arm: Implement privileged no-access using TTBR0 page table walks disabling

With LPAE enabled, privileged no-access cannot be enforced using CPU
domains as such feature is not available. This patch implements PAN
by disabling TTBR0 page table walks while in kernel mode.

The ARM architecture allows page table walks to be split between TTBR0
and TTBR1. With LPAE enabled, the split is defined by a combination of
TTBCR T0SZ and T1SZ bits. Currently, an LPAE-enabled kernel uses TTBR0
for user addresses and TTBR1 for kernel addresses with the VMSPLIT_2G
and VMSPLIT_3G configurations. The main advantage for the 3:1 split is
that TTBR1 is reduced to 2 levels, so potentially faster TLB refill
(though usually the first level entries are already cached in the TLB).

The PAN support on LPAE-enabled kernels uses TTBR0 when running in user
space or in kernel space during user access routines (TTBCR T0SZ and
T1SZ are both 0). When running user accesses are disabled in kernel
mode, TTBR0 page table walks are disabled by setting TTBCR.EPD0. TTBR1
is used for kernel accesses (including loadable modules; anything
covered by swapper_pg_dir) by reducing the TTBCR.T0SZ to the minimum
(2^(32-7) = 32MB). To avoid user accesses potentially hitting stale TLB
entries, the ASID is switched to 0 (reserved) by setting TTBCR.A1 and
using the ASID value in TTBR1. The difference from a non-PAN kernel is
that with the 3:1 memory split, TTBR1 always uses 3 levels of page

Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <>
7 files changed