Merge with v2.6.22-rc2
diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
index 4c3277c..bd4545a 100644
--- a/MAINTAINERS
+++ b/MAINTAINERS
@@ -2083,6 +2083,13 @@
 L:	kexec@lists.infradead.org
 S:	Maintained
 
+KLIBC/KINIT
+P:	H. Peter Anvin
+M:	hpa@zytor.com
+L:	klibc@zytor.com
+T:	git kernel.org:pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/hpa/linux-2.6-klibc.git
+S:	Maintained
+
 KPROBES
 P:	Prasanna S Panchamukhi
 M:	prasanna@in.ibm.com
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index 34210af..5f55e76 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -186,7 +186,16 @@
 CROSS_COMPILE	?=
 
 # Architecture as present in compile.h
-UTS_MACHINE := $(ARCH)
+UTS_MACHINE	:= $(ARCH)
+
+# Architecture used to compile user-space code
+KLIBCARCH	?= $(ARCH)
+KLIBCARCHDIR	?= $(KLIBCARCH)
+
+# klibc definitions
+export KLIBCINC := usr/include
+export KLIBCSRC := $(srctree)/usr/klibc
+export KLIBCOBJ := $(objtree)/usr/klibc
 
 KCONFIG_CONFIG	?= .config
 
@@ -284,6 +293,7 @@
 CC		= $(CROSS_COMPILE)gcc
 CPP		= $(CC) -E
 AR		= $(CROSS_COMPILE)ar
+RANLIB		= $(CROSS_COMPILE)ranlib
 NM		= $(CROSS_COMPILE)nm
 STRIP		= $(CROSS_COMPILE)strip
 OBJCOPY		= $(CROSS_COMPILE)objcopy
@@ -324,6 +334,7 @@
 export ARCH CONFIG_SHELL HOSTCC HOSTCFLAGS CROSS_COMPILE AS LD CC
 export CPP AR NM STRIP OBJCOPY OBJDUMP MAKE AWK GENKSYMS PERL UTS_MACHINE
 export HOSTCXX HOSTCXXFLAGS LDFLAGS_MODULE CHECK CHECKFLAGS
+export RANLIB KLIBCARCH KLIBCARCHDIR
 
 export CPPFLAGS NOSTDINC_FLAGS LINUXINCLUDE OBJCOPYFLAGS LDFLAGS
 export CFLAGS CFLAGS_KERNEL CFLAGS_MODULE
@@ -1411,41 +1422,44 @@
 # - build whith mixed source and output
 # - build with separate output dir 'make O=...'
 # - external modules
+# - klibc library and klibc programs (everything under usr/)
 #
 #  target-dir => where to store outputfile
 #  build-dir  => directory in kernel source tree to use
 
 ifeq ($(KBUILD_EXTMOD),)
+        singlebld  = $(if $(filter usr/%,$(dir $@)),$(klibc),$(build))
         build-dir  = $(patsubst %/,%,$(dir $@))
         target-dir = $(dir $@)
 else
+        singlebld  = $(build)
         zap-slash=$(filter-out .,$(patsubst %/,%,$(dir $@)))
         build-dir  = $(KBUILD_EXTMOD)$(if $(zap-slash),/$(zap-slash))
         target-dir = $(if $(KBUILD_EXTMOD),$(dir $<),$(dir $@))
 endif
 
 %.s: %.c prepare scripts FORCE
-	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(singlebld)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
 %.i: %.c prepare scripts FORCE
-	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(singlebld)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
 %.o: %.c prepare scripts FORCE
-	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(singlebld)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
 %.lst: %.c prepare scripts FORCE
-	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(singlebld)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
 %.s: %.S prepare scripts FORCE
-	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(singlebld)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
 %.o: %.S prepare scripts FORCE
-	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(singlebld)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
 %.symtypes: %.c prepare scripts FORCE
 	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(build-dir) $(target-dir)$(notdir $@)
 
 # Modules
 / %/: prepare scripts FORCE
 	$(Q)$(MAKE) KBUILD_MODULES=$(if $(CONFIG_MODULES),1) \
-	$(build)=$(build-dir)
+	$(singlebld)=$(build-dir)
 %.ko: prepare scripts FORCE
 	$(Q)$(MAKE) KBUILD_MODULES=$(if $(CONFIG_MODULES),1)   \
-	$(build)=$(build-dir) $(@:.ko=.o)
+	$(singlebld)=$(build-dir) $(@:.ko=.o)
 	$(Q)$(MAKE) -f $(srctree)/scripts/Makefile.modpost
 
 # FIXME Should go into a make.lib or something 
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/setup.c b/arch/arm/kernel/setup.c
index 0453dcc..7578fe1 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/setup.c
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/setup.c
@@ -56,7 +56,6 @@
 
 extern void paging_init(struct meminfo *, struct machine_desc *desc);
 extern void reboot_setup(char *str);
-extern int root_mountflags;
 extern void _stext, _text, _etext, __data_start, _edata, _end;
 
 unsigned int processor_id;
@@ -520,20 +519,31 @@
 	*cmdline_p = command_line;
 }
 
-static void __init
-setup_ramdisk(int doload, int prompt, int image_start, unsigned int rd_sz)
+/*
+ * Generate /arch.cmd, which contains command-line equivalent options
+ * for kinit.  We do this in two steps: save into a buffer, and then
+ * write out the file, since the first step will typically be done
+ * very early, and the second step needs to be done after rootfs is fully
+ * operational.
+ */
+static char __initdata arch_cmd_buffer[256];
+static int __initdata arch_cmd_len;
+
+static int __init write_arch_init_command(void)
 {
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
-	extern int rd_size, rd_image_start, rd_prompt, rd_doload;
+	int fd;
 
-	rd_image_start = image_start;
-	rd_prompt = prompt;
-	rd_doload = doload;
+	fd = sys_open("/arch.cmd", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_APPEND, 0666);
+	if (fd < 0)
+		return fd;
 
-	if (rd_sz)
-		rd_size = rd_sz;
-#endif
+	sys_write(fd, arch_cmd_buffer, arch_cmd_len);
+	sys_close(fd);
+
+	return 0;
 }
+	
+late_initcall(write_arch_init_command);
 
 static void __init
 request_standard_resources(struct meminfo *mi, struct machine_desc *mdesc)
@@ -599,13 +609,27 @@
  * a param_struct).  The list is terminated with a zero-length tag (this tag
  * is not parsed in any way).
  */
+
+
 static int __init parse_tag_core(const struct tag *tag)
 {
+	char *buf = arch_cmd_buffer + arch_cmd_len;
+	char *end = arch_cmd_buffer + sizeof arch_cmd_buffer;
+
+	if (end-buf <= 3)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	*buf++ = 'r';
+	*buf = 'o';
 	if (tag->hdr.size > 2) {
 		if ((tag->u.core.flags & 1) == 0)
-			root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
+			*buf = 'w';
 		ROOT_DEV = old_decode_dev(tag->u.core.rootdev);
 	}
+	buf++;
+	*buf++ = '\n';
+
+	arch_cmd_len = end-buf;
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -654,11 +678,35 @@
 
 static int __init parse_tag_ramdisk(const struct tag *tag)
 {
-	setup_ramdisk((tag->u.ramdisk.flags & 1) == 0,
-		      (tag->u.ramdisk.flags & 2) == 0,
-		      tag->u.ramdisk.start, tag->u.ramdisk.size);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
+	char *buf = arch_cmd_buffer + arch_cmd_len;
+	char *end = arch_cmd_buffer + sizeof arch_cmd_buffer;
+	int len;
+	
+	len = snprintf(buf, end-buf,
+		       "ramdisk_start=%u\n"
+		       "load_ramdisk=%d\n"
+		       "prompt_ramdisk=%d\n",
+		       tag->u.ramdisk.start,
+		       tag->u.ramdisk.flags & 1 ? 0 : 1,
+		       tag->u.ramdisk.flags & 2 ? 0 : 1);
+	if (len >= end-buf)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	buf += len;
+
+	if (tag->u.ramdisk.size) {
+		len = snprintf(buf, end-buf,
+			       "ramdisk_size=%u\n",
+			       tag->u.ramdisk.size);
+		if (len >= end-buf)
+			return -ENOMEM;
+		buf += len;
+	}
+
+	arch_cmd_len = end-buf;
+#endif
 	return 0;
-}
+}	
 
 __tagtable(ATAG_RAMDISK, parse_tag_ramdisk);
 
diff --git a/arch/i386/kernel/setup.c b/arch/i386/kernel/setup.c
index 698c24f..86e6a26 100644
--- a/arch/i386/kernel/setup.c
+++ b/arch/i386/kernel/setup.c
@@ -124,7 +124,6 @@
 #endif
 
 extern void early_cpu_init(void);
-extern int root_mountflags;
 
 unsigned long saved_videomode;
 
@@ -542,11 +541,6 @@
 	}
 	bootloader_type = LOADER_TYPE;
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
-	rd_image_start = RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK;
-	rd_prompt = ((RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG) != 0);
-	rd_doload = ((RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG) != 0);
-#endif
 	ARCH_SETUP
 	if (efi_enabled)
 		efi_init();
@@ -557,8 +551,6 @@
 
 	copy_edd();
 
-	if (!MOUNT_ROOT_RDONLY)
-		root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
 	init_mm.start_code = (unsigned long) _text;
 	init_mm.end_code = (unsigned long) _etext;
 	init_mm.end_data = (unsigned long) _edata;
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/Makefile b/arch/powerpc/Makefile
index 6238b58..8a22343 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/Makefile
+++ b/arch/powerpc/Makefile
@@ -53,6 +53,7 @@
 endif
 
 UTS_MACHINE := $(OLDARCH)
+KLIBCARCH   := $(OLDARCH)
 
 ifeq ($(HAS_BIARCH),y)
 override AS	+= -a$(SZ)
diff --git a/arch/s390/Makefile b/arch/s390/Makefile
index 68441e0..0b1e91a 100644
--- a/arch/s390/Makefile
+++ b/arch/s390/Makefile
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@
 UTS_MACHINE	:= s390
 STACK_SIZE	:= 8192
 CHECKFLAGS	+= -D__s390__
+KLIBCARCH	:= s390
 else
 LDFLAGS		:= -m elf64_s390
 MODFLAGS	+= -fpic -D__PIC__
@@ -28,8 +29,11 @@
 UTS_MACHINE	:= s390x
 STACK_SIZE	:= 16384
 CHECKFLAGS	+= -D__s390__ -D__s390x__
+KLIBCARCH	:= s390x
 endif
 
+KLIBCARCHDIR	:= s390
+
 cflags-$(CONFIG_MARCH_G5)   += $(call cc-option,-march=g5)
 cflags-$(CONFIG_MARCH_Z900) += $(call cc-option,-march=z900)
 cflags-$(CONFIG_MARCH_Z990) += $(call cc-option,-march=z990)
diff --git a/arch/sparc/kernel/setup.c b/arch/sparc/kernel/setup.c
index 64c0ed9..2b089d7 100644
--- a/arch/sparc/kernel/setup.c
+++ b/arch/sparc/kernel/setup.c
@@ -228,8 +228,6 @@
 #define RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG		0x8000
 #define RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG		0x4000
 
-extern int root_mountflags;
-
 char reboot_command[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE];
 enum sparc_cpu sparc_cpu_model;
 
@@ -316,14 +314,7 @@
 	}
 	pfn_base = phys_base >> PAGE_SHIFT;
 
-	if (!root_flags)
-		root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
 	ROOT_DEV = old_decode_dev(root_dev);
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
-	rd_image_start = ram_flags & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK;
-	rd_prompt = ((ram_flags & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG) != 0);
-	rd_doload = ((ram_flags & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG) != 0);	
-#endif
 
 	prom_setsync(prom_sync_me);
 
@@ -376,6 +367,44 @@
 }
 console_initcall(set_preferred_console);
 
+/*
+ * Platform-specific configuration commands which don't come from
+ * the actual kernel command line.  Write them into a file in rootfs
+ * so kinit can pick them up.
+ */
+static int __init set_arch_init_commands(void)
+{
+	int fd = sys_open("/arch.cmd", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_APPEND, 0666);
+	char buffer[256];
+	int len = 0;
+
+	if (fd < 0)
+		return fd;
+
+	buffer[0] = 'r';
+	buffer[1] = root_flags ? 'o' : 'w';
+	buffer[2] = '\n';
+	len = 3;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
+	len += min((int)(sizeof buffer - 1 - len),
+		   snprintf(buffer+len, sizeof buffer - len,
+			    "ramdisk_start=%u\n"
+			    "prompt_ramdisk=%d\n"
+			    "load_ramdisk=%d\n",
+			    ram_flags & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK,
+			    !!(ram_flags & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG),
+			    !!(ram_flags & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG)));
+#endif
+
+	sys_write(fd, buffer, len);
+	sys_close(fd);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+late_initcall(set_arch_init_commands);
+
 extern char *sparc_cpu_type;
 extern char *sparc_fpu_type;
 
diff --git a/arch/sparc64/kernel/setup.c b/arch/sparc64/kernel/setup.c
index dea9c3c..aeede95 100644
--- a/arch/sparc64/kernel/setup.c
+++ b/arch/sparc64/kernel/setup.c
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@
 #include <linux/interrupt.h>
 #include <linux/cpu.h>
 #include <linux/initrd.h>
+#include <linux/fcntl.h>
 
 #include <asm/system.h>
 #include <asm/io.h>
@@ -90,6 +91,16 @@
 {
 }
 
+int obp_system_intr(void)
+{
+	if (boot_flags & BOOTME_DEBUG) {
+		printk("OBP: system interrupted\n");
+		prom_halt();
+		return 1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
 /* 
  * Process kernel command line switches that are specific to the
  * SPARC or that require special low-level processing.
@@ -201,8 +212,6 @@
 #define RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG		0x8000
 #define RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG		0x4000
 
-extern int root_mountflags;
-
 char reboot_command[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE];
 
 static struct pt_regs fake_swapper_regs = { { 0, }, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
@@ -305,6 +314,64 @@
 	sun4v_hvapi_init();
 }
 
+/*
+ * Platform-specific configuration commands which don't come from
+ * the actual kernel command line.  Write them into a file in rootfs
+ * so kinit can pick them up.
+ */
+static int __init set_arch_init_commands(void)
+{
+	int fd = sys_open("/arch.cmd", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_APPEND, 0666);
+	int chosen;
+	u32 cl, sv, gw;
+	char buffer[256];
+	int len = 0;
+
+	if (fd < 0)
+		return fd;
+
+	buffer[0] = 'r';
+	buffer[1] = root_flags ? 'o' : 'w';
+	buffer[2] = '\n';
+	len = 3;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
+	len += min((int)(sizeof buffer - 1 - len),
+		   snprintf(buffer+len, sizeof buffer - len,
+			    "ramdisk_start=%u\n"
+			    "prompt_ramdisk=%d\n"
+			    "load_ramdisk=%d\n",
+			    ram_flags & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK,
+			    !!(ram_flags & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG),
+			    !!(ram_flags & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG)));
+#endif
+
+	chosen = prom_finddevice("/chosen");
+	cl = prom_getintdefault(chosen, "client-ip", 0);
+	sv = prom_getintdefault(chosen, "server-ip", 0);
+	gw = prom_getintdefault(chosen, "gateway-ip", 0);
+
+	if (cl && sv) {
+		len += min((int)(sizeof buffer - 1 - len),
+			   snprintf(buffer+len, sizeof buffer - len,
+				    "ip=%u.%u.%u.%u:%u.%u.%u.%u:"
+				    "%u.%u.%u.%u\n",
+				    (u8)(cl >> 24), (u8)(cl >> 16),
+				    (u8)(cl >> 8), (u8)cl,
+				    (u8)(sv >> 24), (u8)(sv >> 16),
+				    (u8)(sv >> 8), (u8)sv,
+				    (u8)(gw >> 24), (u8)(gw >> 16),
+				    (u8)(gw >> 8), (u8)gw));
+	}
+
+	sys_write(fd, buffer, len);
+	sys_close(fd);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+late_initcall(set_arch_init_commands);
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_SMP
 void __init boot_cpu_id_too_large(int cpu)
 {
@@ -335,37 +402,10 @@
 
 	idprom_init();
 
-	if (!root_flags)
-		root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
 	ROOT_DEV = old_decode_dev(root_dev);
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
-	rd_image_start = ram_flags & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK;
-	rd_prompt = ((ram_flags & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG) != 0);
-	rd_doload = ((ram_flags & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG) != 0);	
-#endif
 
 	task_thread_info(&init_task)->kregs = &fake_swapper_regs;
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_IP_PNP
-	if (!ic_set_manually) {
-		int chosen = prom_finddevice ("/chosen");
-		u32 cl, sv, gw;
-		
-		cl = prom_getintdefault (chosen, "client-ip", 0);
-		sv = prom_getintdefault (chosen, "server-ip", 0);
-		gw = prom_getintdefault (chosen, "gateway-ip", 0);
-		if (cl && sv) {
-			ic_myaddr = cl;
-			ic_servaddr = sv;
-			if (gw)
-				ic_gateway = gw;
-#if defined(CONFIG_IP_PNP_BOOTP) || defined(CONFIG_IP_PNP_RARP)
-			ic_proto_enabled = 0;
-#endif
-		}
-	}
-#endif
-
 	/* Get boot processor trap_block[] setup.  */
 	init_cur_cpu_trap(current_thread_info());
 
@@ -428,7 +468,7 @@
 
 static int show_cpuinfo(struct seq_file *m, void *__unused)
 {
-	seq_printf(m, 
+	seq_printf(m,
 		   "cpu\t\t: %s\n"
 		   "fpu\t\t: %s\n"
 		   "prom\t\t: %s\n"
diff --git a/arch/um/Makefile b/arch/um/Makefile
index 5d5ed72..b3ca7be 100644
--- a/arch/um/Makefile
+++ b/arch/um/Makefile
@@ -50,6 +50,8 @@
 endif
 SYS_DIR		:= $(ARCH_DIR)/include/sysdep-$(SUBARCH)
 
+KLIBCARCH	:= $(SUBARCH)
+
 # -Dvmap=kernel_vmap prevents anything from referencing the libpcap.o symbol so
 # named - it's a common symbol in libpcap, so we get a binary which crashes.
 #
diff --git a/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup.c b/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup.c
index eb6524f..47aef34 100644
--- a/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup.c
+++ b/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup.c
@@ -231,16 +231,9 @@
 	saved_video_mode = SAVED_VIDEO_MODE;
 	bootloader_type = LOADER_TYPE;
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
-	rd_image_start = RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK;
-	rd_prompt = ((RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG) != 0);
-	rd_doload = ((RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG) != 0);
-#endif
 	setup_memory_region();
 	copy_edd();
 
-	if (!MOUNT_ROOT_RDONLY)
-		root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
 	init_mm.start_code = (unsigned long) &_text;
 	init_mm.end_code = (unsigned long) &_etext;
 	init_mm.end_data = (unsigned long) &_edata;
diff --git a/fs/Kconfig b/fs/Kconfig
index 0fa0c11..4a5bdff 100644
--- a/fs/Kconfig
+++ b/fs/Kconfig
@@ -1690,20 +1690,6 @@
 	  TCP connections usually perform better than the default UDP when
 	  the network is lossy or congested.  If unsure, say Y.
 
