REACHABLE;
 		return;
 	}
@@ -215,7 +233,8 @@
 	 * since this is something that is prunable.
 	 */
 	if (show_unreachable) {
-		printf("unreachable %s %s\n", typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+		printf("unreachable %s %s\n", typename(obj->type),
+			describe_object(obj));
 		return;
 	}
 
@@ -234,11 +253,11 @@
 	if (!obj->used) {
 		if (show_dangling)
 			printf("dangling %s %s\n", typename(obj->type),
-			       oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+			       describe_object(obj));
 		if (write_lost_and_found) {
 			char *filename = git_pathdup("lost-found/%s/%s",
 				obj->type == OBJ_COMMIT ? "commit" : "other",
-				oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+				describe_object(obj));
 			FILE *f;
 
 			if (safe_create_leading_directories_const(filename)) {
@@ -252,7 +271,7 @@
 				if (stream_blob_to_fd(fileno(f), obj->oid.hash, NULL, 1))
 					die_errno("Could not write '%s'", filename);
 			} else
-				fprintf(f, "%s\n", oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+				fprintf(f, "%s\n", describe_object(obj));
 			if (fclose(f))
 				die_errno("Could not finish '%s'",
 					  filename);
@@ -271,7 +290,7 @@
 static void check_object(struct object *obj)
 {
 	if (verbose)
-		fprintf(stderr, "Checking %s\n", oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+		fprintf(stderr, "Checking %s\n", describe_object(obj));
 
 	if (obj->flags & REACHABLE)
 		check_reachable_object(obj);
@@ -307,7 +326,7 @@
 
 	if (verbose)
 		fprintf(stderr, "Checking %s %s\n",
-			typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+			typename(obj->type), describe_object(obj));
 
 	if (fsck_walk(obj, NULL, &fsck_obj_options))
 		objerror(obj, "broken links");
@@ -326,15 +345,17 @@
 		free_commit_buffer(commit);
 
 		if (!commit->parents && show_root)
-			printf("root %s\n", oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
+			printf("root %s\n", describe_object(&commit->object));
 	}
 
 	if (obj->type == OBJ_TAG) {
 		struct tag *tag = (struct tag *) obj;
 
 		if (show_tags && tag->tagged) {
-			printf("tagged %s %s", typename(tag->tagged->type), oid_to_hex(&tag->tagged->oid));
-			printf(" (%s) in %s\n", tag->tag, oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
+			printf("tagged %s %s", typename(tag->tagged->type),
+				describe_object(tag->tagged));
+			printf(" (%s) in %s\n", tag->tag,
+				describe_object(&tag->object));
 		}
 	}
 
@@ -356,6 +377,10 @@
 static int fsck_obj_buffer(const unsigned char *sha1, enum object_type type,
 			   unsigned long size, void *buffer, int *eaten)
 {
+	/*
+	 * Note, buffer may be NULL if type is OBJ_BLOB. See
+	 * verify_packfile(), data_valid variable for details.
+	 */
 	struct object *obj;
 	obj = parse_object_buffer(sha1, type, size, buffer, eaten);
 	if (!obj) {
@@ -368,13 +393,18 @@
 
 static int default_refs;
 
-static void fsck_handle_reflog_sha1(const char *refname, unsigned char *sha1)
+static void fsck_handle_reflog_sha1(const char *refname, unsigned char *sha1,
+	unsigned long timestamp)
 {
 	struct object *obj;
 
 	if (!is_null_sha1(sha1)) {
 		obj = lookup_object(sha1);
 		if (obj) {
+			if (timestamp && name_objects)
+				add_decoration(fsck_walk_options.object_names,
+					obj,
+					xstrfmt("%s@{%ld}", refname, timestamp));
 			obj->used = 1;
 			mark_object_reachable(obj);
 		} else {
@@ -394,8 +424,8 @@
 		fprintf(stderr, "Checking reflog %s->%s\n",
 			sha1_to_hex(osha1), sha1_to_hex(nsha1));
 
-	fsck_handle_reflog_sha1(refname, osha1);
-	fsck_handle_reflog_sha1(refname, nsha1);
+	fsck_handle_reflog_sha1(refname, osha1, 0);
+	fsck_handle_reflog_sha1(refname, nsha1, timestamp);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -424,6 +454,9 @@
 	}
 	default_refs++;
 	obj->used = 1;
+	if (name_objects)
+		add_decoration(fsck_walk_options.object_names,
+			obj, xstrdup(refname));
 	mark_object_reachable(obj);
 
 	return 0;
@@ -493,13 +526,12 @@
 
 static int fsck_head_link(void)
 {
-	int flag;
 	int null_is_error = 0;
 
 	if (verbose)
 		fprintf(stderr, "Checking HEAD link\n");
 
