skbuff: Fix a race between coalescing and releasing SKBs

Commit 1effe8ca4e34 ("skbuff: fix coalescing for page_pool fragment
recycling") allowed coalescing to proceed with non page pool page and page
pool page when @from is cloned, i.e.

to->pp_recycle    --> false
from->pp_recycle  --> true
skb_cloned(from)  --> true

However, it actually requires skb_cloned(@from) to hold true until
coalescing finishes in this situation. If the other cloned SKB is
released while the merging is in process, from_shinfo->nr_frags will be
set to 0 toward the end of the function, causing the increment of frag
page _refcount to be unexpectedly skipped resulting in inconsistent
reference counts. Later when SKB(@to) is released, it frees the page
directly even though the page pool page is still in use, leading to
use-after-free or double-free errors. So it should be prohibited.

The double-free error message below prompted us to investigate:
BUG: Bad page state in process swapper/1  pfn:0e0d1
page:00000000c6548b28 refcount:-1 mapcount:0 mapping:0000000000000000
index:0x2 pfn:0xe0d1
flags: 0xfffffc0000000(node=0|zone=1|lastcpupid=0x1fffff)
raw: 000fffffc0000000 0000000000000000 ffffffff00000101 0000000000000000
raw: 0000000000000002 0000000000000000 ffffffffffffffff 0000000000000000
page dumped because: nonzero _refcount

CPU: 1 PID: 0 Comm: swapper/1 Tainted: G            E      6.2.0+
Call Trace:
? __napi_schedule+0x79/0x90
RIP: 0010:default_idle+0xb/0x20

Fixes: 53e0961da1c7 ("page_pool: add frag page recycling support in page pool")
Signed-off-by: Liang Chen <>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <>
Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <>
diff --git a/net/core/skbuff.c b/net/core/skbuff.c
index 1a31815..4c08797 100644
--- a/net/core/skbuff.c
+++ b/net/core/skbuff.c
@@ -5599,18 +5599,18 @@
 	if (skb_cloned(to))
 		return false;
-	/* In general, avoid mixing slab allocated and page_pool allocated
-	 * pages within the same SKB. However when @to is not pp_recycle and
-	 * @from is cloned, we can transition frag pages from page_pool to
-	 * reference counted.
-	 *
-	 * On the other hand, don't allow coalescing two pp_recycle SKBs if
-	 * @from is cloned, in case the SKB is using page_pool fragment
+	/* In general, avoid mixing page_pool and non-page_pool allocated
+	 * pages within the same SKB. Additionally avoid dealing with clones
+	 * with page_pool pages, in case the SKB is using page_pool fragment
 	 * references (PP_FLAG_PAGE_FRAG). Since we only take full page
 	 * references for cloned SKBs at the moment that would result in
 	 * inconsistent reference counts.
+	 * In theory we could take full references if @from is cloned and
+	 * !@to->pp_recycle but its tricky (due to potential race with
+	 * the clone disappearing) and rare, so not worth dealing with.
-	if (to->pp_recycle != (from->pp_recycle && !skb_cloned(from)))
+	if (to->pp_recycle != from->pp_recycle ||
+	    (from->pp_recycle && skb_cloned(from)))
 		return false;
 	if (len <= skb_tailroom(to)) {