-config ROOT_NFS
-	bool "Root file system on NFS"
-	depends on NFS_FS=y && IP_PNP
-	help
-	  If you want your Linux box to mount its whole root file system (the
-	  one containing the directory /) from some other computer over the
-	  net via NFS (presumably because your box doesn't have a hard disk),
-	  say Y. Read <file:Documentation/nfsroot.txt> for details. It is
-	  likely that in this case, you also want to say Y to "Kernel level IP
-	  autoconfiguration" so that your box can discover its network address
-	  at boot time.
-
-	  Most people say N here.
-
 config LOCKD
 	tristate
 
diff --git a/fs/nfs/Makefile b/fs/nfs/Makefile
index f4580b4..98b9cd3 100644
--- a/fs/nfs/Makefile
+++ b/fs/nfs/Makefile
@@ -7,7 +7,6 @@
 nfs-y 			:= client.o dir.o file.o getroot.o inode.o super.o nfs2xdr.o \
 			   pagelist.o proc.o read.o symlink.o unlink.o \
 			   write.o namespace.o
-nfs-$(CONFIG_ROOT_NFS)	+= nfsroot.o mount_clnt.o      
 nfs-$(CONFIG_NFS_V3)	+= nfs3proc.o nfs3xdr.o
 nfs-$(CONFIG_NFS_V3_ACL)	+= nfs3acl.o
 nfs-$(CONFIG_NFS_V4)	+= nfs4proc.o nfs4xdr.o nfs4state.o nfs4renewd.o \
diff --git a/fs/nfs/mount_clnt.c b/fs/nfs/mount_clnt.c
deleted file mode 100644
index ca5a266..0000000
--- a/fs/nfs/mount_clnt.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,190 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * linux/fs/nfs/mount_clnt.c
- *
- * MOUNT client to support NFSroot.
- *
- * Copyright (C) 1997, Olaf Kirch <okir@monad.swb.de>
- */
-
-#include <linux/types.h>
-#include <linux/socket.h>
-#include <linux/kernel.h>
-#include <linux/errno.h>
-#include <linux/uio.h>
-#include <linux/net.h>
-#include <linux/in.h>
-#include <linux/sunrpc/clnt.h>
-#include <linux/sunrpc/sched.h>
-#include <linux/nfs_fs.h>
-
-#ifdef RPC_DEBUG
-# define NFSDBG_FACILITY	NFSDBG_ROOT
-#endif
-
-/*
-#define MOUNT_PROGRAM		100005
-#define MOUNT_VERSION		1
-#define MOUNT_MNT		1
-#define MOUNT_UMNT		3
- */
-
-static struct rpc_clnt *	mnt_create(char *, struct sockaddr_in *,
-								int, int);
-static struct rpc_program	mnt_program;
-
-struct mnt_fhstatus {
-	unsigned int		status;
-	struct nfs_fh *		fh;
-};
-
-/*
- * Obtain an NFS file handle for the given host and path
- */
-int
-nfsroot_mount(struct sockaddr_in *addr, char *path, struct nfs_fh *fh,
-		int version, int protocol)
-{
-	struct rpc_clnt		*mnt_clnt;
-	struct mnt_fhstatus	result = {
-		.fh		= fh
-	};
-	struct rpc_message msg	= {
-		.rpc_argp	= path,
-		.rpc_resp	= &result,
-	};
-	char			hostname[32];
-	int			status;
-
-	dprintk("NFS:      nfs_mount(%08x:%s)\n",
-			(unsigned)ntohl(addr->sin_addr.s_addr), path);
-
-	sprintf(hostname, "%u.%u.%u.%u", NIPQUAD(addr->sin_addr.s_addr));
-	mnt_clnt = mnt_create(hostname, addr, version, protocol);
-	if (IS_ERR(mnt_clnt))
-		return PTR_ERR(mnt_clnt);
-
-	if (version == NFS_MNT3_VERSION)
-		msg.rpc_proc = &mnt_clnt->cl_procinfo[MOUNTPROC3_MNT];
-	else
-		msg.rpc_proc = &mnt_clnt->cl_procinfo[MNTPROC_MNT];
-
-	status = rpc_call_sync(mnt_clnt, &msg, 0);
-	return status < 0? status : (result.status? -EACCES : 0);
-}
-
-static struct rpc_clnt *
-mnt_create(char *hostname, struct sockaddr_in *srvaddr, int version,
-		int protocol)
-{
-	struct rpc_create_args args = {
-		.protocol	= protocol,
-		.address	= (struct sockaddr *)srvaddr,
-		.addrsize	= sizeof(*srvaddr),
-		.servername	= hostname,
-		.program	= &mnt_program,
-		.version	= version,
-		.authflavor	= RPC_AUTH_UNIX,
-		.flags		= (RPC_CLNT_CREATE_ONESHOT |
-				   RPC_CLNT_CREATE_INTR),
-	};
-
-	return rpc_create(&args);
-}
-
-/*
- * XDR encode/decode functions for MOUNT
- */
-static int
-xdr_encode_dirpath(struct rpc_rqst *req, __be32 *p, const char *path)
-{
-	p = xdr_encode_string(p, path);
-
-	req->rq_slen = xdr_adjust_iovec(req->rq_svec, p);
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int
-xdr_decode_fhstatus(struct rpc_rqst *req, __be32 *p, struct mnt_fhstatus *res)
-{
-	struct nfs_fh *fh = res->fh;
-
-	if ((res->status = ntohl(*p++)) == 0) {
-		fh->size = NFS2_FHSIZE;
-		memcpy(fh->data, p, NFS2_FHSIZE);
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int
-xdr_decode_fhstatus3(struct rpc_rqst *req, __be32 *p, struct mnt_fhstatus *res)
-{
-	struct nfs_fh *fh = res->fh;
-
-	if ((res->status = ntohl(*p++)) == 0) {
-		int size = ntohl(*p++);
-		if (size <= NFS3_FHSIZE) {
-			fh->size = size;
-			memcpy(fh->data, p, size);
-		} else
-			res->status = -EBADHANDLE;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-#define MNT_dirpath_sz		(1 + 256)
-#define MNT_fhstatus_sz		(1 + 8)
-#define MNT_fhstatus3_sz	(1 + 16)
-
-static struct rpc_procinfo	mnt_procedures[] = {
-[MNTPROC_MNT] = {
-	  .p_proc		= MNTPROC_MNT,
-	  .p_encode		= (kxdrproc_t) xdr_encode_dirpath,	
-	  .p_decode		= (kxdrproc_t) xdr_decode_fhstatus,
-	  .p_arglen		= MNT_dirpath_sz,
-	  .p_replen		= MNT_fhstatus_sz,
-	  .p_statidx		= MNTPROC_MNT,
-	  .p_name		= "MOUNT",
-	},
-};
-
-static struct rpc_procinfo mnt3_procedures[] = {
-[MOUNTPROC3_MNT] = {
-	  .p_proc		= MOUNTPROC3_MNT,
-	  .p_encode		= (kxdrproc_t) xdr_encode_dirpath,
-	  .p_decode		= (kxdrproc_t) xdr_decode_fhstatus3,
-	  .p_arglen		= MNT_dirpath_sz,
-	  .p_replen		= MNT_fhstatus3_sz,
-	  .p_statidx		= MOUNTPROC3_MNT,
-	  .p_name		= "MOUNT",
-	},
-};
-
-
-static struct rpc_version	mnt_version1 = {
-		.number		= 1,
-		.nrprocs 	= 2,
-		.procs 		= mnt_procedures
-};
-
-static struct rpc_version       mnt_version3 = {
-		.number		= 3,
-		.nrprocs	= 2,
-		.procs		= mnt3_procedures
-};
-
-static struct rpc_version *	mnt_version[] = {
-	NULL,
-	&mnt_version1,
-	NULL,
-	&mnt_version3,
-};
-
-static struct rpc_stat		mnt_stats;
-
-static struct rpc_program	mnt_program = {
-	.name		= "mount",
-	.number		= NFS_MNT_PROGRAM,
-	.nrvers		= ARRAY_SIZE(mnt_version),
-	.version	= mnt_version,
-	.stats		= &mnt_stats,
-};
diff --git a/fs/nfs/nfsroot.c b/fs/nfs/nfsroot.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 49d1008..0000000
--- a/fs/nfs/nfsroot.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,523 +0,0 @@
-/*
- *  $Id: nfsroot.c,v 1.45 1998/03/07 10:44:46 mj Exp $
- *
- *  Copyright (C) 1995, 1996  Gero Kuhlmann <gero@gkminix.han.de>
- *
- *  Allow an NFS filesystem to be mounted as root. The way this works is:
- *     (1) Use the IP autoconfig mechanism to set local IP addresses and routes.
- *     (2) Handle RPC negotiation with the system which replied to RARP or
- *         was reported as a boot server by BOOTP or manually.
- *     (3) The actual mounting is done later, when init() is running.
- *
- *
- *	Changes:
- *
- *	Alan Cox	:	Removed get_address name clash with FPU.
- *	Alan Cox	:	Reformatted a bit.
- *	Gero Kuhlmann	:	Code cleanup
- *	Michael Rausch  :	Fixed recognition of an incoming RARP answer.
- *	Martin Mares	: (2.0)	Auto-configuration via BOOTP supported.
- *	Martin Mares	:	Manual selection of interface & BOOTP/RARP.
- *	Martin Mares	:	Using network routes instead of host routes,
- *				allowing the default configuration to be used
- *				for normal operation of the host.
- *	Martin Mares	:	Randomized timer with exponential backoff
- *				installed to minimize network congestion.
- *	Martin Mares	:	Code cleanup.
- *	Martin Mares	: (2.1)	BOOTP and RARP made configuration options.
- *	Martin Mares	:	Server hostname generation fixed.
- *	Gerd Knorr	:	Fixed wired inode handling
- *	Martin Mares	: (2.2)	"0.0.0.0" addresses from command line ignored.
- *	Martin Mares	:	RARP replies not tested for server address.
- *	Gero Kuhlmann	: (2.3) Some bug fixes and code cleanup again (please
- *				send me your new patches _before_ bothering
- *				Linus so that I don' always have to cleanup
- *				_afterwards_ - thanks)
- *	Gero Kuhlmann	:	Last changes of Martin Mares undone.
- *	Gero Kuhlmann	: 	RARP replies are tested for specified server
- *				again. However, it's now possible to have
- *				different RARP and NFS servers.
- *	Gero Kuhlmann	:	"0.0.0.0" addresses from command line are
- *				now mapped to INADDR_NONE.
- *	Gero Kuhlmann	:	Fixed a bug which prevented BOOTP path name
- *				from being used (thanks to Leo Spiekman)
- *	Andy Walker	:	Allow to specify the NFS server in nfs_root
- *				without giving a path name
- *	Swen Thümmler	:	Allow to specify the NFS options in nfs_root
- *				without giving a path name. Fix BOOTP request
- *				for domainname (domainname is NIS domain, not
- *				DNS domain!). Skip dummy devices for BOOTP.
- *	Jacek Zapala	:	Fixed a bug which prevented server-ip address
- *				from nfsroot parameter from being used.
- *	Olaf Kirch	:	Adapted to new NFS code.
- *	Jakub Jelinek	:	Free used code segment.
- *	Marko Kohtala	:	Fixed some bugs.
- *	Martin Mares	:	Debug message cleanup
- *	Martin Mares	:	Changed to use the new generic IP layer autoconfig
- *				code. BOOTP and RARP moved there.
- *	Martin Mares	:	Default path now contains host name instead of
- *				host IP address (but host name defaults to IP
- *				address anyway).
- *	Martin Mares	:	Use root_server_addr appropriately during setup.
- *	Martin Mares	:	Rewrote parameter parsing, now hopefully giving
- *				correct overriding.
- *	Trond Myklebust :	Add in preliminary support for NFSv3 and TCP.
- *				Fix bug in root_nfs_addr(). nfs_data.namlen
- *				is NOT for the length of the hostname.
- *	Hua Qin		:	Support for mounting root file system via
- *				NFS over TCP.
- *	Fabian Frederick:	Option parser rebuilt (using parser lib)
-*/
-
-#include <linux/types.h>
-#include <linux/string.h>
-#include <linux/kernel.h>
-#include <linux/time.h>
-#include <linux/fs.h>
-#include <linux/init.h>
-#include <linux/sunrpc/clnt.h>
-#include <linux/nfs.h>
-#include <linux/nfs_fs.h>
-#include <linux/nfs_mount.h>
-#include <linux/in.h>
-#include <linux/major.h>
-#include <linux/utsname.h>
-#include <linux/inet.h>
-#include <linux/root_dev.h>
-#include <net/ipconfig.h>
-#include <linux/parser.h>
-
-/* Define this to allow debugging output */
-#undef NFSROOT_DEBUG
-#define NFSDBG_FACILITY NFSDBG_ROOT
-
-/* Default path we try to mount. "%s" gets replaced by our IP address */
-#define NFS_ROOT		"/tftpboot/%s"
-
-/* Parameters passed from the kernel command line */
-static char nfs_root_name[256] __initdata = "";
-
-/* Address of NFS server */
-static __be32 servaddr __initdata = 0;
-
-/* Name of directory to mount */
-static char nfs_path[NFS_MAXPATHLEN] __initdata = { 0, };
-
-/* NFS-related data */
-static struct nfs_mount_data nfs_data __initdata = { 0, };/* NFS mount info */
-static int nfs_port __initdata = 0;		/* Port to connect to for NFS */
-static int mount_port __initdata = 0;		/* Mount daemon port number */
-
-
-/***************************************************************************
-
-			     Parsing of options
-
- ***************************************************************************/
-
-enum {
-	/* Options that take integer arguments */
-	Opt_port, Opt_rsize, Opt_wsize, Opt_timeo, Opt_retrans, Opt_acregmin,
-	Opt_acregmax, Opt_acdirmin, Opt_acdirmax,
-	/* Options that take no arguments */
-	Opt_soft, Opt_hard, Opt_intr,
-	Opt_nointr, Opt_posix, Opt_noposix, Opt_cto, Opt_nocto, Opt_ac, 
-	Opt_noac, Opt_lock, Opt_nolock, Opt_v2, Opt_v3, Opt_udp, Opt_tcp,
-	Opt_acl, Opt_noacl,
-	/* Error token */
-	Opt_err
-};
-
-static match_table_t __initdata tokens = {
-	{Opt_port, "port=%u"},
-	{Opt_rsize, "rsize=%u"},
-	{Opt_wsize, "wsize=%u"},
-	{Opt_timeo, "timeo=%u"},
-	{Opt_retrans, "retrans=%u"},
-	{Opt_acregmin, "acregmin=%u"},
-	{Opt_acregmax, "acregmax=%u"},
-	{Opt_acdirmin, "acdirmin=%u"},
-	{Opt_acdirmax, "acdirmax=%u"},
-	{Opt_soft, "soft"},
-	{Opt_hard, "hard"},
-	{Opt_intr, "intr"},
-	{Opt_nointr, "nointr"},
-	{Opt_posix, "posix"},
-	{Opt_noposix, "noposix"},
-	{Opt_cto, "cto"},
-	{Opt_nocto, "nocto"},
-	{Opt_ac, "ac"},
-	{Opt_noac, "noac"},
-	{Opt_lock, "lock"},
-	{Opt_nolock, "nolock"},
-	{Opt_v2, "nfsvers=2"},
-	{Opt_v2, "v2"},
-	{Opt_v3, "nfsvers=3"},
-	{Opt_v3, "v3"},
-	{Opt_udp, "proto=udp"},
-	{Opt_udp, "udp"},
-	{Opt_tcp, "proto=tcp"},
-	{Opt_tcp, "tcp"},
-	{Opt_acl, "acl"},
-	{Opt_noacl, "noacl"},
-	{Opt_err, NULL}
-	
-};
-
-/*
- *  Parse option string.
- */
-
-static int __init root_nfs_parse(char *name, char *buf)
-{
-
-	char *p;
-	substring_t args[MAX_OPT_ARGS];
-	int option;
-
-	if (!name)
-		return 1;
-
-	/* Set the NFS remote path */
-	p = strsep(&name, ",");
-	if (p[0] != '\0' && strcmp(p, "default") != 0)
-		strlcpy(buf, p, NFS_MAXPATHLEN);
-
-	while ((p = strsep (&name, ",")) != NULL) {
-		int token; 
-		if (!*p)
-			continue;
-		token = match_token(p, tokens, args);
-
-		/* %u tokens only. Beware if you add new tokens! */
-		if (token < Opt_soft && match_int(&args[0], &option))
-			return 0;
-		switch (token) {
-			case Opt_port:
-				nfs_port = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_rsize:
-				nfs_data.rsize = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_wsize:
-				nfs_data.wsize = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_timeo:
-				nfs_data.timeo = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_retrans:
-				nfs_data.retrans = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_acregmin:
-				nfs_data.acregmin = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_acregmax:
-				nfs_data.acregmax = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_acdirmin:
-				nfs_data.acdirmin = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_acdirmax:
-				nfs_data.acdirmax = option;
-				break;
-			case Opt_soft:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_SOFT;
-				break;
-			case Opt_hard:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_SOFT;
-				break;
-			case Opt_intr:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_INTR;
-				break;
-			case Opt_nointr:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_INTR;
-				break;
-			case Opt_posix:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_POSIX;
-				break;
-			case Opt_noposix:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_POSIX;
-				break;
-			case Opt_cto:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_NOCTO;
-				break;
-			case Opt_nocto:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_NOCTO;
-				break;
-			case Opt_ac:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_NOAC;
-				break;
-			case Opt_noac:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_NOAC;
-				break;
-			case Opt_lock:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_NONLM;
-				break;
-			case Opt_nolock:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_NONLM;
-				break;
-			case Opt_v2:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_VER3;
-				break;
-			case Opt_v3:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_VER3;
-				break;
-			case Opt_udp:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_TCP;
-				break;
-			case Opt_tcp:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_TCP;
-				break;
-			case Opt_acl:
-				nfs_data.flags &= ~NFS_MOUNT_NOACL;
-				break;
-			case Opt_noacl:
-				nfs_data.flags |= NFS_MOUNT_NOACL;
-				break;
-			default:
-				printk(KERN_WARNING "Root-NFS: unknown "
-					"option: %s\n", p);
-				return 0;
-		}
-	}
-
-	return 1;
-}
-
-/*
- *  Prepare the NFS data structure and parse all options.
- */
-static int __init root_nfs_name(char *name)
-{
-	static char buf[NFS_MAXPATHLEN] __initdata;
-	char *cp;
-
-	/* Set some default values */
-	memset(&nfs_data, 0, sizeof(nfs_data));
-	nfs_port          = -1;
-	nfs_data.version  = NFS_MOUNT_VERSION;
-	nfs_data.flags    = NFS_MOUNT_NONLM;	/* No lockd in nfs root yet */
-	nfs_data.rsize    = NFS_DEF_FILE_IO_SIZE;
-	nfs_data.wsize    = NFS_DEF_FILE_IO_SIZE;
-	nfs_data.acregmin = 3;
-	nfs_data.acregmax = 60;
-	nfs_data.acdirmin = 30;
-	nfs_data.acdirmax = 60;
-	strcpy(buf, NFS_ROOT);
-
-	/* Process options received from the remote server */
-	root_nfs_parse(root_server_path, buf);
-
-	/* Override them by options set on kernel command-line */
-	root_nfs_parse(name, buf);
-
-	cp = utsname()->nodename;
-	if (strlen(buf) + strlen(cp) > NFS_MAXPATHLEN) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "Root-NFS: Pathname for remote directory too long.\n");
-		return -1;
-	}
-	sprintf(nfs_path, buf, cp);
-
-	return 1;
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Get NFS server address.
- */
-static int __init root_nfs_addr(void)
-{
-	if ((servaddr = root_server_addr) == htonl(INADDR_NONE)) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "Root-NFS: No NFS server available, giving up.\n");
-		return -1;
-	}
-
-	snprintf(nfs_data.hostname, sizeof(nfs_data.hostname),
-		 "%u.%u.%u.%u", NIPQUAD(servaddr));
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/*
- *  Tell the user what's going on.
- */
-#ifdef NFSROOT_DEBUG
-static void __init root_nfs_print(void)
-{
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "Root-NFS: Mounting %s on server %s as root\n",
-		nfs_path, nfs_data.hostname);
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "Root-NFS:     rsize = %d, wsize = %d, timeo = %d, retrans = %d\n",
-		nfs_data.rsize, nfs_data.wsize, nfs_data.timeo, nfs_data.retrans);
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "Root-NFS:     acreg (min,max) = (%d,%d), acdir (min,max) = (%d,%d)\n",
-		nfs_data.acregmin, nfs_data.acregmax,
-		nfs_data.acdirmin, nfs_data.acdirmax);
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "Root-NFS:     nfsd port = %d, mountd port = %d, flags = %08x\n",
-		nfs_port, mount_port, nfs_data.flags);
-}
-#endif
-
-
-static int __init root_nfs_init(void)
-{
-#ifdef NFSROOT_DEBUG
-	nfs_debug |= NFSDBG_ROOT;
-#endif
-
-	/*
-	 * Decode the root directory path name and NFS options from
-	 * the kernel command line. This has to go here in order to
-	 * be able to use the client IP address for the remote root
-	 * directory (necessary for pure RARP booting).
-	 */
-	if (root_nfs_name(nfs_root_name) < 0 ||
-	    root_nfs_addr() < 0)
-		return -1;
-
-#ifdef NFSROOT_DEBUG
-	root_nfs_print();
-#endif
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Parse NFS server and directory information passed on the kernel
- *  command line.
- */
-static int __init nfs_root_setup(char *line)
-{
-	ROOT_DEV = Root_NFS;
-	if (line[0] == '/' || line[0] == ',' || (line[0] >= '0' && line[0] <= '9')) {
-		strlcpy(nfs_root_name, line, sizeof(nfs_root_name));
-	} else {
-		int n = strlen(line) + sizeof(NFS_ROOT) - 1;
-		if (n >= sizeof(nfs_root_name))
-			line[sizeof(nfs_root_name) - sizeof(NFS_ROOT) - 2] = '\0';
-		sprintf(nfs_root_name, NFS_ROOT, line);
-	}
-	root_server_addr = root_nfs_parse_addr(nfs_root_name);
-	return 1;
-}
-
-__setup("nfsroot=", nfs_root_setup);
-
-/***************************************************************************
-
-	       Routines to actually mount the root directory
-
- ***************************************************************************/
-
-/*
- *  Construct sockaddr_in from address and port number.
- */
-static inline void
-set_sockaddr(struct sockaddr_in *sin, __be32 addr, __be16 port)
-{
-	sin->sin_family = AF_INET;
-	sin->sin_addr.s_addr = addr;
-	sin->sin_port = port;
-}
-
-/*
- *  Query server portmapper for the port of a daemon program.
- */
-static int __init root_nfs_getport(int program, int version, int proto)
-{
-	struct sockaddr_in sin;
-
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "Looking up port of RPC %d/%d on %u.%u.%u.%u\n",
-		program, version, NIPQUAD(servaddr));
-	set_sockaddr(&sin, servaddr, 0);
-	return rpcb_getport_external(&sin, program, version, proto);
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Use portmapper to find mountd and nfsd port numbers if not overriden
- *  by the user. Use defaults if portmapper is not available.
- *  XXX: Is there any nfs server with no portmapper?
- */
-static int __init root_nfs_ports(void)
-{
-	int port;
-	int nfsd_ver, mountd_ver;
-	int nfsd_port, mountd_port;
-	int proto;
-
-	if (nfs_data.flags & NFS_MOUNT_VER3) {
-		nfsd_ver = NFS3_VERSION;
-		mountd_ver = NFS_MNT3_VERSION;
-		nfsd_port = NFS_PORT;
-		mountd_port = NFS_MNT_PORT;
-	} else {
-		nfsd_ver = NFS2_VERSION;
-		mountd_ver = NFS_MNT_VERSION;
-		nfsd_port = NFS_PORT;
-		mountd_port = NFS_MNT_PORT;
-	}
-
-	proto = (nfs_data.flags & NFS_MOUNT_TCP) ? IPPROTO_TCP : IPPROTO_UDP;
-
-	if (nfs_port < 0) {
-		if ((port = root_nfs_getport(NFS_PROGRAM, nfsd_ver, proto)) < 0) {
-			printk(KERN_ERR "Root-NFS: Unable to get nfsd port "
-					"number from server, using default\n");
-			port = nfsd_port;
-		}
-		nfs_port = port;
-		dprintk("Root-NFS: Portmapper on server returned %d "
-			"as nfsd port\n", port);
-	}
-
-	if ((port = root_nfs_getport(NFS_MNT_PROGRAM, mountd_ver, proto)) < 0) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "Root-NFS: Unable to get mountd port "
-				"number from server, using default\n");
-		port = mountd_port;
-	}
-	mount_port = port;
-	dprintk("Root-NFS: mountd port is %d\n", port);
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Get a file handle from the server for the directory which is to be
- *  mounted.
- */
-static int __init root_nfs_get_handle(void)
-{
-	struct nfs_fh fh;
-	struct sockaddr_in sin;
-	int status;
-	int protocol = (nfs_data.flags & NFS_MOUNT_TCP) ?
-					IPPROTO_TCP : IPPROTO_UDP;
-	int version = (nfs_data.flags & NFS_MOUNT_VER3) ?
-					NFS_MNT3_VERSION : NFS_MNT_VERSION;
-
-	set_sockaddr(&sin, servaddr, htons(mount_port));
-	status = nfsroot_mount(&sin, nfs_path, &fh, version, protocol);
-	if (status < 0)
-		printk(KERN_ERR "Root-NFS: Server returned error %d "
-				"while mounting %s\n", status, nfs_path);
-	else {
-		nfs_data.root.size = fh.size;
-		memcpy(nfs_data.root.data, fh.data, fh.size);
-	}
-
-	return status;
-}
-
-/*
- *  Get the NFS port numbers and file handle, and return the prepared 'data'
- *  argument for mount() if everything went OK. Return NULL otherwise.
- */
-void * __init nfs_root_data(void)
-{
-	if (root_nfs_init() < 0
-	 || root_nfs_ports() < 0
-	 || root_nfs_get_handle() < 0)
-		return NULL;
-	set_sockaddr((struct sockaddr_in *) &nfs_data.addr, servaddr, htons(nfs_port));
-	return (void*)&nfs_data;
-}
diff --git a/include/linux/mount.h b/include/linux/mount.h
index 6d3047d..fa89ece 100644
--- a/include/linux/mount.h
+++ b/include/linux/mount.h
@@ -101,7 +101,6 @@
 extern void shrink_submounts(struct vfsmount *mountpoint, struct list_head *mounts);
 
 extern spinlock_t vfsmount_lock;
-extern dev_t name_to_dev_t(char *name);
 