-	head_points_at = resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", 0, head_oid.hash, &flag);
+	head_points_at = resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", 0, head_oid.hash, NULL);
 	if (!head_points_at) {
 		errors_found |= ERROR_REFS;
 		return error("Invalid HEAD");
@@ -540,6 +572,9 @@
 			return 1;
 		}
 		obj->used = 1;
+		if (name_objects)
+			add_decoration(fsck_walk_options.object_names,
+				obj, xstrdup(":"));
 		mark_object_reachable(obj);
 		if (obj->type != OBJ_TREE)
 			err |= objerror(obj, "non-tree in cache-tree");
@@ -568,6 +603,7 @@
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "lost-found", &write_lost_and_found,
 				N_("write dangling objects in .git/lost-found")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "progress", &show_progress, N_("show progress")),
+	OPT_BOOL(0, "name-objects", &name_objects, N_("show verbose names for reachable objects")),
 	OPT_END(),
 };
 
@@ -597,6 +633,10 @@
 		include_reflogs = 0;
 	}
 
+	if (name_objects)
+		fsck_walk_options.object_names =
+			xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct decoration));
+
 	git_config(fsck_config, NULL);
 
 	fsck_head_link();
@@ -652,6 +692,9 @@
 				continue;
 
 			obj->used = 1;
+			if (name_objects)
+				add_decoration(fsck_walk_options.object_names,
+					obj, xstrdup(arg));
 			mark_object_reachable(obj);
 			heads++;
 			continue;
@@ -684,6 +727,10 @@
 				continue;
 			obj = &blob->object;
 			obj->used = 1;
+			if (name_objects)
+				add_decoration(fsck_walk_options.object_names,
+					obj,
+					xstrfmt(":%s", active_cache[i]->name));
 			mark_object_reachable(obj);
 		}
 		if (active_cache_tree)
diff --git a/builtin/gc.c b/builtin/gc.c
index c583aad..069950d 100644
--- a/builtin/gc.c
+++ b/builtin/gc.c
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
 
 static int pack_refs = 1;
 static int prune_reflogs = 1;
-static int aggressive_depth = 250;
+static int aggressive_depth = 50;
 static int aggressive_window = 250;
 static int gc_auto_threshold = 6700;
 static int gc_auto_pack_limit = 50;
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@
 		 */
 		cnt++;
 	}
-	return gc_auto_pack_limit <= cnt;
+	return gc_auto_pack_limit < cnt;
 }
 
 static void add_repack_all_option(void)
diff --git a/builtin/grep.c b/builtin/grep.c
index 111b6f6..ae73831 100644
--- a/builtin/grep.c
+++ b/builtin/grep.c
@@ -386,7 +386,7 @@
 
 	for (nr = 0; nr < active_nr; nr++) {
 		const struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[nr];
-		if (!S_ISREG(ce->ce_mode) || ce_intent_to_add(ce))
+		if (!S_ISREG(ce->ce_mode))
 			continue;
 		if (!ce_path_match(ce, pathspec, NULL))
 			continue;
@@ -396,7 +396,7 @@
 		 * cache version instead
 		 */
 		if (cached || (ce->ce_flags & CE_VALID) || ce_skip_worktree(ce)) {
-			if (ce_stage(ce))
+			if (ce_stage(ce) || ce_intent_to_add(ce))
 				continue;
 			hit |= grep_sha1(opt, ce->sha1, ce->name, 0, ce->name);
 		}
@@ -438,7 +438,7 @@
 		strbuf_add(base, entry.path, te_len);
 
 		if (S_ISREG(entry.mode)) {
-			hit |= grep_sha1(opt, entry.sha1, base->buf, tn_len,
+			hit |= grep_sha1(opt, entry.oid->hash, base->buf, tn_len,
 					 check_attr ? base->buf + tn_len : NULL);
 		}
 		else if (S_ISDIR(entry.mode)) {
@@ -447,10 +447,10 @@
 			void *data;
 			unsigned long size;
 
-			data = lock_and_read_sha1_file(entry.sha1, &type, &size);
+			data = lock_and_read_sha1_file(entry.oid->hash, &type, &size);
 			if (!data)
 				die(_("unable to read tree (%s)"),
-				    sha1_to_hex(entry.sha1));
+				    oid_to_hex(entry.oid));
 
 			strbuf_addch(base, '/');
 			init_tree_desc(&sub, data, size);
diff --git a/builtin/help.c b/builtin/help.c
index 3c55ce4..e8f79d7 100644
--- a/builtin/help.c
+++ b/builtin/help.c
@@ -127,7 +127,7 @@
 			path = "emacsclient";
 		strbuf_addf(&man_page, "(woman \"%s\")", page);
 		execlp(path, "emacsclient", "-e", man_page.buf, (char *)NULL);
-		warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno(_("failed to exec '%s'"), path);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -148,7 +148,7 @@
 			path = "kfmclient";
 		strbuf_addf(&man_page, "man:%s(1)", page);
 		execlp(path, filename, "newTab", man_page.buf, (char *)NULL);
-		warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno(_("failed to exec '%s'"), path);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -157,7 +157,7 @@
 	if (!path)
 		path = "man";
 	execlp(path, "man", page, (char *)NULL);
-	warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
+	warning_errno(_("failed to exec '%s'"), path);
 }
 