 #endif
 #endif /* _LINUX_MOUNT_H */
diff --git a/init/Makefile b/init/Makefile
index 0154aea..acfdb2c 100644
--- a/init/Makefile
+++ b/init/Makefile
@@ -2,19 +2,9 @@
 # Makefile for the linux kernel.
 #
 
-obj-y                          := main.o version.o mounts.o
-ifneq ($(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD),y)
-obj-y                          += noinitramfs.o
-else
-obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD)   += initramfs.o
-endif
+obj-y				:= main.o version.o initramfs.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_GENERIC_CALIBRATE_DELAY) += calibrate.o
 
-mounts-y			:= do_mounts.o
-mounts-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM)	+= do_mounts_rd.o
-mounts-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD)	+= do_mounts_initrd.o
-mounts-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_MD)	+= do_mounts_md.o
-
 # files to be removed upon make clean
 clean-files := ../include/linux/compile.h
 
diff --git a/init/do_mounts.c b/init/do_mounts.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 46fe407..0000000
--- a/init/do_mounts.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,455 +0,0 @@
-#include <linux/module.h>
-#include <linux/sched.h>
-#include <linux/ctype.h>
-#include <linux/fd.h>
-#include <linux/tty.h>
-#include <linux/suspend.h>
-#include <linux/root_dev.h>
-#include <linux/security.h>
-#include <linux/delay.h>
-#include <linux/genhd.h>
-#include <linux/mount.h>
-#include <linux/device.h>
-#include <linux/init.h>
-
-#include <linux/nfs_fs.h>
-#include <linux/nfs_fs_sb.h>
-#include <linux/nfs_mount.h>
-
-#include "do_mounts.h"
-
-extern int get_filesystem_list(char * buf);
-
-int __initdata rd_doload;	/* 1 = load RAM disk, 0 = don't load */
-
-int root_mountflags = MS_RDONLY | MS_SILENT;
-char * __initdata root_device_name;
-static char __initdata saved_root_name[64];
-
-dev_t ROOT_DEV;
-
-static int __init load_ramdisk(char *str)
-{
-	rd_doload = simple_strtol(str,NULL,0) & 3;
-	return 1;
-}
-__setup("load_ramdisk=", load_ramdisk);
-
-static int __init readonly(char *str)
-{
-	if (*str)
-		return 0;
-	root_mountflags |= MS_RDONLY;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-static int __init readwrite(char *str)
-{
-	if (*str)
-		return 0;
-	root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-__setup("ro", readonly);
-__setup("rw", readwrite);
-
-static dev_t try_name(char *name, int part)
-{
-	char path[64];
-	char buf[32];
-	int range;
-	dev_t res;
-	char *s;
-	int len;
-	int fd;
-	unsigned int maj, min;
-
-	/* read device number from .../dev */
-
-	sprintf(path, "/sys/block/%s/dev", name);
-	fd = sys_open(path, 0, 0);
-	if (fd < 0)
-		goto fail;
-	len = sys_read(fd, buf, 32);
-	sys_close(fd);
-	if (len <= 0 || len == 32 || buf[len - 1] != '\n')
-		goto fail;
-	buf[len - 1] = '\0';
-	if (sscanf(buf, "%u:%u", &maj, &min) == 2) {
-		/*
-		 * Try the %u:%u format -- see print_dev_t()
-		 */
-		res = MKDEV(maj, min);
-		if (maj != MAJOR(res) || min != MINOR(res))
-			goto fail;
-	} else {
-		/*
-		 * Nope.  Try old-style "0321"
-		 */
-		res = new_decode_dev(simple_strtoul(buf, &s, 16));
-		if (*s)
-			goto fail;
-	}
-
-	/* if it's there and we are not looking for a partition - that's it */
-	if (!part)
-		return res;
-
-	/* otherwise read range from .../range */
-	sprintf(path, "/sys/block/%s/range", name);
-	fd = sys_open(path, 0, 0);
-	if (fd < 0)
-		goto fail;
-	len = sys_read(fd, buf, 32);
-	sys_close(fd);
-	if (len <= 0 || len == 32 || buf[len - 1] != '\n')
-		goto fail;
-	buf[len - 1] = '\0';
-	range = simple_strtoul(buf, &s, 10);
-	if (*s)
-		goto fail;
-
-	/* if partition is within range - we got it */
-	if (part < range)
-		return res + part;
-fail:
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/*
- *	Convert a name into device number.  We accept the following variants:
- *
- *	1) device number in hexadecimal	represents itself
- *	2) /dev/nfs represents Root_NFS (0xff)
- *	3) /dev/<disk_name> represents the device number of disk
- *	4) /dev/<disk_name><decimal> represents the device number
- *         of partition - device number of disk plus the partition number
- *	5) /dev/<disk_name>p<decimal> - same as the above, that form is
- *	   used when disk name of partitioned disk ends on a digit.
- *
- *	If name doesn't have fall into the categories above, we return 0.
- *	Sysfs is used to check if something is a disk name - it has
- *	all known disks under bus/block/devices.  If the disk name
- *	contains slashes, name of sysfs node has them replaced with
- *	bangs.  try_name() does the actual checks, assuming that sysfs
- *	is mounted on rootfs /sys.
- */
-
-dev_t name_to_dev_t(char *name)
-{
-	char s[32];
-	char *p;
-	dev_t res = 0;
-	int part;
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
-	int mkdir_err = sys_mkdir("/sys", 0700);
-	if (sys_mount("sysfs", "/sys", "sysfs", 0, NULL) < 0)
-		goto out;
-#endif
-
-	if (strncmp(name, "/dev/", 5) != 0) {
-		unsigned maj, min;
-
-		if (sscanf(name, "%u:%u", &maj, &min) == 2) {
-			res = MKDEV(maj, min);
-			if (maj != MAJOR(res) || min != MINOR(res))
-				goto fail;
-		} else {
-			res = new_decode_dev(simple_strtoul(name, &p, 16));
-			if (*p)
-				goto fail;
-		}
-		goto done;
-	}
-	name += 5;
-	res = Root_NFS;
-	if (strcmp(name, "nfs") == 0)
-		goto done;
-	res = Root_RAM0;
-	if (strcmp(name, "ram") == 0)
-		goto done;
-
-	if (strlen(name) > 31)
-		goto fail;
-	strcpy(s, name);
-	for (p = s; *p; p++)
-		if (*p == '/')
-			*p = '!';
-	res = try_name(s, 0);
-	if (res)
-		goto done;
-
-	while (p > s && isdigit(p[-1]))
-		p--;
-	if (p == s || !*p || *p == '0')
-		goto fail;
-	part = simple_strtoul(p, NULL, 10);
-	*p = '\0';
-	res = try_name(s, part);
-	if (res)
-		goto done;
-
-	if (p < s + 2 || !isdigit(p[-2]) || p[-1] != 'p')
-		goto fail;
-	p[-1] = '\0';
-	res = try_name(s, part);
-done:
-#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
-	sys_umount("/sys", 0);
-out:
-	if (!mkdir_err)
-		sys_rmdir("/sys");
-#endif
-	return res;
-fail:
-	res = 0;
-	goto done;
-}
-
-static int __init root_dev_setup(char *line)
-{
-	strlcpy(saved_root_name, line, sizeof(saved_root_name));
-	return 1;
-}
-
-__setup("root=", root_dev_setup);
-
-static char * __initdata root_mount_data;
-static int __init root_data_setup(char *str)
-{
-	root_mount_data = str;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-static char * __initdata root_fs_names;
-static int __init fs_names_setup(char *str)
-{
-	root_fs_names = str;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-static unsigned int __initdata root_delay;
-static int __init root_delay_setup(char *str)
-{
-	root_delay = simple_strtoul(str, NULL, 0);
-	return 1;
-}
-
-__setup("rootflags=", root_data_setup);
-__setup("rootfstype=", fs_names_setup);
-__setup("rootdelay=", root_delay_setup);
-
-static void __init get_fs_names(char *page)
-{
-	char *s = page;
-
-	if (root_fs_names) {
-		strcpy(page, root_fs_names);
-		while (*s++) {
-			if (s[-1] == ',')
-				s[-1] = '\0';
-		}
-	} else {
-		int len = get_filesystem_list(page);
-		char *p, *next;
-
-		page[len] = '\0';
-		for (p = page-1; p; p = next) {
-			next = strchr(++p, '\n');
-			if (*p++ != '\t')
-				continue;
-			while ((*s++ = *p++) != '\n')
-				;
-			s[-1] = '\0';
-		}
-	}
-	*s = '\0';
-}
-
-static int __init do_mount_root(char *name, char *fs, int flags, void *data)
-{
-	int err = sys_mount(name, "/root", fs, flags, data);
-	if (err)
-		return err;
-
-	sys_chdir("/root");
-	ROOT_DEV = current->fs->pwdmnt->mnt_sb->s_dev;
-	printk("VFS: Mounted root (%s filesystem)%s.\n",
-	       current->fs->pwdmnt->mnt_sb->s_type->name,
-	       current->fs->pwdmnt->mnt_sb->s_flags & MS_RDONLY ? 
-	       " readonly" : "");
-	return 0;
-}
-
-void __init mount_block_root(char *name, int flags)
-{
-	char *fs_names = __getname();
-	char *p;
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
-	char b[BDEVNAME_SIZE];
-#else
-	const char *b = name;
-#endif
-
-	get_fs_names(fs_names);
-retry:
-	for (p = fs_names; *p; p += strlen(p)+1) {
-		int err = do_mount_root(name, p, flags, root_mount_data);
-		switch (err) {
-			case 0:
-				goto out;
-			case -EACCES:
-				flags |= MS_RDONLY;
-				goto retry;
-			case -EINVAL:
-				continue;
-		}
-	        /*
-		 * Allow the user to distinguish between failed sys_open
-		 * and bad superblock on root device.
-		 * and give them a list of the available devices
-		 */
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
-		__bdevname(ROOT_DEV, b);
-#endif
-		printk("VFS: Cannot open root device \"%s\" or %s\n",
-				root_device_name, b);
-		printk("Please append a correct \"root=\" boot option; here are the available partitions:\n");
-
-		printk_all_partitions();
-		panic("VFS: Unable to mount root fs on %s", b);
-	}
-
-	printk("List of all partitions:\n");
-	printk_all_partitions();
-	printk("No filesystem could mount root, tried: ");
-	for (p = fs_names; *p; p += strlen(p)+1)
-		printk(" %s", p);
-	printk("\n");
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
-	__bdevname(ROOT_DEV, b);
-#endif
-	panic("VFS: Unable to mount root fs on %s", b);
-out:
-	putname(fs_names);
-}
- 
-#ifdef CONFIG_ROOT_NFS
-static int __init mount_nfs_root(void)
-{
-	void *data = nfs_root_data();
-
-	create_dev("/dev/root", ROOT_DEV);
-	if (data &&
-	    do_mount_root("/dev/root", "nfs", root_mountflags, data) == 0)
-		return 1;
-	return 0;
-}
-#endif
-
-#if defined(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM) || defined(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_FD)
-void __init change_floppy(char *fmt, ...)
-{
-	struct termios termios;
-	char buf[80];
-	char c;
-	int fd;
-	va_list args;
-	va_start(args, fmt);
-	vsprintf(buf, fmt, args);
-	va_end(args);
-	fd = sys_open("/dev/root", O_RDWR | O_NDELAY, 0);
-	if (fd >= 0) {
-		sys_ioctl(fd, FDEJECT, 0);
-		sys_close(fd);
-	}
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "VFS: Insert %s and press ENTER\n", buf);
-	fd = sys_open("/dev/console", O_RDWR, 0);
-	if (fd >= 0) {
-		sys_ioctl(fd, TCGETS, (long)&termios);
-		termios.c_lflag &= ~ICANON;
-		sys_ioctl(fd, TCSETSF, (long)&termios);
-		sys_read(fd, &c, 1);
-		termios.c_lflag |= ICANON;
-		sys_ioctl(fd, TCSETSF, (long)&termios);
-		sys_close(fd);
-	}
-}
-#endif
-
-void __init mount_root(void)
-{
-#ifdef CONFIG_ROOT_NFS
-	if (MAJOR(ROOT_DEV) == UNNAMED_MAJOR) {
-		if (mount_nfs_root())
-			return;
-
-		printk(KERN_ERR "VFS: Unable to mount root fs via NFS, trying floppy.\n");
-		ROOT_DEV = Root_FD0;
-	}
-#endif
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_FD
-	if (MAJOR(ROOT_DEV) == FLOPPY_MAJOR) {
-		/* rd_doload is 2 for a dual initrd/ramload setup */
-		if (rd_doload==2) {
-			if (rd_load_disk(1)) {
-				ROOT_DEV = Root_RAM1;
-				root_device_name = NULL;
-			}
-		} else
-			change_floppy("root floppy");
-	}
-#endif
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
-	create_dev("/dev/root", ROOT_DEV);
-	mount_block_root("/dev/root", root_mountflags);
-#endif
-}
-
-/*
- * Prepare the namespace - decide what/where to mount, load ramdisks, etc.
- */
-void __init prepare_namespace(void)
-{
-	int is_floppy;
-
-	if (root_delay) {
-		printk(KERN_INFO "Waiting %dsec before mounting root device...\n",
-		       root_delay);
-		ssleep(root_delay);
-	}
-
-	/* wait for the known devices to complete their probing */
-	while (driver_probe_done() != 0)
-		msleep(100);
-
-	md_run_setup();
-
-	if (saved_root_name[0]) {
-		root_device_name = saved_root_name;
-		if (!strncmp(root_device_name, "mtd", 3)) {
-			mount_block_root(root_device_name, root_mountflags);
-			goto out;
-		}
-		ROOT_DEV = name_to_dev_t(root_device_name);
-		if (strncmp(root_device_name, "/dev/", 5) == 0)
-			root_device_name += 5;
-	}
-
-	is_floppy = MAJOR(ROOT_DEV) == FLOPPY_MAJOR;
-
-	if (initrd_load())
-		goto out;
-
-	if (is_floppy && rd_doload && rd_load_disk(0))
-		ROOT_DEV = Root_RAM0;
-
-	mount_root();
-out:
-	sys_mount(".", "/", NULL, MS_MOVE, NULL);
-	sys_chroot(".");
-	security_sb_post_mountroot();
-}
-
diff --git a/init/do_mounts.h b/init/do_mounts.h
deleted file mode 100644
index 735705d..0000000
--- a/init/do_mounts.h
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,76 +0,0 @@
-#include <linux/kernel.h>
-#include <linux/init.h>
-#include <linux/syscalls.h>
-#include <linux/unistd.h>
-#include <linux/slab.h>
-#include <linux/mount.h>
-#include <linux/major.h>
-#include <linux/root_dev.h>
-
-void  change_floppy(char *fmt, ...);
-void  mount_block_root(char *name, int flags);
-void  mount_root(void);
-extern int root_mountflags;
-extern char *root_device_name;
-
-static inline int create_dev(char *name, dev_t dev)
-{
-	sys_unlink(name);
-	return sys_mknod(name, S_IFBLK|0600, new_encode_dev(dev));
-}
-
-#if BITS_PER_LONG == 32
-static inline u32 bstat(char *name)
-{
-	struct stat64 stat;
-	if (sys_stat64(name, &stat) != 0)
-		return 0;
-	if (!S_ISBLK(stat.st_mode))
-		return 0;
-	if (stat.st_rdev != (u32)stat.st_rdev)
-		return 0;
-	return stat.st_rdev;
-}
-#else
-static inline u32 bstat(char *name)
-{
-	struct stat stat;
-	if (sys_newstat(name, &stat) != 0)
-		return 0;
-	if (!S_ISBLK(stat.st_mode))
-		return 0;
-	return stat.st_rdev;
-}
-#endif
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
-
-int __init rd_load_disk(int n);
-int __init rd_load_image(char *from);
-
-#else
-
-static inline int rd_load_disk(int n) { return 0; }
-static inline int rd_load_image(char *from) { return 0; }
-
-#endif
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD
-
-int __init initrd_load(void);
-
-#else
-
-static inline int initrd_load(void) { return 0; }
-
-#endif
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_MD
-
-void md_run_setup(void);
-
-#else
-
-static inline void md_run_setup(void) {}
-
-#endif
diff --git a/init/do_mounts_initrd.c b/init/do_mounts_initrd.c
deleted file mode 100644
index b222ce9..0000000
--- a/init/do_mounts_initrd.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,124 +0,0 @@
-#include <linux/unistd.h>
-#include <linux/kernel.h>
-#include <linux/fs.h>
-#include <linux/minix_fs.h>
-#include <linux/ext2_fs.h>
-#include <linux/romfs_fs.h>
-#include <linux/initrd.h>
-#include <linux/sched.h>
-#include <linux/freezer.h>
-
-#include "do_mounts.h"
-
-unsigned long initrd_start, initrd_end;
-int initrd_below_start_ok;
-unsigned int real_root_dev;	/* do_proc_dointvec cannot handle kdev_t */
-static int __initdata old_fd, root_fd;
-static int __initdata mount_initrd = 1;
-
-static int __init no_initrd(char *str)
-{
-	mount_initrd = 0;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-__setup("noinitrd", no_initrd);
-
-static int __init do_linuxrc(void * shell)
-{
-	static char *argv[] = { "linuxrc", NULL, };
-	extern char * envp_init[];
-
-	sys_close(old_fd);sys_close(root_fd);
-	sys_close(0);sys_close(1);sys_close(2);
-	sys_setsid();
-	(void) sys_open("/dev/console",O_RDWR,0);
-	(void) sys_dup(0);
-	(void) sys_dup(0);
-	return kernel_execve(shell, argv, envp_init);
-}
-
-static void __init handle_initrd(void)
-{
-	int error;
-	int pid;
-
-	real_root_dev = new_encode_dev(ROOT_DEV);
-	create_dev("/dev/root.old", Root_RAM0);
-	/* mount initrd on rootfs' /root */
-	mount_block_root("/dev/root.old", root_mountflags & ~MS_RDONLY);
-	sys_mkdir("/old", 0700);
-	root_fd = sys_open("/", 0, 0);
-	old_fd = sys_open("/old", 0, 0);
-	/* move initrd over / and chdir/chroot in initrd root */
-	sys_chdir("/root");
-	sys_mount(".", "/", NULL, MS_MOVE, NULL);
-	sys_chroot(".");
-
-	pid = kernel_thread(do_linuxrc, "/linuxrc", SIGCHLD);
-	if (pid > 0) {
-		while (pid != sys_wait4(-1, NULL, 0, NULL)) {
-			try_to_freeze();
-			yield();
-		}
-	}
-
-	/* move initrd to rootfs' /old */
-	sys_fchdir(old_fd);
-	sys_mount("/", ".", NULL, MS_MOVE, NULL);
-	/* switch root and cwd back to / of rootfs */
-	sys_fchdir(root_fd);
-	sys_chroot(".");
-	sys_close(old_fd);
-	sys_close(root_fd);
-
-	if (new_decode_dev(real_root_dev) == Root_RAM0) {
-		sys_chdir("/old");
-		return;
-	}
-
-	ROOT_DEV = new_decode_dev(real_root_dev);
-	mount_root();
-
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "Trying to move old root to /initrd ... ");
-	error = sys_mount("/old", "/root/initrd", NULL, MS_MOVE, NULL);
-	if (!error)
-		printk("okay\n");
-	else {
-		int fd = sys_open("/dev/root.old", O_RDWR, 0);
-		if (error == -ENOENT)
-			printk("/initrd does not exist. Ignored.\n");
-		else
-			printk("failed\n");
-		printk(KERN_NOTICE "Unmounting old root\n");
-		sys_umount("/old", MNT_DETACH);
-		printk(KERN_NOTICE "Trying to free ramdisk memory ... ");
-		if (fd < 0) {
-			error = fd;
-		} else {
-			error = sys_ioctl(fd, BLKFLSBUF, 0);
-			sys_close(fd);
-		}
-		printk(!error ? "okay\n" : "failed\n");
-	}
-}
-
-int __init initrd_load(void)
-{
-	if (mount_initrd) {
-		create_dev("/dev/ram", Root_RAM0);
-		/*
-		 * Load the initrd data into /dev/ram0. Execute it as initrd
-		 * unless /dev/ram0 is supposed to be our actual root device,
-		 * in that case the ram disk is just set up here, and gets
-		 * mounted in the normal path.
-		 */
-		if (rd_load_image("/initrd.image") && ROOT_DEV != Root_RAM0) {
-			sys_unlink("/initrd.image");
-			handle_initrd();
-			return 1;
-		}
-	}
-	sys_unlink("/initrd.image");
-	return 0;
-}
diff --git a/init/do_mounts_md.c b/init/do_mounts_md.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 753dc54..0000000
--- a/init/do_mounts_md.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,281 +0,0 @@
-
-#include <linux/raid/md.h>
-
-#include "do_mounts.h"
-
-/*
- * When md (and any require personalities) are compiled into the kernel
- * (not a module), arrays can be assembles are boot time using with AUTODETECT
- * where specially marked partitions are registered with md_autodetect_dev(),
- * and with MD_BOOT where devices to be collected are given on the boot line
- * with md=.....
- * The code for that is here.
- */
-
-static int __initdata raid_noautodetect, raid_autopart;
-
-static struct {
-	int minor;
-	int partitioned;
-	int level;
-	int chunk;
-	char *device_names;
-} md_setup_args[256] __initdata;
-
-static int md_setup_ents __initdata;
-
-extern int mdp_major;
-/*
- * Parse the command-line parameters given our kernel, but do not
- * actually try to invoke the MD device now; that is handled by
- * md_setup_drive after the low-level disk drivers have initialised.
- *
- * 27/11/1999: Fixed to work correctly with the 2.3 kernel (which