 static void exec_man_cmd(const char *cmd, const char *page)
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@
 	struct strbuf shell_cmd = STRBUF_INIT;
 	strbuf_addf(&shell_cmd, "%s %s", cmd, page);
 	execl(SHELL_PATH, SHELL_PATH, "-c", shell_cmd.buf, (char *)NULL);
-	warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), cmd, strerror(errno));
+	warning(_("failed to exec '%s'"), cmd);
 }
 
 static void add_man_viewer(const char *name)
@@ -379,17 +379,10 @@
 	free(to_free);
 }
 
-/*
- * If open_html is not defined in a platform-specific way (see for
- * example compat/mingw.h), we use the script web--browse to display
- * HTML.
- */
-#ifndef open_html
 static void open_html(const char *path)
 {
 	execl_git_cmd("web--browse", "-c", "help.browser", path, (char *)NULL);
 }
-#endif
 
 static void show_html_page(const char *git_cmd)
 {
diff --git a/builtin/index-pack.c b/builtin/index-pack.c
index e8c71fc..1d2ea58 100644
--- a/builtin/index-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/index-pack.c
@@ -77,6 +77,7 @@
 static int do_fsck_object;
 static struct fsck_options fsck_options = FSCK_OPTIONS_STRICT;
 static int verbose;
+static int show_resolving_progress;
 static int show_stat;
 static int check_self_contained_and_connected;
 
@@ -338,10 +339,10 @@
 	use(sizeof(struct pack_header));
 }
 
-static NORETURN void bad_object(unsigned long offset, const char *format,
+static NORETURN void bad_object(off_t offset, const char *format,
 		       ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)));
 
-static NORETURN void bad_object(unsigned long offset, const char *format, ...)
+static NORETURN void bad_object(off_t offset, const char *format, ...)
 {
 	va_list params;
 	char buf[1024];
@@ -349,7 +350,8 @@
 	va_start(params, format);
 	vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), format, params);
 	va_end(params);
-	die(_("pack has bad object at offset %lu: %s"), offset, buf);
+	die(_("pack has bad object at offset %"PRIuMAX": %s"),
+	    (uintmax_t)offset, buf);
 }
 
 static inline struct thread_local *get_thread_data(void)
@@ -429,7 +431,7 @@
 	return (type == OBJ_REF_DELTA || type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA);
 }
 
-static void *unpack_entry_data(unsigned long offset, unsigned long size,
+static void *unpack_entry_data(off_t offset, unsigned long size,
 			       enum object_type type, unsigned char *sha1)
 {
 	static char fixed_buf[8192];
@@ -549,13 +551,13 @@
 			 void *cb_data)
 {
 	off_t from = obj[0].idx.offset + obj[0].hdr_size;
-	unsigned long len = obj[1].idx.offset - from;
+	off_t len = obj[1].idx.offset - from;
 	unsigned char *data, *inbuf;
 	git_zstream stream;
 	int status;
 
 	data = xmallocz(consume ? 64*1024 : obj->size);
-	inbuf = xmalloc((len < 64*1024) ? len : 64*1024);
+	inbuf = xmalloc((len < 64*1024) ? (int)len : 64*1024);
 
 	memset(&stream, 0, sizeof(stream));
 	git_inflate_init(&stream);
@@ -563,15 +565,15 @@
 	stream.avail_out = consume ? 64*1024 : obj->size;
 
 	do {
-		ssize_t n = (len < 64*1024) ? len : 64*1024;
+		ssize_t n = (len < 64*1024) ? (ssize_t)len : 64*1024;
 		n = xpread(get_thread_data()->pack_fd, inbuf, n, from);
 		if (n < 0)
 			die_errno(_("cannot pread pack file"));
 		if (!n)
-			die(Q_("premature end of pack file, %lu byte missing",
-			       "premature end of pack file, %lu bytes missing",
-			       len),
-			    len);
+			die(Q_("premature end of pack file, %"PRIuMAX" byte missing",
+			       "premature end of pack file, %"PRIuMAX" bytes missing",
+			       (unsigned int)len),
+			    (uintmax_t)len);
 		from += n;
 		len -= n;
 		stream.next_in = inbuf;
@@ -1190,7 +1192,7 @@
 	qsort(ref_deltas, nr_ref_deltas, sizeof(struct ref_delta_entry),
 	      compare_ref_delta_entry);
 
-	if (verbose)
+	if (verbose || show_resolving_progress)
 		progress = start_progress(_("Resolving deltas"),
 					  nr_ref_deltas + nr_ofs_deltas);
 