- *             assigns the task of parsing integer arguments to the
- *             invoked program now).  Added ability to initialise all
- *             the MD devices (by specifying multiple "md=" lines)
- *             instead of just one.  -- KTK
- * 18May2000: Added support for persistent-superblock arrays:
- *             md=n,0,factor,fault,device-list   uses RAID0 for device n
- *             md=n,-1,factor,fault,device-list  uses LINEAR for device n
- *             md=n,device-list      reads a RAID superblock from the devices
- *             elements in device-list are read by name_to_kdev_t so can be
- *             a hex number or something like /dev/hda1 /dev/sdb
- * 2001-06-03: Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>
- *		Shifted name_to_kdev_t() and related operations to md_set_drive()
- *		for later execution. Rewrote section to make devfs compatible.
- */
-static int __init md_setup(char *str)
-{
-	int minor, level, factor, fault, partitioned = 0;
-	char *pername = "";
-	char *str1;
-	int ent;
-
-	if (*str == 'd') {
-		partitioned = 1;
-		str++;
-	}
-	if (get_option(&str, &minor) != 2) {	/* MD Number */
-		printk(KERN_WARNING "md: Too few arguments supplied to md=.\n");
-		return 0;
-	}
-	str1 = str;
-	for (ent=0 ; ent< md_setup_ents ; ent++)
-		if (md_setup_args[ent].minor == minor &&
-		    md_setup_args[ent].partitioned == partitioned) {
-			printk(KERN_WARNING "md: md=%s%d, Specified more than once. "
-			       "Replacing previous definition.\n", partitioned?"d":"", minor);
-			break;
-		}
-	if (ent >= ARRAY_SIZE(md_setup_args)) {
-		printk(KERN_WARNING "md: md=%s%d - too many md initialisations\n", partitioned?"d":"", minor);
-		return 0;
-	}
-	if (ent >= md_setup_ents)
-		md_setup_ents++;
-	switch (get_option(&str, &level)) {	/* RAID level */
-	case 2: /* could be 0 or -1.. */
-		if (level == 0 || level == LEVEL_LINEAR) {
-			if (get_option(&str, &factor) != 2 ||	/* Chunk Size */
-					get_option(&str, &fault) != 2) {
-				printk(KERN_WARNING "md: Too few arguments supplied to md=.\n");
-				return 0;
-			}
-			md_setup_args[ent].level = level;
-			md_setup_args[ent].chunk = 1 << (factor+12);
-			if (level ==  LEVEL_LINEAR)
-				pername = "linear";
-			else
-				pername = "raid0";
-			break;
-		}
-		/* FALL THROUGH */
-	case 1: /* the first device is numeric */
-		str = str1;
-		/* FALL THROUGH */
-	case 0:
-		md_setup_args[ent].level = LEVEL_NONE;
-		pername="super-block";
-	}
-
-	printk(KERN_INFO "md: Will configure md%d (%s) from %s, below.\n",
-		minor, pername, str);
-	md_setup_args[ent].device_names = str;
-	md_setup_args[ent].partitioned = partitioned;
-	md_setup_args[ent].minor = minor;
-
-	return 1;
-}
-
-#define MdpMinorShift 6
-
-static void __init md_setup_drive(void)
-{
-	int minor, i, ent, partitioned;
-	dev_t dev;
-	dev_t devices[MD_SB_DISKS+1];
-
-	for (ent = 0; ent < md_setup_ents ; ent++) {
-		int fd;
-		int err = 0;
-		char *devname;
-		mdu_disk_info_t dinfo;
-		char name[16];
-
-		minor = md_setup_args[ent].minor;
-		partitioned = md_setup_args[ent].partitioned;
-		devname = md_setup_args[ent].device_names;
-
-		sprintf(name, "/dev/md%s%d", partitioned?"_d":"", minor);
-		if (partitioned)
-			dev = MKDEV(mdp_major, minor << MdpMinorShift);
-		else
-			dev = MKDEV(MD_MAJOR, minor);
-		create_dev(name, dev);
-		for (i = 0; i < MD_SB_DISKS && devname != 0; i++) {
-			char *p;
-			char comp_name[64];
-			u32 rdev;
-
-			p = strchr(devname, ',');
-			if (p)
-				*p++ = 0;
-
-			dev = name_to_dev_t(devname);
-			if (strncmp(devname, "/dev/", 5) == 0)
-				devname += 5;
-			snprintf(comp_name, 63, "/dev/%s", devname);
-			rdev = bstat(comp_name);
-			if (rdev)
-				dev = new_decode_dev(rdev);
-			if (!dev) {
-				printk(KERN_WARNING "md: Unknown device name: %s\n", devname);
-				break;
-			}
-
-			devices[i] = dev;
-
-			devname = p;
-		}
-		devices[i] = 0;
-
-		if (!i)
-			continue;
-
-		printk(KERN_INFO "md: Loading md%s%d: %s\n",
-			partitioned ? "_d" : "", minor,
-			md_setup_args[ent].device_names);
-
-		fd = sys_open(name, 0, 0);
-		if (fd < 0) {
-			printk(KERN_ERR "md: open failed - cannot start "
-					"array %s\n", name);
-			continue;
-		}
-		if (sys_ioctl(fd, SET_ARRAY_INFO, 0) == -EBUSY) {
-			printk(KERN_WARNING
-			       "md: Ignoring md=%d, already autodetected. (Use raid=noautodetect)\n",
-			       minor);
-			sys_close(fd);
-			continue;
-		}
-
-		if (md_setup_args[ent].level != LEVEL_NONE) {
-			/* non-persistent */
-			mdu_array_info_t ainfo;
-			ainfo.level = md_setup_args[ent].level;
-			ainfo.size = 0;
-			ainfo.nr_disks =0;
-			ainfo.raid_disks =0;
-			while (devices[ainfo.raid_disks])
-				ainfo.raid_disks++;
-			ainfo.md_minor =minor;
-			ainfo.not_persistent = 1;
-
-			ainfo.state = (1 << MD_SB_CLEAN);
-			ainfo.layout = 0;
-			ainfo.chunk_size = md_setup_args[ent].chunk;
-			err = sys_ioctl(fd, SET_ARRAY_INFO, (long)&ainfo);
-			for (i = 0; !err && i <= MD_SB_DISKS; i++) {
-				dev = devices[i];
-				if (!dev)
-					break;
-				dinfo.number = i;
-				dinfo.raid_disk = i;
-				dinfo.state = (1<<MD_DISK_ACTIVE)|(1<<MD_DISK_SYNC);
-				dinfo.major = MAJOR(dev);
-				dinfo.minor = MINOR(dev);
-				err = sys_ioctl(fd, ADD_NEW_DISK, (long)&dinfo);
-			}
-		} else {
-			/* persistent */
-			for (i = 0; i <= MD_SB_DISKS; i++) {
-				dev = devices[i];
-				if (!dev)
-					break;
-				dinfo.major = MAJOR(dev);
-				dinfo.minor = MINOR(dev);
-				sys_ioctl(fd, ADD_NEW_DISK, (long)&dinfo);
-			}
-		}
-		if (!err)
-			err = sys_ioctl(fd, RUN_ARRAY, 0);
-		if (err)
-			printk(KERN_WARNING "md: starting md%d failed\n", minor);
-		else {
-			/* reread the partition table.
-			 * I (neilb) and not sure why this is needed, but I cannot
-			 * boot a kernel with devfs compiled in from partitioned md
-			 * array without it
-			 */
-			sys_close(fd);
-			fd = sys_open(name, 0, 0);
-			sys_ioctl(fd, BLKRRPART, 0);
-		}
-		sys_close(fd);
-	}
-}
-
-static int __init raid_setup(char *str)
-{
-	int len, pos;
-
-	len = strlen(str) + 1;
-	pos = 0;
-
-	while (pos < len) {
-		char *comma = strchr(str+pos, ',');
-		int wlen;
-		if (comma)
-			wlen = (comma-str)-pos;
-		else	wlen = (len-1)-pos;
-
-		if (!strncmp(str, "noautodetect", wlen))
-			raid_noautodetect = 1;
-		if (strncmp(str, "partitionable", wlen)==0)
-			raid_autopart = 1;
-		if (strncmp(str, "part", wlen)==0)
-			raid_autopart = 1;
-		pos += wlen+1;
-	}
-	return 1;
-}
-
-__setup("raid=", raid_setup);
-__setup("md=", md_setup);
-
-void __init md_run_setup(void)
-{
-	create_dev("/dev/md0", MKDEV(MD_MAJOR, 0));
-	if (raid_noautodetect)
-		printk(KERN_INFO "md: Skipping autodetection of RAID arrays. (raid=noautodetect)\n");
-	else {
-		int fd = sys_open("/dev/md0", 0, 0);
-		if (fd >= 0) {
-			sys_ioctl(fd, RAID_AUTORUN, raid_autopart);
-			sys_close(fd);
-		}
-	}
-	md_setup_drive();
-}
diff --git a/init/do_mounts_rd.c b/init/do_mounts_rd.c
deleted file mode 100644
index ed652f4..0000000
--- a/init/do_mounts_rd.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,429 +0,0 @@
-
-#include <linux/kernel.h>
-#include <linux/fs.h>
-#include <linux/minix_fs.h>
-#include <linux/ext2_fs.h>
-#include <linux/romfs_fs.h>
-#include <linux/cramfs_fs.h>
-#include <linux/initrd.h>
-#include <linux/string.h>
-
-#include "do_mounts.h"
-
-#define BUILD_CRAMDISK
-
-int __initdata rd_prompt = 1;/* 1 = prompt for RAM disk, 0 = don't prompt */
-
-static int __init prompt_ramdisk(char *str)
-{
-	rd_prompt = simple_strtol(str,NULL,0) & 1;
-	return 1;
-}
-__setup("prompt_ramdisk=", prompt_ramdisk);
-
-int __initdata rd_image_start;		/* starting block # of image */
-
-static int __init ramdisk_start_setup(char *str)
-{
-	rd_image_start = simple_strtol(str,NULL,0);
-	return 1;
-}
-__setup("ramdisk_start=", ramdisk_start_setup);
-
-static int __init crd_load(int in_fd, int out_fd);
-
-/*
- * This routine tries to find a RAM disk image to load, and returns the
- * number of blocks to read for a non-compressed image, 0 if the image
- * is a compressed image, and -1 if an image with the right magic
- * numbers could not be found.
- *
- * We currently check for the following magic numbers:
- * 	minix
- * 	ext2
- *	romfs
- *	cramfs
- * 	gzip
- */
-static int __init 
-identify_ramdisk_image(int fd, int start_block)
-{
-	const int size = 512;
-	struct minix_super_block *minixsb;
-	struct ext2_super_block *ext2sb;
-	struct romfs_super_block *romfsb;
-	struct cramfs_super *cramfsb;
-	int nblocks = -1;
-	unsigned char *buf;
-
-	buf = kmalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
-	if (buf == 0)
-		return -1;
-
-	minixsb = (struct minix_super_block *) buf;
-	ext2sb = (struct ext2_super_block *) buf;
-	romfsb = (struct romfs_super_block *) buf;
-	cramfsb = (struct cramfs_super *) buf;
-	memset(buf, 0xe5, size);
-
-	/*
-	 * Read block 0 to test for gzipped kernel
-	 */
-	sys_lseek(fd, start_block * BLOCK_SIZE, 0);
-	sys_read(fd, buf, size);
-
-	/*
-	 * If it matches the gzip magic numbers, return -1
-	 */
-	if (buf[0] == 037 && ((buf[1] == 0213) || (buf[1] == 0236))) {
-		printk(KERN_NOTICE
-		       "RAMDISK: Compressed image found at block %d\n",
-		       start_block);
-		nblocks = 0;
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	/* romfs is at block zero too */
-	if (romfsb->word0 == ROMSB_WORD0 &&
-	    romfsb->word1 == ROMSB_WORD1) {
-		printk(KERN_NOTICE
-		       "RAMDISK: romfs filesystem found at block %d\n",
-		       start_block);
-		nblocks = (ntohl(romfsb->size)+BLOCK_SIZE-1)>>BLOCK_SIZE_BITS;
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	if (cramfsb->magic == CRAMFS_MAGIC) {
-		printk(KERN_NOTICE
-		       "RAMDISK: cramfs filesystem found at block %d\n",
-		       start_block);
-		nblocks = (cramfsb->size + BLOCK_SIZE - 1) >> BLOCK_SIZE_BITS;
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * Read block 1 to test for minix and ext2 superblock
-	 */
-	sys_lseek(fd, (start_block+1) * BLOCK_SIZE, 0);
-	sys_read(fd, buf, size);
-
-	/* Try minix */
-	if (minixsb->s_magic == MINIX_SUPER_MAGIC ||
-	    minixsb->s_magic == MINIX_SUPER_MAGIC2) {
-		printk(KERN_NOTICE
-		       "RAMDISK: Minix filesystem found at block %d\n",
-		       start_block);
-		nblocks = minixsb->s_nzones << minixsb->s_log_zone_size;
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	/* Try ext2 */
-	if (ext2sb->s_magic == cpu_to_le16(EXT2_SUPER_MAGIC)) {
-		printk(KERN_NOTICE
-		       "RAMDISK: ext2 filesystem found at block %d\n",
-		       start_block);
-		nblocks = le32_to_cpu(ext2sb->s_blocks_count) <<
-			le32_to_cpu(ext2sb->s_log_block_size);
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE
-	       "RAMDISK: Couldn't find valid RAM disk image starting at %d.\n",
-	       start_block);
-	
-done:
-	sys_lseek(fd, start_block * BLOCK_SIZE, 0);
-	kfree(buf);
-	return nblocks;
-}
-
-int __init rd_load_image(char *from)
-{
-	int res = 0;
-	int in_fd, out_fd;
-	unsigned long rd_blocks, devblocks;
-	int nblocks, i, disk;
-	char *buf = NULL;
-	unsigned short rotate = 0;
-#if !defined(CONFIG_S390) && !defined(CONFIG_PPC_ISERIES)
-	char rotator[4] = { '|' , '/' , '-' , '\\' };
-#endif
-
-	out_fd = sys_open("/dev/ram", O_RDWR, 0);
-	if (out_fd < 0)
-		goto out;
-
-	in_fd = sys_open(from, O_RDONLY, 0);
-	if (in_fd < 0)
-		goto noclose_input;
-
-	nblocks = identify_ramdisk_image(in_fd, rd_image_start);
-	if (nblocks < 0)
-		goto done;
-
-	if (nblocks == 0) {
-#ifdef BUILD_CRAMDISK
-		if (crd_load(in_fd, out_fd) == 0)
-			goto successful_load;
-#else
-		printk(KERN_NOTICE
-		       "RAMDISK: Kernel does not support compressed "
-		       "RAM disk images\n");
-#endif
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * NOTE NOTE: nblocks is not actually blocks but
-	 * the number of kibibytes of data to load into a ramdisk.
-	 * So any ramdisk block size that is a multiple of 1KiB should
-	 * work when the appropriate ramdisk_blocksize is specified
-	 * on the command line.
-	 *
-	 * The default ramdisk_blocksize is 1KiB and it is generally
-	 * silly to use anything else, so make sure to use 1KiB
-	 * blocksize while generating ext2fs ramdisk-images.
-	 */
-	if (sys_ioctl(out_fd, BLKGETSIZE, (unsigned long)&rd_blocks) < 0)
-		rd_blocks = 0;
-	else
-		rd_blocks >>= 1;
-
-	if (nblocks > rd_blocks) {
-		printk("RAMDISK: image too big! (%dKiB/%ldKiB)\n",
-		       nblocks, rd_blocks);
-		goto done;
-	}
-		
-	/*
-	 * OK, time to copy in the data
-	 */
-	if (sys_ioctl(in_fd, BLKGETSIZE, (unsigned long)&devblocks) < 0)
-		devblocks = 0;
-	else
-		devblocks >>= 1;
-
-	if (strcmp(from, "/initrd.image") == 0)
-		devblocks = nblocks;
-
-	if (devblocks == 0) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "RAMDISK: could not determine device size\n");
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	buf = kmalloc(BLOCK_SIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
-	if (buf == 0) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "RAMDISK: could not allocate buffer\n");
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "RAMDISK: Loading %dKiB [%ld disk%s] into ram disk... ",
-		nblocks, ((nblocks-1)/devblocks)+1, nblocks>devblocks ? "s" : "");
-	for (i = 0, disk = 1; i < nblocks; i++) {
-		if (i && (i % devblocks == 0)) {
-			printk("done disk #%d.\n", disk++);
-			rotate = 0;
-			if (sys_close(in_fd)) {
-				printk("Error closing the disk.\n");
-				goto noclose_input;
-			}
-			change_floppy("disk #%d", disk);
-			in_fd = sys_open(from, O_RDONLY, 0);
-			if (in_fd < 0)  {
-				printk("Error opening disk.\n");
-				goto noclose_input;
-			}
-			printk("Loading disk #%d... ", disk);
-		}
-		sys_read(in_fd, buf, BLOCK_SIZE);
-		sys_write(out_fd, buf, BLOCK_SIZE);
-#if !defined(CONFIG_S390) && !defined(CONFIG_PPC_ISERIES)
-		if (!(i % 16)) {
-			printk("%c\b", rotator[rotate & 0x3]);
-			rotate++;
-		}
-#endif
-	}
-	printk("done.\n");
-
-successful_load:
-	res = 1;
-done:
-	sys_close(in_fd);
-noclose_input:
-	sys_close(out_fd);
-out:
-	kfree(buf);
-	sys_unlink("/dev/ram");
-	return res;
-}
-
-int __init rd_load_disk(int n)
-{
-	if (rd_prompt)
-		change_floppy("root floppy disk to be loaded into RAM disk");
-	create_dev("/dev/root", ROOT_DEV);
-	create_dev("/dev/ram", MKDEV(RAMDISK_MAJOR, n));
-	return rd_load_image("/dev/root");
-}
-
-#ifdef BUILD_CRAMDISK
-
-/*
- * gzip declarations
- */
-
-#define OF(args)  args
-
-#ifndef memzero
-#define memzero(s, n)     memset ((s), 0, (n))
-#endif
-
-typedef unsigned char  uch;
-typedef unsigned short ush;
-typedef unsigned long  ulg;
-
-#define INBUFSIZ 4096
-#define WSIZE 0x8000    /* window size--must be a power of two, and */
-			/*  at least 32K for zip's deflate method */
-
-static uch *inbuf;
-static uch *window;
-
-static unsigned insize;  /* valid bytes in inbuf */
-static unsigned inptr;   /* index of next byte to be processed in inbuf */
-static unsigned outcnt;  /* bytes in output buffer */
-static int exit_code;
-static int unzip_error;
-static long bytes_out;
-static int crd_infd, crd_outfd;
-
-#define get_byte()  (inptr < insize ? inbuf[inptr++] : fill_inbuf())
-		
-/* Diagnostic functions (stubbed out) */
-#define Assert(cond,msg)
-#define Trace(x)
-#define Tracev(x)
-#define Tracevv(x)
-#define Tracec(c,x)
-#define Tracecv(c,x)
-
-#define STATIC static
-#define INIT __init
-
-static int  __init fill_inbuf(void);
-static void __init flush_window(void);
-static void __init *malloc(size_t size);
-static void __init free(void *where);
-static void __init error(char *m);
-static void __init gzip_mark(void **);
-static void __init gzip_release(void **);
-
-#include "../lib/inflate.c"
-
-static void __init *malloc(size_t size)
-{
-	return kmalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
-}
-
-static void __init free(void *where)
-{
-	kfree(where);
-}
-
-static void __init gzip_mark(void **ptr)
-{
-}
-
-static void __init gzip_release(void **ptr)
-{
-}
-
-
-/* ===========================================================================
- * Fill the input buffer. This is called only when the buffer is empty
- * and at least one byte is really needed.
- * Returning -1 does not guarantee that gunzip() will ever return.
- */
-static int __init fill_inbuf(void)
-{
-	if (exit_code) return -1;
-	
-	insize = sys_read(crd_infd, inbuf, INBUFSIZ);
-	if (insize == 0) {
-		error("RAMDISK: ran out of compressed data");
-		return -1;
-	}
-
-	inptr = 1;
-
-	return inbuf[0];
-}
-
-/* ===========================================================================
- * Write the output window window[0..outcnt-1] and update crc and bytes_out.
- * (Used for the decompressed data only.)
- */
-static void __init flush_window(void)
-{
-    ulg c = crc;         /* temporary variable */
-    unsigned n, written;
-    uch *in, ch;
-    
-    written = sys_write(crd_outfd, window, outcnt);
-    if (written != outcnt && unzip_error == 0) {
-	printk(KERN_ERR "RAMDISK: incomplete write (%d != %d) %ld\n",
-	       written, outcnt, bytes_out);
-	unzip_error = 1;
-    }
-    in = window;
-    for (n = 0; n < outcnt; n++) {
-	    ch = *in++;
-	    c = crc_32_tab[((int)c ^ ch) & 0xff] ^ (c >> 8);
-    }
-    crc = c;
-    bytes_out += (ulg)outcnt;
-    outcnt = 0;
-}
-
-static void __init error(char *x)
-{
-	printk(KERN_ERR "%s\n", x);
-	exit_code = 1;
-	unzip_error = 1;
-}
-
-static int __init crd_load(int in_fd, int out_fd)
-{
-	int result;
-
-	insize = 0;		/* valid bytes in inbuf */
-	inptr = 0;		/* index of next byte to be processed in inbuf */
-	outcnt = 0;		/* bytes in output buffer */
-	exit_code = 0;
-	bytes_out = 0;
-	crc = (ulg)0xffffffffL; /* shift register contents */
-
-	crd_infd = in_fd;
-	crd_outfd = out_fd;
-	inbuf = kmalloc(INBUFSIZ, GFP_KERNEL);
-	if (inbuf == 0) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "RAMDISK: Couldn't allocate gzip buffer\n");
-		return -1;
-	}
-	window = kmalloc(WSIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
-	if (window == 0) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "RAMDISK: Couldn't allocate gzip window\n");
-		kfree(inbuf);
-		return -1;
-	}
-	makecrc();
-	result = gunzip();
-	if (unzip_error)
-		result = 1;
-	kfree(inbuf);
-	kfree(window);
-	return result;
-}
-
-#endif  /* BUILD_CRAMDISK */
diff --git a/init/initramfs.c b/init/initramfs.c
index 00eff7a..1de5cad 100644
--- a/init/initramfs.c
+++ b/init/initramfs.c
@@ -7,6 +7,9 @@
 #include <linux/string.h>
 #include <linux/syscalls.h>
 