@@ -1625,6 +1627,7 @@
 	struct pack_idx_option opts;
 	unsigned char pack_sha1[20];
 	unsigned foreign_nr = 1;	/* zero is a "good" value, assume bad */
+	int report_end_of_input = 0;
 
 	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
 		usage(index_pack_usage);
@@ -1694,6 +1697,10 @@
 				input_len = sizeof(*hdr);
 			} else if (!strcmp(arg, "-v")) {
 				verbose = 1;
+			} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--show-resolving-progress")) {
+				show_resolving_progress = 1;
+			} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--report-end-of-input")) {
+				report_end_of_input = 1;
 			} else if (!strcmp(arg, "-o")) {
 				if (index_name || (i+1) >= argc)
 					usage(index_pack_usage);
@@ -1751,6 +1758,8 @@
 		obj_stat = xcalloc(st_add(nr_objects, 1), sizeof(struct object_stat));
 	ofs_deltas = xcalloc(nr_objects, sizeof(struct ofs_delta_entry));
 	parse_pack_objects(pack_sha1);
+	if (report_end_of_input)
+		write_in_full(2, "\0", 1);
 	resolve_deltas();
 	conclude_pack(fix_thin_pack, curr_pack, pack_sha1);
 	free(ofs_deltas);
diff --git a/builtin/init-db.c b/builtin/init-db.c
index b2d8d40..3a45f0b 100644
--- a/builtin/init-db.c
+++ b/builtin/init-db.c
@@ -397,13 +397,16 @@
 	if (!(flags & INIT_DB_QUIET)) {
 		int len = strlen(git_dir);
 
-		/* TRANSLATORS: The first '%s' is either "Reinitialized
-		   existing" or "Initialized empty", the second " shared" or
-		   "", and the last '%s%s' is the verbatim directory name. */
-		printf(_("%s%s Git repository in %s%s\n"),
-		       reinit ? _("Reinitialized existing") : _("Initialized empty"),
-		       get_shared_repository() ? _(" shared") : "",
-		       git_dir, len && git_dir[len-1] != '/' ? "/" : "");
+		if (reinit)
+			printf(get_shared_repository()
+			       ? _("Reinitialized existing shared Git repository in %s%s\n")
+			       : _("Reinitialized existing Git repository in %s%s\n"),
+			       git_dir, len && git_dir[len-1] != '/' ? "/" : "");
+		else
+			printf(get_shared_repository()
+			       ? _("Initialized empty shared Git repository in %s%s\n")
+			       : _("Initialized empty Git repository in %s%s\n"),
+			       git_dir, len && git_dir[len-1] != '/' ? "/" : "");
 	}
 
 	return 0;
diff --git a/builtin/interpret-trailers.c b/builtin/interpret-trailers.c
index b99ae4b..175f147 100644
--- a/builtin/interpret-trailers.c
+++ b/builtin/interpret-trailers.c
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
 {
 	int in_place = 0;
 	int trim_empty = 0;
-	struct string_list trailers = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+	struct string_list trailers = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "in-place", &in_place, N_("edit files in place")),
diff --git a/builtin/log.c b/builtin/log.c
index 0d738d6..cd9c4a4 100644
--- a/builtin/log.c
+++ b/builtin/log.c
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
 static int default_abbrev_commit;
 static int default_show_root = 1;
 static int default_follow;
+static int default_show_signature;
 static int decoration_style;
 static int decoration_given;
 static int use_mailmap_config;
@@ -100,6 +101,12 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void init_log_defaults(void)
+{
+	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_diff_ui_defaults();
+}
+
 static void cmd_log_init_defaults(struct rev_info *rev)
 {
 	if (fmt_pretty)
@@ -113,6 +120,7 @@
 	rev->abbrev_commit = default_abbrev_commit;
 	rev->show_root_diff = default_show_root;
 	rev->subject_prefix = fmt_patch_subject_prefix;
+	rev->show_signature = default_show_signature;
 	DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev->diffopt, ALLOW_TEXTCONV);
 
 	if (default_date_mode)
@@ -230,16 +238,17 @@
 		if (rev->commit_format != CMIT_FMT_ONELINE)
 			putchar(rev->diffopt.line_termination);
 	}
-	printf(_("Final output: %d %s\n"), nr, stage);
+	fprintf(rev->diffopt.file, _("Final output: %d %s\n"), nr, stage);
 }
 
 static struct itimerval early_output_timer;
 
 static void log_show_early(struct rev_info *revs, struct commit_list *list)
 {
-	int i = revs->early_output;
+	int i = revs->early_output, close_file = revs->diffopt.close_file;
 	int show_header = 1;
 
+	revs->diffopt.close_file = 0;
 	sort_in_topological_order(&list, revs->sort_order);
 	while (list && i) {
 		struct commit *commit = list->item;
@@ -256,14 +265,19 @@
 		case commit_ignore:
 			break;
 		case commit_error:
+			if (close_file)
+				fclose(revs->diffopt.file);
 			return;
 		}
 		list = list->next;
 	}
 
 	/* Did we already get enough commits for the early output? */
-	if (!i)
+	if (!i) {
+		if (close_file)
+			fclose(revs->diffopt.file);
 		return;
+	}
 
 	/*
 	 * ..if no, then repeat it twice a second until we
@@ -325,7 +339,7 @@
 {
 	struct commit *commit;
 	int saved_nrl = 0;
-	int saved_dcctc = 0;
+	int saved_dcctc = 0, close_file = rev->diffopt.close_file;
 
 	if (rev->early_output)
 		setup_early_output(rev);
@@ -341,6 +355,7 @@
 	 * and HAS_CHANGES being accumulated in rev->diffopt, so be careful to
 	 * retain that state information if replacing rev->diffopt in this loop
 	 */
+	rev->diffopt.close_file = 0;
 	while ((commit = get_revision(rev)) != NULL) {
 		if (!log_tree_commit(rev, commit) && rev->max_count >= 0)
 			/*
@@ -361,6 +376,8 @@
 	}
 	rev->diffopt.degraded_cc_to_c = saved_dcctc;
 	rev->diffopt.needed_rename_limit = saved_nrl;
+	if (close_file)
+		fclose(rev->diffopt.file);
 
 	if (rev->diffopt.output_format & DIFF_FORMAT_CHECKDIFF &&
 	    DIFF_OPT_TST(&rev->diffopt, CHECK_FAILED)) {
@@ -403,6 +420,10 @@
 		use_mailmap_config = git_config_bool(var, value);
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(var, "log.showsignature")) {
+		default_show_signature = git_config_bool(var, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
 
 	if (grep_config(var, value, cb) < 0)
 		return -1;
@@ -416,7 +437,7 @@
 	struct rev_info rev;
 	struct setup_revision_opt opt;
 
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_log_config, NULL);
 
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
@@ -439,7 +460,7 @@
 	pp.fmt = rev->commit_format;
 	pp.date_mode = rev->date_mode;
 	pp_user_info(&pp, "Tagger", &out, buf, get_log_output_encoding());
-	printf("%s", out.buf);
+	fprintf(rev->diffopt.file, "%s", out.buf);
 	strbuf_release(&out);
 }
 
@@ -450,7 +471,7 @@
 	char *buf;
 	unsigned long size;
 
-	fflush(stdout);
+	fflush(rev->diffopt.file);
 	if (!DIFF_OPT_TOUCHED(&rev->diffopt, ALLOW_TEXTCONV) ||
 	    !DIFF_OPT_TST(&rev->diffopt, ALLOW_TEXTCONV))
 		return stream_blob_to_fd(1, sha1, NULL, 0);
@@ -490,7 +511,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (offset < size)
-		fwrite(buf + offset, size - offset, 1, stdout);
+		fwrite(buf + offset, size - offset, 1, rev->diffopt.file);
 	free(buf);
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -499,7 +520,8 @@
 		struct strbuf *base,
 		const char *pathname, unsigned mode, int stage, void *context)
 {
-	printf("%s%s\n", pathname, S_ISDIR(mode) ? "/" : "");
+	FILE *file = context;
+	fprintf(file, "%s%s\n", pathname, S_ISDIR(mode) ? "/" : "");
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -527,7 +549,7 @@
 	struct pathspec match_all;
 	int i, count, ret = 0;
 
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_log_config, NULL);
 
 	memset(&match_all, 0, sizeof(match_all));
@@ -559,7 +581,7 @@
 
 			if (rev.shown_one)
 				putchar('\n');
-			printf("%stag %s%s\n",
+			fprintf(rev.diffopt.file, "%stag %s%s\n",
 					diff_get_color_opt(&rev.diffopt, DIFF_COMMIT),
 					t->tag,
 					diff_get_color_opt(&rev.diffopt, DIFF_RESET));
@@ -578,12 +600,12 @@
 		case OBJ_TREE:
 			if (rev.shown_one)
 				putchar('\n');
-			printf("%stree %s%s\n\n",
+			fprintf(rev.diffopt.file, "%stree %s%s\n\n",
 					diff_get_color_opt(&rev.diffopt, DIFF_COMMIT),
 					name,
 					diff_get_color_opt(&rev.diffopt, DIFF_RESET));
 			read_tree_recursive((struct tree *)o, "", 0, 0, &match_all,
-					show_tree_object, NULL);
+					show_tree_object, rev.diffopt.file);
 			rev.shown_one = 1;
 			break;
 		case OBJ_COMMIT:
@@ -608,7 +630,7 @@
 	struct rev_info rev;
 	struct setup_revision_opt opt;
 
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_log_config, NULL);
 
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
@@ -647,7 +669,7 @@
 	struct rev_info rev;
 	struct setup_revision_opt opt;
 