+unsigned long __initdata initrd_start, initrd_end;
+int __initdata initrd_below_start_ok;
+
 static __initdata char *message;
 static void __init error(char *x)
 {
diff --git a/init/main.c b/init/main.c
index 1940fa7..6a3151b 100644
--- a/init/main.c
+++ b/init/main.c
@@ -7,6 +7,8 @@
  *  Added initrd & change_root: Werner Almesberger & Hans Lermen, Feb '96
  *  Moan early if gcc is old, avoiding bogus kernels - Paul Gortmaker, May '96
  *  Simplified starting of init:  Michael A. Griffith <grif@acm.org> 
+ *
+ *  2006-02-12 H. Peter Anvin: Eliminated in-kernel root mounting.
  */
 
 #include <linux/types.h>
@@ -48,6 +50,7 @@
 #include <linux/rmap.h>
 #include <linux/mempolicy.h>
 #include <linux/key.h>
+#include <linux/root_dev.h>
 #include <linux/unwind.h>
 #include <linux/buffer_head.h>
 #include <linux/debug_locks.h>
@@ -135,6 +138,11 @@
 /* Setup configured maximum number of CPUs to activate */
 static unsigned int max_cpus = NR_CPUS;
 
+/* ROOT_DEV contains any architecture-specific default root device. */
+/* real_root_dev is used (via sysctl) to communicate ROOT_DEV to kinit. */
+dev_t ROOT_DEV;
+unsigned int real_root_dev;
+
 /*
  * If set, this is an indication to the drivers that reset the underlying
  * device before going ahead with the initialization otherwise driver might
@@ -753,35 +761,15 @@
 	system_state = SYSTEM_RUNNING;
 	numa_default_policy();
 
+	/* This could be done by (k)init as well... */
 	if (sys_open((const char __user *) "/dev/console", O_RDWR, 0) < 0)
 		printk(KERN_WARNING "Warning: unable to open an initial console.\n");
 
 	(void) sys_dup(0);
 	(void) sys_dup(0);
 
-	if (ramdisk_execute_command) {
-		run_init_process(ramdisk_execute_command);
-		printk(KERN_WARNING "Failed to execute %s\n",
-				ramdisk_execute_command);
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * We try each of these until one succeeds.
-	 *
-	 * The Bourne shell can be used instead of init if we are
-	 * trying to recover a really broken machine.
-	 */
-	if (execute_command) {
-		run_init_process(execute_command);
-		printk(KERN_WARNING "Failed to execute %s.  Attempting "
-					"defaults...\n", execute_command);
-	}
-	run_init_process("/sbin/init");
-	run_init_process("/etc/init");
-	run_init_process("/bin/init");
-	run_init_process("/bin/sh");
-
-	panic("No init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel.");
+	run_init_process(ramdisk_execute_command);
+	panic("Failed to execute %s", ramdisk_execute_command);
 }
 
 static int __init kernel_init(void * unused)
@@ -816,6 +804,12 @@
 	do_basic_setup();
 
 	/*
+	 * If we have a root device set by architecture-specific means,
+	 * let kinit know about it.
+	 */
+	real_root_dev = new_encode_dev(ROOT_DEV);
+
+	/*
 	 * check if there is an early userspace init.  If yes, let it do all
 	 * the work
 	 */
@@ -823,11 +817,6 @@
 	if (!ramdisk_execute_command)
 		ramdisk_execute_command = "/init";
 
-	if (sys_access((const char __user *) ramdisk_execute_command, 0) != 0) {
-		ramdisk_execute_command = NULL;
-		prepare_namespace();
-	}
-
 	/*
 	 * Ok, we have completed the initial bootup, and
 	 * we're essentially up and running. Get rid of the
diff --git a/init/noinitramfs.c b/init/noinitramfs.c
deleted file mode 100644
index f4c1a3a..0000000
--- a/init/noinitramfs.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,52 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * init/noinitramfs.c
- *
- * Copyright (C) 2006, NXP Semiconductors, All Rights Reserved
- * Author: Jean-Paul Saman <jean-paul.saman@nxp.com>
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
- * the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
- *
- * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
- * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
- * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
- * GNU General Public License for more details.
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
- * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
- * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
- */
-#include <linux/init.h>
-#include <linux/stat.h>
-#include <linux/kdev_t.h>
-#include <linux/syscalls.h>
-
-/*
- * Create a simple rootfs that is similar to the default initramfs
- */
-static int __init default_rootfs(void)
-{
-	int err;
-
-	err = sys_mkdir("/dev", 0755);
-	if (err < 0)
-		goto out;
-
-	err = sys_mknod((const char __user *) "/dev/console",
-			S_IFCHR | S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR,
-			new_encode_dev(MKDEV(5, 1)));
-	if (err < 0)
-		goto out;
-
-	err = sys_mkdir("/root", 0700);
-	if (err < 0)
-		goto out;
-
-	return 0;
-
-out:
-	printk(KERN_WARNING "Failed to create a rootfs\n");
-	return err;
-}
-rootfs_initcall(default_rootfs);
diff --git a/kernel/power/disk.c b/kernel/power/disk.c
index f445b9c..05f2b5b 100644
--- a/kernel/power/disk.c
+++ b/kernel/power/disk.c
@@ -25,8 +25,6 @@
 #include "power.h"
 
 
-static int noresume = 0;
-char resume_file[256] = CONFIG_PM_STD_PARTITION;
 dev_t swsusp_resume_device;
 sector_t swsusp_resume_block;
 
@@ -256,26 +254,13 @@
 
 	mutex_lock(&pm_mutex);
 	if (!swsusp_resume_device) {
-		if (!strlen(resume_file)) {
-			mutex_unlock(&pm_mutex);
-			return -ENOENT;
-		}
-		swsusp_resume_device = name_to_dev_t(resume_file);
-		pr_debug("swsusp: Resume From Partition %s\n", resume_file);
-	} else {
-		pr_debug("swsusp: Resume From Partition %d:%d\n",
-			 MAJOR(swsusp_resume_device), MINOR(swsusp_resume_device));
-	}
-
-	if (noresume) {
-		/**
-		 * FIXME: If noresume is specified, we need to find the partition
-		 * and reset it back to normal swap space.
-		 */
-		mutex_unlock(&pm_mutex);
+		pr_debug("swsusp: No device given!\n");
 		return 0;
 	}
 
+	pr_debug("swsusp: Resume From Partition %d:%d\n",
+		 MAJOR(swsusp_resume_device), MINOR(swsusp_resume_device));
+
 	pr_debug("PM: Checking swsusp image.\n");
 	error = swsusp_check();
 	if (error)
@@ -336,8 +321,6 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-late_initcall(software_resume);
-
 
 static const char * const hibernation_modes[] = {
 	[HIBERNATION_PLATFORM]	= "platform",
@@ -459,8 +442,9 @@
 	unsigned int maj, min;
 	dev_t res;
 	int ret = -EINVAL;
+	unsigned long long offset = 0;
 
-	if (sscanf(buf, "%u:%u", &maj, &min) != 2)
+	if (sscanf(buf, "%u:%u:%llu", &maj, &min, &offset) < 2)
 		goto out;
 
 	res = MKDEV(maj,min);
@@ -469,9 +453,9 @@
 
 	mutex_lock(&pm_mutex);
 	swsusp_resume_device = res;
+	swsusp_resume_block = offset;
 	mutex_unlock(&pm_mutex);
 	printk("Attempting manual resume\n");
-	noresume = 0;
 	software_resume();
 	ret = n;
  out:
@@ -518,36 +502,3 @@
 }
 