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_log_config, NULL);
 
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
@@ -668,9 +690,9 @@
 
 static char *default_attach = NULL;
 
-static struct string_list extra_hdr;
-static struct string_list extra_to;
-static struct string_list extra_cc;
+static struct string_list extra_hdr = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+static struct string_list extra_to = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+static struct string_list extra_cc = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 
 static void add_header(const char *value)
 {
@@ -696,6 +718,8 @@
 #define THREAD_DEEP 2
 static int thread;
 static int do_signoff;
+static int base_auto;
+static char *from;
 static const char *signature = git_version_string;
 static const char *signature_file;
 static int config_cover_letter;
@@ -780,15 +804,29 @@
 	}
 	if (!strcmp(var, "format.outputdirectory"))
 		return git_config_string(&config_output_directory, var, value);
+	if (!strcmp(var, "format.useautobase")) {
+		base_auto = git_config_bool(var, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
+	if (!strcmp(var, "format.from")) {
+		int b = git_config_maybe_bool(var, value);
+		free(from);
+		if (b < 0)
+			from = xstrdup(value);
+		else if (b)
+			from = xstrdup(git_committer_info(IDENT_NO_DATE));
+		else
+			from = NULL;
+		return 0;
+	}
 
 	return git_log_config(var, value, cb);
 }
 
-static FILE *realstdout = NULL;
 static const char *output_directory = NULL;
 static int outdir_offset;
 
-static int reopen_stdout(struct commit *commit, const char *subject,
+static int open_next_file(struct commit *commit, const char *subject,
 			 struct rev_info *rev, int quiet)
 {
 	struct strbuf filename = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -810,9 +848,9 @@
 		fmt_output_subject(&filename, subject, rev);
 
 	if (!quiet)
-		fprintf(realstdout, "%s\n", filename.buf + outdir_offset);
+		printf("%s\n", filename.buf + outdir_offset);
 
-	if (freopen(filename.buf, "w", stdout) == NULL)
+	if ((rev->diffopt.file = fopen(filename.buf, "w")) == NULL)
 		return error(_("Cannot open patch file %s"), filename.buf);
 
 	strbuf_release(&filename);
@@ -871,15 +909,15 @@
 	info->message_id = strbuf_detach(&buf, NULL);
 }
 
-static void print_signature(void)
+static void print_signature(FILE *file)
 {
 	if (!signature || !*signature)
 		return;
 
-	printf("-- \n%s", signature);
+	fprintf(file, "-- \n%s", signature);
 	if (signature[strlen(signature)-1] != '\n')
-		putchar('\n');
-	putchar('\n');
+		putc('\n', file);
+	putc('\n', file);
 }
 
 static void add_branch_description(struct strbuf *buf, const char *branch_name)
@@ -942,13 +980,13 @@
 	struct pretty_print_context pp = {0};
 	struct commit *head = list[0];
 
-	if (rev->commit_format != CMIT_FMT_EMAIL)
+	if (!cmit_fmt_is_mail(rev->commit_format))
 		die(_("Cover letter needs email format"));
 
 	committer = git_committer_info(0);
 
 	if (!use_stdout &&
-	    reopen_stdout(NULL, rev->numbered_files ? NULL : "cover-letter", rev, quiet))
+	    open_next_file(NULL, rev->numbered_files ? NULL : "cover-letter", rev, quiet))
 		return;
 
 	log_write_email_headers(rev, head, &pp.subject, &pp.after_subject,
@@ -971,7 +1009,7 @@
 	pp_title_line(&pp, &msg, &sb, encoding, need_8bit_cte);
 	pp_remainder(&pp, &msg, &sb, 0);
 	add_branch_description(&sb, branch_name);
-	printf("%s\n", sb.buf);
+	fprintf(rev->diffopt.file, "%s\n", sb.buf);
 
 	strbuf_release(&sb);
 
@@ -980,6 +1018,7 @@
 	log.wrap = 72;
 	log.in1 = 2;
 	log.in2 = 4;
+	log.file = rev->diffopt.file;
 	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++)
 		shortlog_add_commit(&log, list[i]);
 
@@ -1002,8 +1041,7 @@
 	diffcore_std(&opts);
 	diff_flush(&opts);
 
-	printf("\n");
-	print_signature();
+	fprintf(rev->diffopt.file, "\n");
 }
 
 static const char *clean_message_id(const char *msg_id)
@@ -1185,6 +1223,155 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+struct base_tree_info {
+	struct object_id base_commit;
+	int nr_patch_id, alloc_patch_id;
+	struct object_id *patch_id;
+};
+
+static struct commit *get_base_commit(const char *base_commit,
+				      struct commit **list,
+				      int total)
+{
+	struct commit *base = NULL;
+	struct commit **rev;
+	int i = 0, rev_nr = 0;
+
+	if (base_commit && strcmp(base_commit, "auto")) {
+		base = lookup_commit_reference_by_name(base_commit);
+		if (!base)
+			die(_("Unknown commit %s"), base_commit);
+	} else if ((base_commit && !strcmp(base_commit, "auto")) || base_auto) {
+		struct branch *curr_branch = branch_get(NULL);
+		const char *upstream = branch_get_upstream(curr_branch, NULL);
+		if (upstream) {
+			struct commit_list *base_list;
+			struct commit *commit;
+			unsigned char sha1[20];
+
+			if (get_sha1(upstream, sha1))
+				die(_("Failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref."), upstream);
+			commit = lookup_commit_or_die(sha1, "upstream base");
+			base_list = get_merge_bases_many(commit, total, list);
+			/* There should be one and only one merge base. */
+			if (!base_list || base_list->next)
+				die(_("Could not find exact merge base."));
+			base = base_list->item;
+			free_commit_list(base_list);
+		} else {
+			die(_("Failed to get upstream, if you want to record base commit automatically,\n"
+			      "please use git branch --set-upstream-to to track a remote branch.\n"
+			      "Or you could specify base commit by --base=<base-commit-id> manually."));
+		}
+	}
+
+	ALLOC_ARRAY(rev, total);
+	for (i = 0; i < total; i++)
+		rev[i] = list[i];
+
+	rev_nr = total;
+	/*
+	 * Get merge base through pair-wise computations
+	 * and store it in rev[0].
+	 */
+	while (rev_nr > 1) {
+		for (i = 0; i < rev_nr / 2; i++) {
+			struct commit_list *merge_base;
+			merge_base = get_merge_bases(rev[2 * i], rev[2 * i + 1]);
+			if (!merge_base || merge_base->next)
+				die(_("Failed to find exact merge base"));
+
+			rev[i] = merge_base->item;
+		}
+
+		if (rev_nr % 2)
+			rev[i] = rev[2 * i];
+		rev_nr = (rev_nr + 1) / 2;
+	}
+
+	if (!in_merge_bases(base, rev[0]))
+		die(_("base commit should be the ancestor of revision list"));
+
+	for (i = 0; i < total; i++) {
+		if (base == list[i])
+			die(_("base commit shouldn't be in revision list"));
+	}
+
+	free(rev);
+	return base;
+}
+
+static void prepare_bases(struct base_tree_info *bases,
+			  struct commit *base,
+			  struct commit **list,
+			  int total)
+{
+	struct commit *commit;
+	struct rev_info revs;
+	struct diff_options diffopt;
+	int i;
+
+	if (!base)
+		return;
+
+	diff_setup(&diffopt);
+	DIFF_OPT_SET(&diffopt, RECURSIVE);
+	diff_setup_done(&diffopt);
+
+	oidcpy(&bases->base_commit, &base->object.oid);
+
+	init_revisions(&revs, NULL);
+	revs.max_parents = 1;
+	revs.topo_order = 1;
+	for (i = 0; i < total; i++) {
+		list[i]->object.flags &= ~UNINTERESTING;
+		add_pending_object(&revs, &list[i]->object, "rev_list");
+		list[i]->util = (void *)1;
+	}
+	base->object.flags |= UNINTERESTING;
+	add_pending_object(&revs, &base->object, "base");
+
+	if (prepare_revision_walk(&revs))
+		die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+	/*
+	 * Traverse the commits list, get prerequisite patch ids
+	 * and stuff them in bases structure.
+	 */
+	while ((commit = get_revision(&revs)) != NULL) {
+		unsigned char sha1[20];
+		struct object_id *patch_id;
+		if (commit->util)
+			continue;
+		if (commit_patch_id(commit, &diffopt, sha1, 0))
+			die(_("cannot get patch id"));
+		ALLOC_GROW(bases->patch_id, bases->nr_patch_id + 1, bases->alloc_patch_id);
+		patch_id = bases->patch_id + bases->nr_patch_id;
+		hashcpy(patch_id->hash, sha1);
+		bases->nr_patch_id++;
+	}
+}
+
+static void print_bases(struct base_tree_info *bases, FILE *file)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	/* Only do this once, either for the cover or for the first one */
+	if (is_null_oid(&bases->base_commit))
+		return;
+
+	/* Show the base commit */
+	fprintf(file, "\nbase-commit: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&bases->base_commit));
+
+	/* Show the prerequisite patches */
+	for (i = bases->nr_patch_id - 1; i >= 0; i--)
+		fprintf(file, "prerequisite-patch-id: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&bases->patch_id[i]));
+
+	free(bases->patch_id);
+	bases->nr_patch_id = 0;
+	bases->alloc_patch_id = 0;
+	oidclr(&bases->base_commit);
+}
+
 int cmd_format_patch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	struct commit *commit;
@@ -1208,7 +1395,9 @@
 	int quiet = 0;
 	int reroll_count = -1;
 	char *branch_name = NULL;
-	char *from = NULL;
+	char *base_commit = NULL;
+	struct base_tree_info bases;
+
 	const struct option builtin_format_patch_options[] = {
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'n', "numbered", &numbered, NULL,
 			    N_("use [PATCH n/m] even with a single patch"),
@@ -1271,6 +1460,8 @@
 			    PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, thread_callback },
 		OPT_STRING(0, "signature", &signature, N_("signature"),
 			    N_("add a signature")),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "base", &base_commit, N_("base-commit"),
+			   N_("add prerequisite tree info to the patch series")),
 		OPT_FILENAME(0, "signature-file", &signature_file,
 				N_("add a signature from a file")),
 		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, N_("don't print the patch filenames")),
@@ -1280,10 +1471,11 @@
 	extra_hdr.strdup_strings = 1;
 	extra_to.strdup_strings = 1;
 	extra_cc.strdup_strings = 1;
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_format_config, NULL);
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
 	rev.commit_format = CMIT_FMT_EMAIL;
+	rev.expand_tabs_in_log_default = 0;
 	rev.verbose_header = 1;
 	rev.diff = 1;
 	rev.max_parents = 1;
@@ -1403,6 +1595,8 @@
 		setup_pager();
 