 core_initcall(pm_disk_init);
-
-
-static int __init resume_setup(char *str)
-{
-	if (noresume)
-		return 1;
-
-	strncpy( resume_file, str, 255 );
-	return 1;
-}
-
-static int __init resume_offset_setup(char *str)
-{
-	unsigned long long offset;
-
-	if (noresume)
-		return 1;
-
-	if (sscanf(str, "%llu", &offset) == 1)
-		swsusp_resume_block = offset;
-
-	return 1;
-}
-
-static int __init noresume_setup(char *str)
-{
-	noresume = 1;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-__setup("noresume", noresume_setup);
-__setup("resume_offset=", resume_offset_setup);
-__setup("resume=", resume_setup);
diff --git a/net/ipv4/Makefile b/net/ipv4/Makefile
index 4ff6c15..f917e95 100644
--- a/net/ipv4/Makefile
+++ b/net/ipv4/Makefile
@@ -28,7 +28,6 @@
 obj-$(CONFIG_INET_TUNNEL) += tunnel4.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_INET_XFRM_MODE_TRANSPORT) += xfrm4_mode_transport.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_INET_XFRM_MODE_TUNNEL) += xfrm4_mode_tunnel.o
-obj-$(CONFIG_IP_PNP) += ipconfig.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_MULTIPATH_RR) += multipath_rr.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_MULTIPATH_RANDOM) += multipath_random.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_MULTIPATH_WRANDOM) += multipath_wrandom.o
diff --git a/net/ipv4/ipconfig.c b/net/ipv4/ipconfig.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 342ca8d..0000000
--- a/net/ipv4/ipconfig.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1511 +0,0 @@
-/*
- *  $Id: ipconfig.c,v 1.46 2002/02/01 22:01:04 davem Exp $
- *
- *  Automatic Configuration of IP -- use DHCP, BOOTP, RARP, or
- *  user-supplied information to configure own IP address and routes.
- *
- *  Copyright (C) 1996-1998 Martin Mares <mj@atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz>
- *
- *  Derived from network configuration code in fs/nfs/nfsroot.c,
- *  originally Copyright (C) 1995, 1996 Gero Kuhlmann and me.
- *
- *  BOOTP rewritten to construct and analyse packets itself instead
- *  of misusing the IP layer. num_bugs_causing_wrong_arp_replies--;
- *					     -- MJ, December 1998
- *
- *  Fixed ip_auto_config_setup calling at startup in the new "Linker Magic"
- *  initialization scheme.
- *	- Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@conectiva.com.br>, 08/11/1999
- *
- *  DHCP support added.  To users this looks like a whole separate
- *  protocol, but we know it's just a bag on the side of BOOTP.
- *		-- Chip Salzenberg <chip@valinux.com>, May 2000
- *
- *  Ported DHCP support from 2.2.16 to 2.4.0-test4
- *              -- Eric Biederman <ebiederman@lnxi.com>, 30 Aug 2000
- *
- *  Merged changes from 2.2.19 into 2.4.3
- *              -- Eric Biederman <ebiederman@lnxi.com>, 22 April Aug 2001
- *
- *  Multiple Nameservers in /proc/net/pnp
- *              --  Josef Siemes <jsiemes@web.de>, Aug 2002
- */
-
-#include <linux/types.h>
-#include <linux/string.h>
-#include <linux/kernel.h>
-#include <linux/jiffies.h>
-#include <linux/random.h>
-#include <linux/init.h>
-#include <linux/utsname.h>
-#include <linux/in.h>
-#include <linux/if.h>
-#include <linux/inet.h>
-#include <linux/inetdevice.h>
-#include <linux/netdevice.h>
-#include <linux/if_arp.h>
-#include <linux/skbuff.h>
-#include <linux/ip.h>
-#include <linux/socket.h>
-#include <linux/route.h>
-#include <linux/udp.h>
-#include <linux/proc_fs.h>
-#include <linux/seq_file.h>
-#include <linux/major.h>
-#include <linux/root_dev.h>
-#include <linux/delay.h>
-#include <linux/nfs_fs.h>
-#include <net/arp.h>
-#include <net/ip.h>
-#include <net/ipconfig.h>
-#include <net/route.h>
-
-#include <asm/uaccess.h>
-#include <net/checksum.h>
-#include <asm/processor.h>
-
-/* Define this to allow debugging output */
-#undef IPCONFIG_DEBUG
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DEBUG
-#define DBG(x) printk x
-#else
-#define DBG(x) do { } while(0)
-#endif
-
-#if defined(CONFIG_IP_PNP_DHCP)
-#define IPCONFIG_DHCP
-#endif
-#if defined(CONFIG_IP_PNP_BOOTP) || defined(CONFIG_IP_PNP_DHCP)
-#define IPCONFIG_BOOTP
-#endif
-#if defined(CONFIG_IP_PNP_RARP)
-#define IPCONFIG_RARP
-#endif
-#if defined(IPCONFIG_BOOTP) || defined(IPCONFIG_RARP)
-#define IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC
-#endif
-
-/* Define the friendly delay before and after opening net devices */
-#define CONF_PRE_OPEN		500	/* Before opening: 1/2 second */
-#define CONF_POST_OPEN		1	/* After opening: 1 second */
-
-/* Define the timeout for waiting for a DHCP/BOOTP/RARP reply */
-#define CONF_OPEN_RETRIES 	2	/* (Re)open devices twice */
-#define CONF_SEND_RETRIES 	6	/* Send six requests per open */
-#define CONF_INTER_TIMEOUT	(HZ/2)	/* Inter-device timeout: 1/2 second */
-#define CONF_BASE_TIMEOUT	(HZ*2)	/* Initial timeout: 2 seconds */
-#define CONF_TIMEOUT_RANDOM	(HZ)	/* Maximum amount of randomization */
-#define CONF_TIMEOUT_MULT	*7/4	/* Rate of timeout growth */
-#define CONF_TIMEOUT_MAX	(HZ*30)	/* Maximum allowed timeout */
-#define CONF_NAMESERVERS_MAX   3       /* Maximum number of nameservers
-					   - '3' from resolv.h */
-
-#define NONE __constant_htonl(INADDR_NONE)
-
-/*
- * Public IP configuration
- */
-
-/* This is used by platforms which might be able to set the ipconfig
- * variables using firmware environment vars.  If this is set, it will
- * ignore such firmware variables.
- */
-int ic_set_manually __initdata = 0;		/* IPconfig parameters set manually */
-
-static int ic_enable __initdata = 0;		/* IP config enabled? */
-
-/* Protocol choice */
-int ic_proto_enabled __initdata = 0
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_BOOTP
-			| IC_BOOTP
-#endif
-#ifdef CONFIG_IP_PNP_DHCP
-			| IC_USE_DHCP
-#endif
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_RARP
-			| IC_RARP
-#endif
-			;
-
-static int ic_host_name_set __initdata = 0;	/* Host name set by us? */
-
-__be32 ic_myaddr = NONE;		/* My IP address */
-static __be32 ic_netmask = NONE;	/* Netmask for local subnet */
-__be32 ic_gateway = NONE;	/* Gateway IP address */
-
-__be32 ic_servaddr = NONE;	/* Boot server IP address */
-
-__be32 root_server_addr = NONE;	/* Address of NFS server */
-u8 root_server_path[256] = { 0, };	/* Path to mount as root */
-
-/* Persistent data: */
-
-static int ic_proto_used;			/* Protocol used, if any */
-static __be32 ic_nameservers[CONF_NAMESERVERS_MAX]; /* DNS Server IP addresses */
-static u8 ic_domain[64];		/* DNS (not NIS) domain name */
-
-/*
- * Private state.
- */
-
-/* Name of user-selected boot device */
-static char user_dev_name[IFNAMSIZ] __initdata = { 0, };
-
-/* Protocols supported by available interfaces */
-static int ic_proto_have_if __initdata = 0;
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC
-static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(ic_recv_lock);
-static volatile int ic_got_reply __initdata = 0;    /* Proto(s) that replied */
-#endif
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DHCP
-static int ic_dhcp_msgtype __initdata = 0;	/* DHCP msg type received */
-#endif
-
-
-/*
- *	Network devices
- */
-
-struct ic_device {
-	struct ic_device *next;
-	struct net_device *dev;
-	unsigned short flags;
-	short able;
-	__be32 xid;
-};
-
-static struct ic_device *ic_first_dev __initdata = NULL;/* List of open device */
-static struct net_device *ic_dev __initdata = NULL;	/* Selected device */
-
-static int __init ic_open_devs(void)
-{
-	struct ic_device *d, **last;
-	struct net_device *dev;
-	unsigned short oflags;
-
-	last = &ic_first_dev;
-	rtnl_lock();
-
-	/* bring loopback device up first */
-	if (dev_change_flags(&loopback_dev, loopback_dev.flags | IFF_UP) < 0)
-		printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Failed to open %s\n", loopback_dev.name);
-
-	for_each_netdev(dev) {
-		if (dev == &loopback_dev)
-			continue;
-		if (user_dev_name[0] ? !strcmp(dev->name, user_dev_name) :
-		    (!(dev->flags & IFF_LOOPBACK) &&
-		     (dev->flags & (IFF_POINTOPOINT|IFF_BROADCAST)) &&
-		     strncmp(dev->name, "dummy", 5))) {
-			int able = 0;
-			if (dev->mtu >= 364)
-				able |= IC_BOOTP;
-			else
-				printk(KERN_WARNING "DHCP/BOOTP: Ignoring device %s, MTU %d too small", dev->name, dev->mtu);
-			if (!(dev->flags & IFF_NOARP))
-				able |= IC_RARP;
-			able &= ic_proto_enabled;
-			if (ic_proto_enabled && !able)
-				continue;
-			oflags = dev->flags;
-			if (dev_change_flags(dev, oflags | IFF_UP) < 0) {
-				printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Failed to open %s\n", dev->name);
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!(d = kmalloc(sizeof(struct ic_device), GFP_KERNEL))) {
-				rtnl_unlock();
-				return -1;
-			}
-			d->dev = dev;
-			*last = d;
-			last = &d->next;
-			d->flags = oflags;
-			d->able = able;
-			if (able & IC_BOOTP)
-				get_random_bytes(&d->xid, sizeof(__be32));
-			else
-				d->xid = 0;
-			ic_proto_have_if |= able;
-			DBG(("IP-Config: %s UP (able=%d, xid=%08x)\n",
-				dev->name, able, d->xid));
-		}
-	}
-	rtnl_unlock();
-
-	*last = NULL;
-
-	if (!ic_first_dev) {
-		if (user_dev_name[0])
-			printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Device `%s' not found.\n", user_dev_name);
-		else
-			printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: No network devices available.\n");
-		return -1;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static void __init ic_close_devs(void)
-{
-	struct ic_device *d, *next;
-	struct net_device *dev;
-
-	rtnl_lock();
-	next = ic_first_dev;
-	while ((d = next)) {
-		next = d->next;
-		dev = d->dev;
-		if (dev != ic_dev) {
-			DBG(("IP-Config: Downing %s\n", dev->name));
-			dev_change_flags(dev, d->flags);
-		}
-		kfree(d);
-	}
-	rtnl_unlock();
-}
-
-/*
- *	Interface to various network functions.
- */
-
-static inline void
-set_sockaddr(struct sockaddr_in *sin, __be32 addr, __be16 port)
-{
-	sin->sin_family = AF_INET;
-	sin->sin_addr.s_addr = addr;
-	sin->sin_port = port;
-}
-
-static int __init ic_dev_ioctl(unsigned int cmd, struct ifreq *arg)
-{
-	int res;
-
-	mm_segment_t oldfs = get_fs();
-	set_fs(get_ds());
-	res = devinet_ioctl(cmd, (struct ifreq __user *) arg);
-	set_fs(oldfs);
-	return res;
-}
-
-static int __init ic_route_ioctl(unsigned int cmd, struct rtentry *arg)
-{
-	int res;
-
-	mm_segment_t oldfs = get_fs();
-	set_fs(get_ds());
-	res = ip_rt_ioctl(cmd, (void __user *) arg);
-	set_fs(oldfs);
-	return res;
-}
-
-/*
- *	Set up interface addresses and routes.
- */
-
-static int __init ic_setup_if(void)
-{
-	struct ifreq ir;
-	struct sockaddr_in *sin = (void *) &ir.ifr_ifru.ifru_addr;
-	int err;
-
-	memset(&ir, 0, sizeof(ir));
-	strcpy(ir.ifr_ifrn.ifrn_name, ic_dev->name);
-	set_sockaddr(sin, ic_myaddr, 0);
-	if ((err = ic_dev_ioctl(SIOCSIFADDR, &ir)) < 0) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Unable to set interface address (%d).\n", err);
-		return -1;
-	}
-	set_sockaddr(sin, ic_netmask, 0);
-	if ((err = ic_dev_ioctl(SIOCSIFNETMASK, &ir)) < 0) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Unable to set interface netmask (%d).\n", err);
-		return -1;
-	}
-	set_sockaddr(sin, ic_myaddr | ~ic_netmask, 0);
-	if ((err = ic_dev_ioctl(SIOCSIFBRDADDR, &ir)) < 0) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Unable to set interface broadcast address (%d).\n", err);
-		return -1;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int __init ic_setup_routes(void)
-{
-	/* No need to setup device routes, only the default route... */
-
-	if (ic_gateway != NONE) {
-		struct rtentry rm;
-		int err;
-
-		memset(&rm, 0, sizeof(rm));
-		if ((ic_gateway ^ ic_myaddr) & ic_netmask) {
-			printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Gateway not on directly connected network.\n");
-			return -1;
-		}
-		set_sockaddr((struct sockaddr_in *) &rm.rt_dst, 0, 0);
-		set_sockaddr((struct sockaddr_in *) &rm.rt_genmask, 0, 0);
-		set_sockaddr((struct sockaddr_in *) &rm.rt_gateway, ic_gateway, 0);
-		rm.rt_flags = RTF_UP | RTF_GATEWAY;
-		if ((err = ic_route_ioctl(SIOCADDRT, &rm)) < 0) {
-			printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Cannot add default route (%d).\n", err);
-			return -1;
-		}
-	}
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/*
- *	Fill in default values for all missing parameters.
- */
-
-static int __init ic_defaults(void)
-{
-	/*
-	 *	At this point we have no userspace running so need not
-	 *	claim locks on system_utsname
-	 */
-
-	if (!ic_host_name_set)
-		sprintf(init_utsname()->nodename, "%u.%u.%u.%u", NIPQUAD(ic_myaddr));
-
-	if (root_server_addr == NONE)
-		root_server_addr = ic_servaddr;
-
-	if (ic_netmask == NONE) {
-		if (IN_CLASSA(ntohl(ic_myaddr)))
-			ic_netmask = htonl(IN_CLASSA_NET);
-		else if (IN_CLASSB(ntohl(ic_myaddr)))
-			ic_netmask = htonl(IN_CLASSB_NET);
-		else if (IN_CLASSC(ntohl(ic_myaddr)))
-			ic_netmask = htonl(IN_CLASSC_NET);
-		else {
-			printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Unable to guess netmask for address %u.%u.%u.%u\n",
-				NIPQUAD(ic_myaddr));
-			return -1;
-		}
-		printk("IP-Config: Guessing netmask %u.%u.%u.%u\n", NIPQUAD(ic_netmask));
-	}
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/*
- *	RARP support.
- */
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_RARP
-
-static int ic_rarp_recv(struct sk_buff *skb, struct net_device *dev, struct packet_type *pt, struct net_device *orig_dev);
-
-static struct packet_type rarp_packet_type __initdata = {
-	.type =	__constant_htons(ETH_P_RARP),
-	.func =	ic_rarp_recv,
-};
-
-static inline void ic_rarp_init(void)
-{
-	dev_add_pack(&rarp_packet_type);
-}
-
-static inline void ic_rarp_cleanup(void)
-{
-	dev_remove_pack(&rarp_packet_type);
-}
-
-/*
- *  Process received RARP packet.
- */
-static int __init
-ic_rarp_recv(struct sk_buff *skb, struct net_device *dev, struct packet_type *pt, struct net_device *orig_dev)
-{
-	struct arphdr *rarp;
-	unsigned char *rarp_ptr;
-	__be32 sip, tip;
-	unsigned char *sha, *tha;		/* s for "source", t for "target" */
-	struct ic_device *d;
-
-	if ((skb = skb_share_check(skb, GFP_ATOMIC)) == NULL)
-		return NET_RX_DROP;
-
-	if (!pskb_may_pull(skb, sizeof(struct arphdr)))
-		goto drop;
-
-	/* Basic sanity checks can be done without the lock.  */
-	rarp = (struct arphdr *)skb_transport_header(skb);
-
-	/* If this test doesn't pass, it's not IP, or we should
-	 * ignore it anyway.
-	 */
-	if (rarp->ar_hln != dev->addr_len || dev->type != ntohs(rarp->ar_hrd))
-		goto drop;
-
-	/* If it's not a RARP reply, delete it. */
-	if (rarp->ar_op != htons(ARPOP_RREPLY))
-		goto drop;
-
-	/* If it's not Ethernet, delete it. */
-	if (rarp->ar_pro != htons(ETH_P_IP))
-		goto drop;
-
-	if (!pskb_may_pull(skb,
-			   sizeof(struct arphdr) +
-			   (2 * dev->addr_len) +
-			   (2 * 4)))
-		goto drop;
-
-	/* OK, it is all there and looks valid, process... */
-	rarp = (struct arphdr *)skb_transport_header(skb);
-	rarp_ptr = (unsigned char *) (rarp + 1);
-
-	/* One reply at a time, please. */
-	spin_lock(&ic_recv_lock);
-
-	/* If we already have a reply, just drop the packet */
-	if (ic_got_reply)
-		goto drop_unlock;
-
-	/* Find the ic_device that the packet arrived on */
-	d = ic_first_dev;
-	while (d && d->dev != dev)
-		d = d->next;
-	if (!d)
-		goto drop_unlock;	/* should never happen */
-
-	/* Extract variable-width fields */
-	sha = rarp_ptr;
-	rarp_ptr += dev->addr_len;
-	memcpy(&sip, rarp_ptr, 4);
-	rarp_ptr += 4;
-	tha = rarp_ptr;
-	rarp_ptr += dev->addr_len;
-	memcpy(&tip, rarp_ptr, 4);
-
-	/* Discard packets which are not meant for us. */
-	if (memcmp(tha, dev->dev_addr, dev->addr_len))
-		goto drop_unlock;
-
-	/* Discard packets which are not from specified server. */
-	if (ic_servaddr != NONE && ic_servaddr != sip)
-		goto drop_unlock;
-
-	/* We have a winner! */
-	ic_dev = dev;
-	if (ic_myaddr == NONE)
-		ic_myaddr = tip;
-	ic_servaddr = sip;
-	ic_got_reply = IC_RARP;
-
-drop_unlock:
-	/* Show's over.  Nothing to see here.  */
-	spin_unlock(&ic_recv_lock);
-
-drop:
-	/* Throw the packet out. */
-	kfree_skb(skb);
-	return 0;
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Send RARP request packet over a single interface.
- */
-static void __init ic_rarp_send_if(struct ic_device *d)
-{
-	struct net_device *dev = d->dev;
-	arp_send(ARPOP_RREQUEST, ETH_P_RARP, 0, dev, 0, NULL,
-		 dev->dev_addr, dev->dev_addr);
-}
-#endif
-
-/*
- *	DHCP/BOOTP support.
- */
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_BOOTP
-
-struct bootp_pkt {		/* BOOTP packet format */
-	struct iphdr iph;	/* IP header */
-	struct udphdr udph;	/* UDP header */
-	u8 op;			/* 1=request, 2=reply */
-	u8 htype;		/* HW address type */
-	u8 hlen;		/* HW address length */
-	u8 hops;		/* Used only by gateways */
-	__be32 xid;		/* Transaction ID */
-	__be16 secs;		/* Seconds since we started */
-	__be16 flags;		/* Just what it says */
-	__be32 client_ip;		/* Client's IP address if known */
-	__be32 your_ip;		/* Assigned IP address */
-	__be32 server_ip;		/* (Next, e.g. NFS) Server's IP address */
-	__be32 relay_ip;		/* IP address of BOOTP relay */
-	u8 hw_addr[16];		/* Client's HW address */
-	u8 serv_name[64];	/* Server host name */
-	u8 boot_file[128];	/* Name of boot file */
-	u8 exten[312];		/* DHCP options / BOOTP vendor extensions */
-};
-
-/* packet ops */
-#define BOOTP_REQUEST	1
-#define BOOTP_REPLY	2
-
-/* DHCP message types */
-#define DHCPDISCOVER	1
-#define DHCPOFFER	2
-#define DHCPREQUEST	3
-#define DHCPDECLINE	4
-#define DHCPACK		5
-#define DHCPNAK		6
-#define DHCPRELEASE	7
-#define DHCPINFORM	8
-
-static int ic_bootp_recv(struct sk_buff *skb, struct net_device *dev, struct packet_type *pt, struct net_device *orig_dev);
-
-static struct packet_type bootp_packet_type __initdata = {
-	.type =	__constant_htons(ETH_P_IP),
-	.func =	ic_bootp_recv,
-};
-
-
-/*
- *  Initialize DHCP/BOOTP extension fields in the request.
- */
-
-static const u8 ic_bootp_cookie[4] = { 99, 130, 83, 99 };
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DHCP
-
-static void __init
-ic_dhcp_init_options(u8 *options)
-{
-	u8 mt = ((ic_servaddr == NONE)
-		 ? DHCPDISCOVER : DHCPREQUEST);
-	u8 *e = options;
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DEBUG
-	printk("DHCP: Sending message type %d\n", mt);
-#endif
-
-	memcpy(e, ic_bootp_cookie, 4);	/* RFC1048 Magic Cookie */
-	e += 4;
-
-	*e++ = 53;		/* DHCP message type */
-	*e++ = 1;
-	*e++ = mt;
-
-	if (mt == DHCPREQUEST) {
-		*e++ = 54;	/* Server ID (IP address) */
-		*e++ = 4;
-		memcpy(e, &ic_servaddr, 4);
-		e += 4;
-
-		*e++ = 50;	/* Requested IP address */
-		*e++ = 4;
-		memcpy(e, &ic_myaddr, 4);
-		e += 4;
-	}
-
-	/* always? */
-	{
-		static const u8 ic_req_params[] = {
-			1,	/* Subnet mask */
-			3,	/* Default gateway */
-			6,	/* DNS server */
-			12,	/* Host name */
-			15,	/* Domain name */
-			17,	/* Boot path */
-			40,	/* NIS domain name */
-		};
-
-		*e++ = 55;	/* Parameter request list */
-		*e++ = sizeof(ic_req_params);
-		memcpy(e, ic_req_params, sizeof(ic_req_params));
-		e += sizeof(ic_req_params);
-	}
-
-	*e++ = 255;	/* End of the list */
-}
-
-#endif /* IPCONFIG_DHCP */
-
-static void __init ic_bootp_init_ext(u8 *e)
-{
-	memcpy(e, ic_bootp_cookie, 4);	/* RFC1048 Magic Cookie */
-	e += 4;
-	*e++ = 1;		/* Subnet mask request */
-	*e++ = 4;
-	e += 4;
-	*e++ = 3;		/* Default gateway request */
-	*e++ = 4;
-	e += 4;
-	*e++ = 5;		/* Name server request */
-	*e++ = 8;
-	e += 8;
-	*e++ = 12;		/* Host name request */
-	*e++ = 32;
-	e += 32;
-	*e++ = 40;		/* NIS Domain name request */
-	*e++ = 32;
-	e += 32;
-	*e++ = 17;		/* Boot path */
-	*e++ = 40;
-	e += 40;
-
-	*e++ = 57;		/* set extension buffer size for reply */
-	*e++ = 2;
-	*e++ = 1;		/* 128+236+8+20+14, see dhcpd sources */
-	*e++ = 150;
-
-	*e++ = 255;		/* End of the list */
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Initialize the DHCP/BOOTP mechanism.
- */
-static inline void ic_bootp_init(void)
-{
-	int i;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < CONF_NAMESERVERS_MAX; i++)
-		ic_nameservers[i] = NONE;
-
-	dev_add_pack(&bootp_packet_type);
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  DHCP/BOOTP cleanup.
- */
-static inline void ic_bootp_cleanup(void)
-{
-	dev_remove_pack(&bootp_packet_type);
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Send DHCP/BOOTP request to single interface.
- */
-static void __init ic_bootp_send_if(struct ic_device *d, unsigned long jiffies_diff)
-{
-	struct net_device *dev = d->dev;
-	struct sk_buff *skb;
-	struct bootp_pkt *b;
-	int hh_len = LL_RESERVED_SPACE(dev);
-	struct iphdr *h;
-
-	/* Allocate packet */
-	skb = alloc_skb(sizeof(struct bootp_pkt) + hh_len + 15, GFP_KERNEL);
-	if (!skb)
-		return;
-	skb_reserve(skb, hh_len);
-	b = (struct bootp_pkt *) skb_put(skb, sizeof(struct bootp_pkt));
-	memset(b, 0, sizeof(struct bootp_pkt));
-
-	/* Construct IP header */
-	skb_reset_network_header(skb);
-	h = ip_hdr(skb);
-	h->version = 4;
-	h->ihl = 5;
-	h->tot_len = htons(sizeof(struct bootp_pkt));
-	h->frag_off = htons(IP_DF);
-	h->ttl = 64;
-	h->protocol = IPPROTO_UDP;