 	if (output_directory) {
+		if (rev.diffopt.use_color != GIT_COLOR_ALWAYS)
+			rev.diffopt.use_color = GIT_COLOR_NEVER;
 		if (use_stdout)
 			die(_("standard output, or directory, which one?"));
 		if (mkdir(output_directory, 0777) < 0 && errno != EEXIST)
@@ -1460,9 +1654,6 @@
 		get_patch_ids(&rev, &ids);
 	}
 
-	if (!use_stdout)
-		realstdout = xfdopen(xdup(1), "w");
-
 	if (prepare_revision_walk(&rev))
 		die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
 	rev.boundary = 1;
@@ -1507,6 +1698,13 @@
 		signature = strbuf_detach(&buf, NULL);
 	}
 
+	memset(&bases, 0, sizeof(bases));
+	if (base_commit || base_auto) {
+		struct commit *base = get_base_commit(base_commit, list, nr);
+		reset_revision_walk();
+		prepare_bases(&bases, base, list, nr);
+	}
+
 	if (in_reply_to || thread || cover_letter)
 		rev.ref_message_ids = xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct string_list));
 	if (in_reply_to) {
@@ -1520,6 +1718,8 @@
 			gen_message_id(&rev, "cover");
 		make_cover_letter(&rev, use_stdout,
 				  origin, nr, list, branch_name, quiet);
+		print_bases(&bases, rev.diffopt.file);
+		print_signature(rev.diffopt.file);
 		total++;
 		start_number--;
 	}
@@ -1565,7 +1765,7 @@
 		}
 
 		if (!use_stdout &&
-		    reopen_stdout(rev.numbered_files ? NULL : commit, NULL, &rev, quiet))
+		    open_next_file(rev.numbered_files ? NULL : commit, NULL, &rev, quiet))
 			die(_("Failed to create output files"));
 		shown = log_tree_commit(&rev, commit);
 		free_commit_buffer(commit);
@@ -1579,15 +1779,16 @@
 		if (!use_stdout)
 			rev.shown_one = 0;
 		if (shown) {
+			print_bases(&bases, rev.diffopt.file);
 			if (rev.mime_boundary)
-				printf("\n--%s%s--\n\n\n",
+				fprintf(rev.diffopt.file, "\n--%s%s--\n\n\n",
 				       mime_boundary_leader,
 				       rev.mime_boundary);
 			else
-				print_signature();
+				print_signature(rev.diffopt.file);
 		}
 		if (!use_stdout)
-			fclose(stdout);
+			fclose(rev.diffopt.file);
 	}
 	free(list);
 	free(branch_name);
@@ -1619,15 +1820,15 @@
 };
 
 static void print_commit(char sign, struct commit *commit, int verbose,
-			 int abbrev)
+			 int abbrev, FILE *file)
 {
 	if (!verbose) {
-		printf("%c %s\n", sign,
+		fprintf(file, "%c %s\n", sign,
 		       find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.oid.hash, abbrev));
 	} else {
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 		pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &buf);
-		printf("%c %s %s\n", sign,
+		fprintf(file, "%c %s %s\n", sign,
 		       find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.oid.hash, abbrev),
 		       buf.buf);
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
@@ -1708,7 +1909,7 @@
 		commit = list->item;
 		if (has_commit_patch_id(commit, &ids))
 			sign = '-';
-		print_commit(sign, commit, verbose, abbrev);
+		print_commit(sign, commit, verbose, abbrev, revs.diffopt.file);
 		list = list->next;
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/ls-files.c b/builtin/ls-files.c
index f02e3d2..00ea91a 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-files.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-files.c
@@ -118,7 +118,8 @@
 				 */
 				pos =