-	h->daddr = htonl(INADDR_BROADCAST);
-	h->check = ip_fast_csum((unsigned char *) h, h->ihl);
-
-	/* Construct UDP header */
-	b->udph.source = htons(68);
-	b->udph.dest = htons(67);
-	b->udph.len = htons(sizeof(struct bootp_pkt) - sizeof(struct iphdr));
-	/* UDP checksum not calculated -- explicitly allowed in BOOTP RFC */
-
-	/* Construct DHCP/BOOTP header */
-	b->op = BOOTP_REQUEST;
-	if (dev->type < 256) /* check for false types */
-		b->htype = dev->type;
-	else if (dev->type == ARPHRD_IEEE802_TR) /* fix for token ring */
-		b->htype = ARPHRD_IEEE802;
-	else if (dev->type == ARPHRD_FDDI)
-		b->htype = ARPHRD_ETHER;
-	else {
-		printk("Unknown ARP type 0x%04x for device %s\n", dev->type, dev->name);
-		b->htype = dev->type; /* can cause undefined behavior */
-	}
-	b->hlen = dev->addr_len;
-	b->your_ip = NONE;
-	b->server_ip = NONE;
-	memcpy(b->hw_addr, dev->dev_addr, dev->addr_len);
-	b->secs = htons(jiffies_diff / HZ);
-	b->xid = d->xid;
-
-	/* add DHCP options or BOOTP extensions */
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DHCP
-	if (ic_proto_enabled & IC_USE_DHCP)
-		ic_dhcp_init_options(b->exten);
-	else
-#endif
-		ic_bootp_init_ext(b->exten);
-
-	/* Chain packet down the line... */
-	skb->dev = dev;
-	skb->protocol = htons(ETH_P_IP);
-	if ((dev->hard_header &&
-	     dev->hard_header(skb, dev, ntohs(skb->protocol), dev->broadcast, dev->dev_addr, skb->len) < 0) ||
-	    dev_queue_xmit(skb) < 0)
-		printk("E");
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Copy BOOTP-supplied string if not already set.
- */
-static int __init ic_bootp_string(char *dest, char *src, int len, int max)
-{
-	if (!len)
-		return 0;
-	if (len > max-1)
-		len = max-1;
-	memcpy(dest, src, len);
-	dest[len] = '\0';
-	return 1;
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Process BOOTP extensions.
- */
-static void __init ic_do_bootp_ext(u8 *ext)
-{
-       u8 servers;
-       int i;
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DEBUG
-	u8 *c;
-
-	printk("DHCP/BOOTP: Got extension %d:",*ext);
-	for (c=ext+2; c<ext+2+ext[1]; c++)
-		printk(" %02x", *c);
-	printk("\n");
-#endif
-
-	switch (*ext++) {
-		case 1:		/* Subnet mask */
-			if (ic_netmask == NONE)
-				memcpy(&ic_netmask, ext+1, 4);
-			break;
-		case 3:		/* Default gateway */
-			if (ic_gateway == NONE)
-				memcpy(&ic_gateway, ext+1, 4);
-			break;
-		case 6:		/* DNS server */
-			servers= *ext/4;
-			if (servers > CONF_NAMESERVERS_MAX)
-				servers = CONF_NAMESERVERS_MAX;
-			for (i = 0; i < servers; i++) {
-				if (ic_nameservers[i] == NONE)
-					memcpy(&ic_nameservers[i], ext+1+4*i, 4);
-			}
-			break;
-		case 12:	/* Host name */
-			ic_bootp_string(utsname()->nodename, ext+1, *ext, __NEW_UTS_LEN);
-			ic_host_name_set = 1;
-			break;
-		case 15:	/* Domain name (DNS) */
-			ic_bootp_string(ic_domain, ext+1, *ext, sizeof(ic_domain));
-			break;
-		case 17:	/* Root path */
-			if (!root_server_path[0])
-				ic_bootp_string(root_server_path, ext+1, *ext, sizeof(root_server_path));
-			break;
-		case 40:	/* NIS Domain name (_not_ DNS) */
-			ic_bootp_string(utsname()->domainname, ext+1, *ext, __NEW_UTS_LEN);
-			break;
-	}
-}
-
-
-/*
- *  Receive BOOTP reply.
- */
-static int __init ic_bootp_recv(struct sk_buff *skb, struct net_device *dev, struct packet_type *pt, struct net_device *orig_dev)
-{
-	struct bootp_pkt *b;
-	struct iphdr *h;
-	struct ic_device *d;
-	int len, ext_len;
-
-	/* Perform verifications before taking the lock.  */
-	if (skb->pkt_type == PACKET_OTHERHOST)
-		goto drop;
-
-	if ((skb = skb_share_check(skb, GFP_ATOMIC)) == NULL)
-		return NET_RX_DROP;
-
-	if (!pskb_may_pull(skb,
-			   sizeof(struct iphdr) +
-			   sizeof(struct udphdr)))
-		goto drop;
-
-	b = (struct bootp_pkt *)skb_network_header(skb);
-	h = &b->iph;
-
-	if (h->ihl != 5 || h->version != 4 || h->protocol != IPPROTO_UDP)
-		goto drop;
-
-	/* Fragments are not supported */
-	if (h->frag_off & htons(IP_OFFSET | IP_MF)) {
-		if (net_ratelimit())
-			printk(KERN_ERR "DHCP/BOOTP: Ignoring fragmented "
-			       "reply.\n");
-		goto drop;
-	}
-
-	if (skb->len < ntohs(h->tot_len))
-		goto drop;
-
-	if (ip_fast_csum((char *) h, h->ihl))
-		goto drop;
-
-	if (b->udph.source != htons(67) || b->udph.dest != htons(68))
-		goto drop;
-
-	if (ntohs(h->tot_len) < ntohs(b->udph.len) + sizeof(struct iphdr))
-		goto drop;
-
-	len = ntohs(b->udph.len) - sizeof(struct udphdr);
-	ext_len = len - (sizeof(*b) -
-			 sizeof(struct iphdr) -
-			 sizeof(struct udphdr) -
-			 sizeof(b->exten));
-	if (ext_len < 0)
-		goto drop;
-
-	/* Ok the front looks good, make sure we can get at the rest.  */
-	if (!pskb_may_pull(skb, skb->len))
-		goto drop;
-
-	b = (struct bootp_pkt *)skb_network_header(skb);
-	h = &b->iph;
-
-	/* One reply at a time, please. */
-	spin_lock(&ic_recv_lock);
-
-	/* If we already have a reply, just drop the packet */
-	if (ic_got_reply)
-		goto drop_unlock;
-
-	/* Find the ic_device that the packet arrived on */
-	d = ic_first_dev;
-	while (d && d->dev != dev)
-		d = d->next;
-	if (!d)
-		goto drop_unlock;  /* should never happen */
-
-	/* Is it a reply to our BOOTP request? */
-	if (b->op != BOOTP_REPLY ||
-	    b->xid != d->xid) {
-		if (net_ratelimit())
-			printk(KERN_ERR "DHCP/BOOTP: Reply not for us, "
-			       "op[%x] xid[%x]\n",
-			       b->op, b->xid);
-		goto drop_unlock;
-	}
-
-	/* Parse extensions */
-	if (ext_len >= 4 &&
-	    !memcmp(b->exten, ic_bootp_cookie, 4)) { /* Check magic cookie */
-		u8 *end = (u8 *) b + ntohs(b->iph.tot_len);
-		u8 *ext;
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DHCP
-		if (ic_proto_enabled & IC_USE_DHCP) {
-			__be32 server_id = NONE;
-			int mt = 0;
-
-			ext = &b->exten[4];
-			while (ext < end && *ext != 0xff) {
-				u8 *opt = ext++;
-				if (*opt == 0)	/* Padding */
-					continue;
-				ext += *ext + 1;
-				if (ext >= end)
-					break;
-				switch (*opt) {
-				case 53:	/* Message type */
-					if (opt[1])
-						mt = opt[2];
-					break;
-				case 54:	/* Server ID (IP address) */
-					if (opt[1] >= 4)
-						memcpy(&server_id, opt + 2, 4);
-					break;
-				}
-			}
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DEBUG
-			printk("DHCP: Got message type %d\n", mt);
-#endif
-
-			switch (mt) {
-			case DHCPOFFER:
-				/* While in the process of accepting one offer,
-				 * ignore all others.
-				 */
-				if (ic_myaddr != NONE)
-					goto drop_unlock;
-
-				/* Let's accept that offer. */
-				ic_myaddr = b->your_ip;
-				ic_servaddr = server_id;
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DEBUG
-				printk("DHCP: Offered address %u.%u.%u.%u",
-				       NIPQUAD(ic_myaddr));
-				printk(" by server %u.%u.%u.%u\n",
-				       NIPQUAD(ic_servaddr));
-#endif
-				/* The DHCP indicated server address takes
-				 * precedence over the bootp header one if
-				 * they are different.
-				 */
-				if ((server_id != NONE) &&
-				    (b->server_ip != server_id))
-					b->server_ip = ic_servaddr;
-				break;
-
-			case DHCPACK:
-				if (memcmp(dev->dev_addr, b->hw_addr, dev->addr_len) != 0)
-					goto drop_unlock;
-
-				/* Yeah! */
-				break;
-
-			default:
-				/* Urque.  Forget it*/
-				ic_myaddr = NONE;
-				ic_servaddr = NONE;
-				goto drop_unlock;
-			}
-
-			ic_dhcp_msgtype = mt;
-
-		}
-#endif /* IPCONFIG_DHCP */
-
-		ext = &b->exten[4];
-		while (ext < end && *ext != 0xff) {
-			u8 *opt = ext++;
-			if (*opt == 0)	/* Padding */
-				continue;
-			ext += *ext + 1;
-			if (ext < end)
-				ic_do_bootp_ext(opt);
-		}
-	}
-
-	/* We have a winner! */
-	ic_dev = dev;
-	ic_myaddr = b->your_ip;
-	ic_servaddr = b->server_ip;
-	if (ic_gateway == NONE && b->relay_ip)
-		ic_gateway = b->relay_ip;
-	if (ic_nameservers[0] == NONE)
-		ic_nameservers[0] = ic_servaddr;
-	ic_got_reply = IC_BOOTP;
-
-drop_unlock:
-	/* Show's over.  Nothing to see here.  */
-	spin_unlock(&ic_recv_lock);
-
-drop:
-	/* Throw the packet out. */
-	kfree_skb(skb);
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-
-#endif
-
-
-/*
- *	Dynamic IP configuration -- DHCP, BOOTP, RARP.
- */
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC
-
-static int __init ic_dynamic(void)
-{
-	int retries;
-	struct ic_device *d;
-	unsigned long start_jiffies, timeout, jiff;
-	int do_bootp = ic_proto_have_if & IC_BOOTP;
-	int do_rarp = ic_proto_have_if & IC_RARP;
-
-	/*
-	 * If none of DHCP/BOOTP/RARP was selected, return with an error.
-	 * This routine gets only called when some pieces of information
-	 * are missing, and without DHCP/BOOTP/RARP we are unable to get it.
-	 */
-	if (!ic_proto_enabled) {
-		printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Incomplete network configuration information.\n");
-		return -1;
-	}
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_BOOTP
-	if ((ic_proto_enabled ^ ic_proto_have_if) & IC_BOOTP)
-		printk(KERN_ERR "DHCP/BOOTP: No suitable device found.\n");
-#endif
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_RARP
-	if ((ic_proto_enabled ^ ic_proto_have_if) & IC_RARP)
-		printk(KERN_ERR "RARP: No suitable device found.\n");
-#endif
-
-	if (!ic_proto_have_if)
-		/* Error message already printed */
-		return -1;
-
-	/*
-	 * Setup protocols
-	 */
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_BOOTP
-	if (do_bootp)
-		ic_bootp_init();
-#endif
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_RARP
-	if (do_rarp)
-		ic_rarp_init();
-#endif
-
-	/*
-	 * Send requests and wait, until we get an answer. This loop
-	 * seems to be a terrible waste of CPU time, but actually there is
-	 * only one process running at all, so we don't need to use any
-	 * scheduler functions.
-	 * [Actually we could now, but the nothing else running note still
-	 *  applies.. - AC]
-	 */
-	printk(KERN_NOTICE "Sending %s%s%s requests .",
-	       do_bootp
-		? ((ic_proto_enabled & IC_USE_DHCP) ? "DHCP" : "BOOTP") : "",
-	       (do_bootp && do_rarp) ? " and " : "",
-	       do_rarp ? "RARP" : "");
-
-	start_jiffies = jiffies;
-	d = ic_first_dev;
-	retries = CONF_SEND_RETRIES;
-	get_random_bytes(&timeout, sizeof(timeout));
-	timeout = CONF_BASE_TIMEOUT + (timeout % (unsigned) CONF_TIMEOUT_RANDOM);
-	for (;;) {
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_BOOTP
-		if (do_bootp && (d->able & IC_BOOTP))
-			ic_bootp_send_if(d, jiffies - start_jiffies);
-#endif
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_RARP
-		if (do_rarp && (d->able & IC_RARP))
-			ic_rarp_send_if(d);
-#endif
-
-		jiff = jiffies + (d->next ? CONF_INTER_TIMEOUT : timeout);
-		while (time_before(jiffies, jiff) && !ic_got_reply)
-			schedule_timeout_uninterruptible(1);
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DHCP
-		/* DHCP isn't done until we get a DHCPACK. */
-		if ((ic_got_reply & IC_BOOTP)
-		    && (ic_proto_enabled & IC_USE_DHCP)
-		    && ic_dhcp_msgtype != DHCPACK)
-		{
-			ic_got_reply = 0;
-			printk(",");
-			continue;
-		}
-#endif /* IPCONFIG_DHCP */
-
-		if (ic_got_reply) {
-			printk(" OK\n");
-			break;
-		}
-
-		if ((d = d->next))
-			continue;
-
-		if (! --retries) {
-			printk(" timed out!\n");
-			break;
-		}
-
-		d = ic_first_dev;
-
-		timeout = timeout CONF_TIMEOUT_MULT;
-		if (timeout > CONF_TIMEOUT_MAX)
-			timeout = CONF_TIMEOUT_MAX;
-
-		printk(".");
-	}
-
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_BOOTP
-	if (do_bootp)
-		ic_bootp_cleanup();
-#endif
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_RARP
-	if (do_rarp)
-		ic_rarp_cleanup();
-#endif
-
-	if (!ic_got_reply) {
-		ic_myaddr = NONE;
-		return -1;
-	}
-
-	printk("IP-Config: Got %s answer from %u.%u.%u.%u, ",
-		((ic_got_reply & IC_RARP) ? "RARP"
-		 : (ic_proto_enabled & IC_USE_DHCP) ? "DHCP" : "BOOTP"),
-		NIPQUAD(ic_servaddr));
-	printk("my address is %u.%u.%u.%u\n", NIPQUAD(ic_myaddr));
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-#endif /* IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC */
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
-
-static int pnp_seq_show(struct seq_file *seq, void *v)
-{
-	int i;
-
-	if (ic_proto_used & IC_PROTO)
-		seq_printf(seq, "#PROTO: %s\n",
-			   (ic_proto_used & IC_RARP) ? "RARP"
-			   : (ic_proto_used & IC_USE_DHCP) ? "DHCP" : "BOOTP");
-	else
-		seq_puts(seq, "#MANUAL\n");
-
-	if (ic_domain[0])
-		seq_printf(seq,
-			   "domain %s\n", ic_domain);
-	for (i = 0; i < CONF_NAMESERVERS_MAX; i++) {
-		if (ic_nameservers[i] != NONE)
-			seq_printf(seq,
-				   "nameserver %u.%u.%u.%u\n",
-				   NIPQUAD(ic_nameservers[i]));
-	}
-	if (ic_servaddr != NONE)
-		seq_printf(seq,
-			   "bootserver %u.%u.%u.%u\n",
-			   NIPQUAD(ic_servaddr));
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int pnp_seq_open(struct inode *indoe, struct file *file)
-{
-	return single_open(file, pnp_seq_show, NULL);
-}
-
-static const struct file_operations pnp_seq_fops = {
-	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
-	.open		= pnp_seq_open,
-	.read		= seq_read,
-	.llseek		= seq_lseek,
-	.release	= single_release,
-};
-#endif /* CONFIG_PROC_FS */
-
-/*
- *  Extract IP address from the parameter string if needed. Note that we
- *  need to have root_server_addr set _before_ IPConfig gets called as it
- *  can override it.
- */
-__be32 __init root_nfs_parse_addr(char *name)
-{
-	__be32 addr;
-	int octets = 0;
-	char *cp, *cq;
-
-	cp = cq = name;
-	while (octets < 4) {
-		while (*cp >= '0' && *cp <= '9')
-			cp++;
-		if (cp == cq || cp - cq > 3)
-			break;
-		if (*cp == '.' || octets == 3)
-			octets++;
-		if (octets < 4)
-			cp++;
-		cq = cp;
-	}
-	if (octets == 4 && (*cp == ':' || *cp == '\0')) {
-		if (*cp == ':')
-			*cp++ = '\0';
-		addr = in_aton(name);
-		memmove(name, cp, strlen(cp) + 1);
-	} else
-		addr = NONE;
-
-	return addr;
-}
-
-/*
- *	IP Autoconfig dispatcher.
- */
-
-static int __init ip_auto_config(void)
-{
-	__be32 addr;
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
-	proc_net_fops_create("pnp", S_IRUGO, &pnp_seq_fops);
-#endif /* CONFIG_PROC_FS */
-
-	if (!ic_enable)
-		return 0;
-
-	DBG(("IP-Config: Entered.\n"));
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC
- try_try_again:
-#endif
-	/* Give hardware a chance to settle */
-	msleep(CONF_PRE_OPEN);
-
-	/* Setup all network devices */
-	if (ic_open_devs() < 0)
-		return -1;
-
-	/* Give drivers a chance to settle */
-	ssleep(CONF_POST_OPEN);
-
-	/*
-	 * If the config information is insufficient (e.g., our IP address or
-	 * IP address of the boot server is missing or we have multiple network
-	 * interfaces and no default was set), use BOOTP or RARP to get the
-	 * missing values.
-	 */
-	if (ic_myaddr == NONE ||
-#ifdef CONFIG_ROOT_NFS
-	    (MAJOR(ROOT_DEV) == UNNAMED_MAJOR
-	     && root_server_addr == NONE
-	     && ic_servaddr == NONE) ||
-#endif
-	    ic_first_dev->next) {
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC
-
-		int retries = CONF_OPEN_RETRIES;
-
-		if (ic_dynamic() < 0) {
-			ic_close_devs();
-
-			/*
-			 * I don't know why, but sometimes the
-			 * eepro100 driver (at least) gets upset and
-			 * doesn't work the first time it's opened.
-			 * But then if you close it and reopen it, it
-			 * works just fine.  So we need to try that at
-			 * least once before giving up.
-			 *
-			 * Also, if the root will be NFS-mounted, we
-			 * have nowhere to go if DHCP fails.  So we
-			 * just have to keep trying forever.
-			 *
-			 * 				-- Chip
-			 */
-#ifdef CONFIG_ROOT_NFS
-			if (ROOT_DEV ==  Root_NFS) {
-				printk(KERN_ERR
-					"IP-Config: Retrying forever (NFS root)...\n");
-				goto try_try_again;
-			}
-#endif
-
-			if (--retries) {
-				printk(KERN_ERR
-				       "IP-Config: Reopening network devices...\n");
-				goto try_try_again;
-			}
-
-			/* Oh, well.  At least we tried. */
-			printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Auto-configuration of network failed.\n");
-			return -1;
-		}
-#else /* !DYNAMIC */
-		printk(KERN_ERR "IP-Config: Incomplete network configuration information.\n");
-		ic_close_devs();
-		return -1;
-#endif /* IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC */
-	} else {
-		/* Device selected manually or only one device -> use it */
-		ic_dev = ic_first_dev->dev;
-	}
-
-	addr = root_nfs_parse_addr(root_server_path);
-	if (root_server_addr == NONE)
-		root_server_addr = addr;
-
-	/*
-	 * Use defaults whereever applicable.
-	 */
-	if (ic_defaults() < 0)
-		return -1;
-
-	/*
-	 * Close all network devices except the device we've
-	 * autoconfigured and set up routes.
-	 */
-	ic_close_devs();
-	if (ic_setup_if() < 0 || ic_setup_routes() < 0)
-		return -1;
-
-	/*
-	 * Record which protocol was actually used.
-	 */
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC
-	ic_proto_used = ic_got_reply | (ic_proto_enabled & IC_USE_DHCP);
-#endif
-
-#ifndef IPCONFIG_SILENT
-	/*
-	 * Clue in the operator.
-	 */
-	printk("IP-Config: Complete:");
-	printk("\n      device=%s", ic_dev->name);
-	printk(", addr=%u.%u.%u.%u", NIPQUAD(ic_myaddr));
-	printk(", mask=%u.%u.%u.%u", NIPQUAD(ic_netmask));
-	printk(", gw=%u.%u.%u.%u", NIPQUAD(ic_gateway));
-	printk(",\n     host=%s, domain=%s, nis-domain=%s",
-	       utsname()->nodename, ic_domain, utsname()->domainname);
-	printk(",\n     bootserver=%u.%u.%u.%u", NIPQUAD(ic_servaddr));
-	printk(", rootserver=%u.%u.%u.%u", NIPQUAD(root_server_addr));
-	printk(", rootpath=%s", root_server_path);
-	printk("\n");
-#endif /* !SILENT */
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-late_initcall(ip_auto_config);
-
-
-/*
- *  Decode any IP configuration options in the "ip=" or "nfsaddrs=" kernel
- *  command line parameter. It consists of option fields separated by colons in
- *  the following order:
- *
- *  <client-ip>:<server-ip>:<gw-ip>:<netmask>:<host name>:<device>:<PROTO>
- *
- *  Any of the fields can be empty which means to use a default value:
- *	<client-ip>	- address given by BOOTP or RARP
- *	<server-ip>	- address of host returning BOOTP or RARP packet
- *	<gw-ip>		- none, or the address returned by BOOTP
- *	<netmask>	- automatically determined from <client-ip>, or the
- *			  one returned by BOOTP
- *	<host name>	- <client-ip> in ASCII notation, or the name returned
- *			  by BOOTP
- *	<device>	- use all available devices
- *	<PROTO>:
- *	   off|none	    - don't do autoconfig at all (DEFAULT)
- *	   on|any           - use any configured protocol
- *	   dhcp|bootp|rarp  - use only the specified protocol
- *	   both             - use both BOOTP and RARP (not DHCP)
- */
-static int __init ic_proto_name(char *name)
-{
-	if (!strcmp(name, "on") || !strcmp(name, "any")) {
-		return 1;
-	}
-#ifdef CONFIG_IP_PNP_DHCP
-	else if (!strcmp(name, "dhcp")) {
-		ic_proto_enabled &= ~IC_RARP;
-		return 1;
-	}
-#endif
-#ifdef CONFIG_IP_PNP_BOOTP
-	else if (!strcmp(name, "bootp")) {
-		ic_proto_enabled &= ~(IC_RARP | IC_USE_DHCP);
-		return 1;
-	}
-#endif
-#ifdef CONFIG_IP_PNP_RARP
-	else if (!strcmp(name, "rarp")) {
-		ic_proto_enabled &= ~(IC_BOOTP | IC_USE_DHCP);
-		return 1;
-	}
-#endif
-#ifdef IPCONFIG_DYNAMIC
-	else if (!strcmp(name, "both")) {
-		ic_proto_enabled &= ~IC_USE_DHCP; /* backward compat :-( */
-		return 1;
-	}
-#endif
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int __init ip_auto_config_setup(char *addrs)
-{
-	char *cp, *ip, *dp;
-	int num = 0;
-
-	ic_set_manually = 1;
-
-	ic_enable = (*addrs &&
-		(strcmp(addrs, "off") != 0) &&
-		(strcmp(addrs, "none") != 0));
-	if (!ic_enable)
-		return 1;
-
-	if (ic_proto_name(addrs))
-		return 1;
-
-	/* Parse the whole string */
-	ip = addrs;
-	while (ip && *ip) {
-		if ((cp = strchr(ip, ':')))
-			*cp++ = '\0';
-		if (strlen(ip) > 0) {
-			DBG(("IP-Config: Parameter #%d: `%s'\n", num, ip));
-			switch (num) {
-			case 0:
-				if ((ic_myaddr = in_aton(ip)) == INADDR_ANY)
-					ic_myaddr = NONE;
-				break;
-			case 1:
-				if ((ic_servaddr = in_aton(ip)) == INADDR_ANY)
-					ic_servaddr = NONE;
-				break;
-			case 2:
-				if ((ic_gateway = in_aton(ip)) == INADDR_ANY)
-					ic_gateway = NONE;
-				break;
-			case 3:
-				if ((ic_netmask = in_aton(ip)) == INADDR_ANY)
-					ic_netmask = NONE;
-				break;
-			case 4:
-				if ((dp = strchr(ip, '.'))) {
-					*dp++ = '\0';
-					strlcpy(utsname()->domainname, dp,
-						sizeof(utsname()->domainname));
-				}
-				strlcpy(utsname()->nodename, ip,
-					sizeof(utsname()->nodename));
-				ic_host_name_set = 1;
-				break;
-			case 5:
-				strlcpy(user_dev_name, ip, sizeof(user_dev_name));
-				break;
-			case 6:
-				ic_proto_name(ip);
-				break;
-			}
-		}
-		ip = cp;
-		num++;
-	}
-
-	return 1;
-}
-
-static int __init nfsaddrs_config_setup(char *addrs)
-{
-	return ip_auto_config_setup(addrs);
-}
-
-__setup("ip=", ip_auto_config_setup);
-__setup("nfsaddrs=", nfsaddrs_config_setup);
diff --git a/scripts/Kbuild.include b/scripts/Kbuild.include
index 06c1a37..ad543a5 100644
--- a/scripts/Kbuild.include
+++ b/scripts/Kbuild.include
@@ -120,6 +120,11 @@
 # $(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=dir
 build := -f $(if $(KBUILD_SRC),$(srctree)/)scripts/Makefile.build obj
 
+# Shorthand for $(Q)$(MAKE) -f scripts/Kbuild.klibc obj=
+# Usage:
+# $(Q)$(MAKE) $(klibc)=dir
+klibc := -f $(srctree)/scripts/Kbuild.klibc obj
+
 # Prefix -I with $(srctree) if it is not an absolute path.
 addtree = $(if $(filter-out -I/%,$(1)),$(patsubst -I%,-I$(srctree)/%,$(1))) $(1)
 
diff --git a/scripts/Kbuild.klibc b/scripts/Kbuild.klibc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..227b9bd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/scripts/Kbuild.klibc
@@ -0,0 +1,418 @@
+# ==========================================================================
+# Support for building klibc programs and klibc library
+# ==========================================================================
+#
+# To create a kbuild file for a userspace program do the following:
+#
+# Kbuild:
+#
+# static-y := cat
+# # This will compile a file named cat.c -> the executable 'cat'
+# # The executable will be linked statically
+#
+# shared-y := cats
+# # This will compile a file named cats.c -> the executable 'cats'
+# # The executable will be linked shared
+#
+# If the userspace program consist of composite files do the following:
+# Kbuild:
+#
+# static-y := kinit
+# kinit-y  := main.o netdev.c
+# So kinit will be linked statically using the two .o files
+# specified with kinit-y.
+#
+# Are part of the program located in a sub-directory do like this:
+# kinit-y += ipconfig/
+#
+# And in the subdirectory:
+# ipconfig/Kbuild:
+# lib-y := packet.o dhcp_proto.o
+# # All .o files listed with lib-y will be used to create a single .a file.
+# # The .a file is created before any subdirectories are visited so it
+# # may be used in the sub-directory programs.
+#
+#####
+# For a klibc libary file do like this
+# klibc/Kbuild
+# klib-y := error.o pipe.o zlib/
+#
+#####
+# Handling of compiler/linker options
+#
+# To set directory wide CFLAGS use:
+# EXTRA_KLIBCCFLAGS := -DDEBUG
+# To set directory wide AFLAGS use:
+# EXTRA_KLIBCAFLAGS := -DDEBUG
+#
+# To set target specific CFLAGS (for .c files) use
+# KLIBCCFLAGS-main.o := -DDEBUG=3
+# To set target specific AFLAGS (for .s files) use
+# KLIBCAFLAGS-main.o := -DDEBUG=3
+
+src := $(obj)
+# Preset target and make sure it is a ':=' variable
+targets :=
+
+.phony: __build
+__build:
+
+# Read .config if it exist, otherwise ignore
+-include .config
+
+# Generic Kbuild routines
+include $(srctree)/scripts/Kbuild.include
+
+# Defines used when compiling early userspace (klibc programs)
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+KLIBCREQFLAGS     := $(call cc-option, -fno-stack-protector, )
+KLIBCARCHREQFLAGS :=
+KLIBCOPTFLAGS     :=
+KLIBCWARNFLAGS    := -W -Wall -Wno-sign-compare -Wno-unused-parameter
+KLIBCSHAREDFLAGS  :=
+KLIBCBITSIZE      :=
+KLIBCLDFLAGS      :=
+KLIBCCFLAGS       :=
+
+# Arch specific definitions for klibc
+include $(KLIBCSRC)/arch/$(KLIBCARCHDIR)/MCONFIG
+
+# include/asm-* architecture
+KLIBCASMARCH	  ?= $(KLIBCARCH)
+
+# klibc version
+KLIBCMAJOR        := $(shell cut -d. -f1 $(srctree)/usr/klibc/version)
+KLIBCMINOR        := $(shell cut -d. -f2 $(srctree)/usr/klibc/version)
+
+# binutils
+KLIBCLD          := $(LD)
+KLIBCCC          := $(CC)
+KLIBCAR          := $(AR)
+KLIBCRANLIB      := $(RANLIB)
+KLIBCSTRIP       := $(STRIP)
+KLIBCNM          := $(NM)
+KLIBCOBJCOPY	 := $(OBJCOPY)
+KLIBCOBJDUMP	 := $(OBJDUMP)
+
+# klibc include paths
+KLIBCCPPFLAGS    := -nostdinc -iwithprefix include \
+		    -I$(KLIBCINC)/arch/$(KLIBCARCHDIR)	\
+                    -I$(KLIBCINC)/bits$(KLIBCBITSIZE)	\
+		    -I$(KLIBCOBJ)/../include		\
+                    -I$(KLIBCINC)
+# kernel include paths
+KLIBCKERNELSRC	 ?= $(srctree)/
+KLIBCCPPFLAGS    += -I$(KLIBCKERNELSRC)include		\
+                     $(if $(KBUILD_SRC),-I$(KLIBCKERNELOBJ)include2 -I$(KLIBCKERNELOBJ)include -I$(srctree)/include)    \
+		     $(KLIBCARCHINCFLAGS)
+
+# klibc definitions
+KLIBCDEFS        += -D__KLIBC__=$(KLIBCMAJOR)          \
+		    -D__KLIBC_MINOR__=$(KLIBCMINOR)    \
+		    -D_BITSIZE=$(KLIBCBITSIZE)
+KLIBCCPPFLAGS    += $(KLIBCDEFS)
+KLIBCCFLAGS      += $(KLIBCCPPFLAGS) $(KLIBCREQFLAGS) $(KLIBCARCHREQFLAGS)  \
+                    $(KLIBCOPTFLAGS) $(KLIBCWARNFLAGS)
+KLIBCAFLAGS      += -D__ASSEMBLY__ $(KLIBCCFLAGS)
+KLIBCSTRIPFLAGS  += --strip-all -R .comment -R .note
+
+KLIBCLIBGCC_DEF  := $(shell $(KLIBCCC) $(KLIBCCFLAGS) --print-libgcc)
+KLIBCLIBGCC	 ?= $(KLIBCLIBGCC_DEF)
+KLIBCCRT0        := $(KLIBCOBJ)/arch/$(KLIBCARCHDIR)/crt0.o
+KLIBCLIBC        := $(KLIBCOBJ)/libc.a
+KLIBCCRTSHARED   := $(KLIBCOBJ)/interp.o
+KLIBCLIBCSHARED  := $(KLIBCOBJ)/libc.so
+# How to tell the linker main() is the entrypoint
+KLIBCEMAIN	 ?= -e main
+
+#
+# This indicates the location of the final version of the shared library.
+# THIS MUST BE AN ABSOLUTE PATH WITH NO FINAL SLASH.
+# Leave this empty to make it the root.
+#
+SHLIBDIR = /lib
+
+export KLIBCLD KLIBCCC KLIBCAR KLIBCSTRIP KLIBCNM
+export KLIBCCFLAGS KLIBCAFLAGS KLIBCLIBGCC KLIBCSHAREDFLAGS KLIBCSTRIPFLAGS
+export KLIBCCRT0 KLIBCLIBC SHLIBDIR
+
+# kernel configuration
+include .config
+
+# Add $(obj)/ for paths that is not absolute
+objectify = $(foreach o,$(1),$(if $(filter /%,$(o)),$(o),$(obj)/$(o)))
+
+# Kbuild file in the directory that is being build
+include $(obj)/Kbuild
+
+#####
+# static-y + shared-y handling
+kprogs := $(static-y) $(shared-y)
+# kprogs based on a single .o file (with same name + .o)
+kprog-objs := $(foreach p, $(kprogs), $(if $($(p)-y),,$(p)))
+kprog-objs := $(addsuffix .o, $(kprog-objs))
+# kprogs which is based on several .o files
+kprog-multi := $(foreach p, $(kprogs), $(if $($(p)-y),$(p)))
+# objects used for kprogs with more then one .o file
+kprog-objs += $(foreach p, $(kprog-multi), $($(p)-y))
+# objects build in this dir
+kprog-real-objs := $(patsubst %/,,$(kprog-objs))
+# Directories we need to visit before kprogs-objs are up-to-date
+kprog-dirs :=  $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(kprog-objs)))
+# replace all dir/ with dir/lib.a
+kprog-objs := $(patsubst %/, %/lib.a, $(kprog-objs))
+
+targets += $(static-y) $(shared-y)
+
+#####
+# klib-y handling
+# .o files to build in this dir
+klib-real-objs := $(patsubst %/,,$(klib-y))
+# Directories we need to visit before libs are up-to-date
+klib-dirs := $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(klib-y)))
+# replace all dir/ with dir/klib.list
+klib-objs := $(patsubst %/, %/klib.list, $(klib-y))
+
+# $(output-dirs) are a list of directories that contain object files
+output-dirs := $(dir $(kprog-dirs) $(kprog-objs))
+output-dirs += $(foreach f, $(hostprogs-y) $(targets), \
+               $(if $(dir $(f)), $(dir $(f))))
+output-dirs += $(dir $(klib-objs))
+output-dirs := $(strip $(sort $(filter-out ./,$(output-dirs))))
+
+# prefix so we get full dir
+static-y        := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(static-y))
+shared-y        := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(shared-y))
+kprog-objs      := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(kprog-objs))
+kprog-real-objs := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(kprog-real-objs))
+output-dirs     := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(output-dirs))
+kprog-dirs      := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(kprog-dirs))
+subdir-y        := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(subdir-y))
+always          := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(always))
+targets         := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(targets))
+lib-y           := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(lib-y))
+klib-y          := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(klib-y))
+klib-objs       := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(klib-objs))
+klib-real-objs  := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(klib-real-objs))
+klib-dirs       := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(klib-dirs))
+
+#####
+# Handle options to gcc. Support building with separate output directory
+
+__klibccflags    = $(KLIBCCFLAGS) $(EXTRA_KLIBCCFLAGS) $(KLIBCCFLAGS_$(*F).o)
+__klibcaflags    = $(KLIBCAFLAGS) $(EXTRA_KLIBCAFLAGS) $(KLIBCAFLAGS_$(*F).o)
+
+ifeq ($(KBUILD_SRC),)
+_klibccflags    = $(__klibccflags)
+_klibcaflags    = $(__klibcaflags)
+else
+_klibccflags    = $(call flags,__klibccflags)
+_klibcaflags    = $(call flags,__klibcaflags)
+endif
+
+klibccflags     = -Wp,-MD,$(depfile) $(NOSTDINC_FLAGS) $(_klibccflags)
+klibcaflags     = -Wp,-MD,$(depfile) $(NOSTDINC_FLAGS) $(_klibcaflags)
+
+# Create output directory if not already present
+_dummy := $(shell [ -d $(obj) ] || mkdir -p $(obj))
+
+# Create directories for object files if directory does not exist
+# Needed when lib-y := dir/file.o syntax is used
+_dummy := $(foreach d,$(output-dirs), $(shell [ -d $(d) ] || mkdir -p $(d)))
+
+# Do we have to make a lib.a in this dir?
+ifneq ($(strip $(lib-y) $(lib-n) $(lib-)),)
+lib-target := $(obj)/lib.a
+endif
+
+__build: $(subdir-y) $(lib-target) $(always)
+	$(Q):
+
+# Compile C sources (.c)
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+quiet_cmd_cc_s_c = KLIBCCC $@
+      cmd_cc_s_c = $(KLIBCCC) $(klibccflags) -S -o $@ $<
+
+%.s: %.c FORCE
+	$(call if_changed_dep,cc_s_c)
+
+quiet_cmd_cc_o_c = KLIBCCC $@
+      cmd_cc_o_c = $(KLIBCCC) $(klibccflags) -c -o $@ $<
+
+%.o: %.c FORCE
+	$(call if_changed_dep,cc_o_c)
+
+quiet_cmd_cc_i_c = CPP     $@
+      cmd_cc_i_c = $(KLIBCCC) -E $(klibccflags) -o $@ $<
+%.i: %.c FORCE
+	$(call if_changed_dep,cc_i_c)
+
+# Compile assembler sources (.S)
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+quiet_cmd_as_o_S = KLIBCAS $@
+      cmd_as_o_S = $(KLIBCCC) $(klibcaflags) -c -o $@ $<
+
+%.o: %.S FORCE
+	$(call if_changed_dep,as_o_S)
+
+targets += $(real-objs-y)
+
+#
+# Rule to compile a set of .o files into one .o file
+#
+ifdef lib-target
+quiet_cmd_link_o_target = LD      $@
+# If the list of objects to link is empty, just create an empty lib.a
+cmd_link_o_target = $(if $(strip $(lib-y)),\
+                    rm -f $@; $(KLIBCAR) cru $@ $(filter $(lib-y), $^),\
+                    rm -f $@; $(KLIBCAR) crs $@)
+
+$(lib-target): $(lib-y) FORCE
+	$(call if_changed,link_o_target)
+targets += $(lib-target) $(lib-y)
+endif # lib-target
+
+#
+# Create klib.list
+#
+# Do we have to create a klibc library file in this dir?
+ifneq ($(strip $(klib-y) $(klib-n) $(klib-)),)
+klib-target := $(obj)/klib.list
+endif
+
+ifdef klib-target
+# include this in build
+__build: $(klib-target) $(klib-dirs)
+
+# descend if needed
+$(sort $(addsuffix /klib.list,$(klib-dirs))): $(klib-dirs) ;
+
+# create klib.list
+quiet_cmd_klib-list = LIST    $@
+      cmd_klib-list = echo $(klib-real-objs) > $@
+$(klib-target): $(klib-objs) FORCE
+	$(call if_changed,klib-list)
+targets += $(klib-target) $(klib-real-objs)
+endif # klib-target
+
+ifdef kprogs
+# Compile klibc-programs for the target
+# ===========================================================================
+
+__build : $(kprog-dirs) $(static-y) $(shared-y)
+
+# Descend if needed
+$(sort $(addsuffix /lib.a,$(kprog-dirs))): $(kprog-dirs) ;
+
+# Define dependencies for link of progs
+# For the simple program:
+#	file.o => file
+# A program with multiple objects
+#	filea.o, fileb.o => file
+# A program with .o files in another dir
+#	dir/lib.a filea.o => file
+
+stripobj  = $(subst $(obj)/,,$@)
+addliba   = $(addprefix $(obj)/, $(patsubst %/, %/lib.a, $(1)))
+link-deps = $(if $($(stripobj)-y), $(call addliba, $($(stripobj)-y)), $@.o) \
+	    $(call objectify,$($(stripobj)-lib))
+
+quiet_cmd_ld-static = KLIBCLD $@
+      cmd_ld-static = $(KLIBCLD) $(KLIBCLDFLAGS) -o $@		\
+                       $(EXTRA_KLIBCLDFLAGS)			\
+                       $(KLIBCCRT0)				\
+		       --start-group				\
+                       $(link-deps)				\
+                       $(KLIBCLIBC)				\
+		       $(KLIBCLIBGCC)				\
+		       --end-group ;				\
+                      cp -f $@ $@.g ;				\
+                      $(KLIBCSTRIP) $(KLIBCSTRIPFLAGS) $@
+
+
+$(static-y): $(kprog-objs) $(lib-target) $(KLIBCCRT0) $(KLIBCLIBC) FORCE
+	$(call if_changed,ld-static)
+
+quiet_cmd_ld-shared = KLIBCLD $@
+      cmd_ld-shared = $(KLIBCLD) $(KLIBCLDFLAGS) -o $@		\
+                       $(EXTRA_KLIBCLDFLAGS)			\
+                       $(KLIBCEMAIN) $(KLIBCCRTSHARED)		\
+                       --start-group				\
+                       $(link-deps)				\
+                       -R $(KLIBCLIBCSHARED)			\
+	               $(KLIBCLIBGCC)				\
+		       --end-group ;				\
+                      cp -f $@ $@.g ;				\
+                      $(KLIBCSTRIP) $(KLIBCSTRIPFLAGS) $@
+
+
+$(shared-y): $(kprog-objs) $(lib-target) $(KLIBCCRTSHARED) \
+                                         $(KLIBCLIBCSHARED) FORCE
+	$(call if_changed,ld-shared)
+
+# Do not try to build KLIBC libaries if we are building klibc
+ifeq ($(klibc-build),)
+$(KLIBCCRT0) $(KLIBCLIBC): ;
+$(KLIBCCRTSHARED) $(KLIBCLIBCSHARED): ;
+endif
+
+targets += $(kprog-real-objs)
+endif
+
+# Compile programs on the host
+# ===========================================================================
+ifdef hostprogs-y
+include $(srctree)/scripts/Makefile.host
+endif
+
+# Descending
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+.PHONY: $(subdir-y) $(kprog-dirs) $(klib-dirs)
+$(sort $(subdir-y) $(kprog-dirs) $(klib-dirs)): $(lib-target)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(klibc)=$@
+
+# Add FORCE to the prequisites of a target to force it to be always rebuilt.
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+.PHONY: FORCE
+
+FORCE:
+
+# Linking
+# Create a reloctable composite object file
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+quiet_cmd_klibcld = KLIBCLD $@
+      cmd_klibcld = $(KLIBCLD) -r $(KLIBCLDFLAGS) \
+                                $(EXTRA_KLIBCLDFLAGS) $(KLIBCLDFLAGS_$(@F)) \
+                                $(filter-out FORCE,$^) -o $@
+
+
+# Link target to a new name
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+quiet_cmd_ln = LN      $@
+      cmd_ln = rm -f $@ && ln $< $@
+
+# Strip target (remove all debugging info)
+quiet_cmd_strip = STRIP   $@
+      cmd_strip = $(KLIBCSTRIP) $(KLIBCSTRIPFLAGS) $< -o $@
+
+
+# Read all saved command lines and dependencies for the $(targets) we
+# may be building above, using $(if_changed{,_dep}). As an
+# optimization, we don't need to read them if the target does not
+# exist, we will rebuild anyway in that case.
+targets := $(wildcard $(sort $(targets)))
+cmd_files := $(wildcard $(foreach f,$(targets),$(dir $(f)).$(notdir $(f)).cmd))
+
+ifneq ($(cmd_files),)
+  include $(cmd_files)
+endif
+
+# Shorthand for $(Q)$(MAKE) -f scripts/Kbuild.klibc obj
+# Usage:
+# $(Q)$(MAKE) $(klibc)=dir
+klibc := -rR -f $(if $(KBUILD_SRC),$(srctree)/)scripts/Kbuild.klibc obj
diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.clean b/scripts/Makefile.clean
index cff3349..2d84222 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.clean
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.clean
@@ -19,23 +19,18 @@
 # Figure out what we need to build from the various variables
 # ==========================================================================
 
-__subdir-y	:= $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(obj-y)))
-subdir-y	+= $(__subdir-y)
-__subdir-m	:= $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(obj-m)))
-subdir-m	+= $(__subdir-m)
-__subdir-n	:= $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(obj-n)))
-subdir-n	+= $(__subdir-n)
-__subdir-	:= $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(obj-)))
-subdir-		+= $(__subdir-)
+subdirs := $(subdir-y) $(subdir-m) $(subdir-n) $(subdir-)
+subdirs += $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(obj-y)))
+subdirs += $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(obj-m)))
+subdirs += $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(obj-n)))
+subdirs += $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(obj-)))
+
+subdirs += $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(klib-y)))
+subdirs += $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, $(klib-)))
 
 # Subdirectories we need to descend into
+subdirs := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(sort $(subdirs)))
 
-subdir-ym	:= $(sort $(subdir-y) $(subdir-m))
-subdir-ymn      := $(sort $(subdir-ym) $(subdir-n) $(subdir-))
-
-# Add subdir path
-
-subdir-ymn	:= $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(subdir-ymn))
 
 # build a list of files to remove, usually releative to the current
 # directory
@@ -43,7 +38,8 @@
 __clean-files	:= $(extra-y) $(EXTRA_TARGETS) $(always) \
 		   $(targets) $(clean-files)             \
 		   $(host-progs)                         \
-		   $(hostprogs-y) $(hostprogs-m) $(hostprogs-)
+		   $(hostprogs-y) $(hostprogs-m) $(hostprogs-) \
+		   klib.list
 
 # as clean-files is given relative to the current directory, this adds
 # a $(obj) prefix, except for absolute paths
@@ -67,7 +63,7 @@
       cmd_cleandir = rm -rf $(__clean-dirs)
 
 
-__clean: $(subdir-ymn)
+__clean: $(subdirs)
 ifneq ($(strip $(__clean-files)),)
 	+$(call cmd,clean)
 endif
@@ -87,8 +83,8 @@
 # Descending
 # ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
-PHONY += $(subdir-ymn)
-$(subdir-ymn):
+.PHONY: $(subdirs)
+$(subdirs):
 	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(clean)=$@
 
 # If quiet is set, only print short version of command
diff --git a/scripts/gen_initramfs_list.sh b/scripts/gen_initramfs_list.sh
index 683eb12..d25b38f 100644
--- a/scripts/gen_initramfs_list.sh
+++ b/scripts/gen_initramfs_list.sh
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@
 usage() {
 cat << EOF
 Usage:
-$0 [-o <file>] [-u <uid>] [-g <gid>] {-d | <cpio_source>} ...
+$0 [-o <file>] [-u <uid>] [-g <gid>] <cpio_source> ...
 	-o <file>      Create gzipped initramfs file named <file> using
 		       gen_init_cpio and gzip
 	-u <uid>       User ID to map to user ID 0 (root).
@@ -27,7 +27,6 @@
 	<cpio_source>  File list or directory for cpio archive.
 		       If <cpio_source> is a .cpio file it will be used
 		       as direct input to initramfs.
-	-d             Output the default cpio list.
 
 All options except -o and -l may be repeated and are interpreted
 sequentially and immediately.  -u and -g states are preserved across
@@ -36,29 +35,6 @@
 EOF
 }
 
-# awk style field access
-# $1 - field number; rest is argument string
-field() {
-	shift $1 ; echo $1
-}
-
-list_default_initramfs() {
-	# echo usr/kinit/kinit
-	:
-}
-
-default_initramfs() {
-	cat <<-EOF >> ${output}
-		# This is a very simple, default initramfs
-
-		dir /dev 0755 0 0
-		nod /dev/console 0600 0 0 c 5 1
-		dir /root 0700 0 0
-		# file /kinit usr/kinit/kinit 0755 0 0
-		# slink /init kinit 0755 0 0
-	EOF
-}
-
 filetype() {
 	local argv1="$1"
 
@@ -168,8 +144,6 @@
 
 # process one directory (incl sub-directories)
 dir_filelist() {
-	${dep_list}header "$1"
-
 	srcdir=$(echo "$1" | sed -e 's://*:/:g')
 	dirlist=$(find "${srcdir}" -printf "%p %m %U %G\n")
 
@@ -188,7 +162,6 @@
 # if a directory is specified then add all files in given direcotry to fs
 # if a regular file is specified assume it is in gen_initramfs format
 input_file() {
-	source="$1"
 	if [ -f "$1" ]; then
 		${dep_list}header "$1"
 		is_cpio="$(echo "$1" | sed 's/^.*\.cpio\(\..*\)\?/cpio/')"
@@ -216,6 +189,15 @@
 	fi
 }
 
+# input file/dir - process it
+process_file() {
+	if [ -z ${print_header} ]; then
+		${dep_list}header "$1"
+	fi
+	print_header=y
+	input_file "$1" "$2"
+}
+
 prog=$0
 root_uid=0
 root_gid=0
@@ -253,27 +235,29 @@
 			root_gid="$1"
 			shift
 			;;
-		"-d")	# display default initramfs list
-			default_list="$arg"
-			${dep_list}default_initramfs
-			;;
 		"-h")
 			usage
 			exit 0
 			;;
 		*)
 			case "$arg" in
-				"-"*)
-					unknown_option
+				"-"*)	unknown_option
 					;;
-				*)	# input file/dir - process it
-					input_file "$arg" "$#"
+				*)	process_file "$arg" "$#"
 					;;
 			esac
 			;;
 	esac
 done
 
+# trailer of dependency list
+if [ ! -z ${dep_list} ]; then
+	echo ""
+	echo "initramfs: \$(deps_initramfs)"
+	echo "\$(deps_initramfs): ;"
+	echo ""
+fi
+
 # If output_file is set we will generate cpio archive and gzip it
 # we are carefull to delete tmp files
 if [ ! -z ${output_file} ]; then
diff --git a/usr/Kbuild b/usr/Kbuild
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cc0a047
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/Kbuild
@@ -0,0 +1,75 @@
+#
+# kbuild file for usr/ - including initramfs image and klibc
+#
+
+CONFIG_KLIBC := 1
+
+include-subdir := include
+klibc-subdir := klibc
+usr-subdirs  := kinit utils dash gzip
+subdir-      := $(include-subdir) $(klibc-subdir) $(usr-subdirs)
+
+usr-subdirs  := $(addprefix _usr_,$(usr-subdirs))
+klibc-subdir := $(addprefix _usr_,$(klibc-subdir))
+
+# Klibc binaries
+ifdef CONFIG_KLIBC
+
+# .initramfs_data.cpio.gz.d is used to identify all files included
+# in initramfs and to detect if any files are added/removed.
+# Removed files are identified by directory timestamp being updated
+# The dependency list is generated by gen_initramfs.sh -l
+ifneq ($(wildcard $(obj)/.initramfs_data.cpio.gz.d),)
+	include $(obj)/.initramfs_data.cpio.gz.d
+endif
+
+# build klibc library before the klibc programs
+# build klibc programs before cpio.gz
+.PHONY: initramfs $(usr-subdirs) $(klibc-subdir) $(include-subdir)
+initramfs:         $(usr-subdirs) $(klibc-subdir) $(include-subdir)
+$(deps_initramfs): $(usr-subdirs) $(klibc-subdir) $(include-subdir)
+
+$(usr-subdirs): $(klibc-subdir)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(klibc)=$(src)/$(patsubst _usr_%,%,$(@))
+
+$(klibc-subdir): $(include-subdir)
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(klibc)=$(src)/$(patsubst _usr_%,%,$(@))
+
+$(include-subdir):
+	$(Q)$(MAKE) $(klibc)=$(src)/$(patsubst _usr_%,%,$(@))
+endif
+
+
+# Generate builtin.o based on initramfs_data.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD) := initramfs_data.o
+
+# initramfs_data.o contains the initramfs_data.cpio.gz image.
+# The image is included using .incbin, a dependency which is not
+# tracked automatically.
+$(obj)/initramfs_data.o: $(obj)/initramfs_data.cpio.gz FORCE
+
+#####
+# Generate the initramfs cpio archive
+
+hostprogs-y := gen_init_cpio
+ginitramfs  := $(CONFIG_SHELL) $(srctree)/scripts/gen_initramfs_list.sh
+ramfs-def   := $(srctree)/$(src)/initramfs.default
+ramfs-input := $(shell echo $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE))
+ramfs-input := $(if $(ramfs-input), $(ramfs-input), $(ramfs-def))
+
+ramfs-args  := \
+        $(if $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_UID), -u $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_UID)) \
+        $(if $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_GID), -g $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_GID))
+
+quiet_cmd_initfs = GEN     $@
+      cmd_initfs = $(ginitramfs) -o $@ $(ramfs-args) $(ramfs-input)
+
+targets := initramfs_data.cpio.gz
+# We rebuild initramfs_data.cpio.gz if:
+# 1) Any included file is newer then initramfs_data.cpio.gz
+# 2) There are changes in which files are included (added or deleted)
+# 3) If gen_init_cpio are newer than initramfs_data.cpio.gz
+# 4) arguments to gen_initramfs.sh changes
+$(obj)/initramfs_data.cpio.gz: $(obj)/gen_init_cpio $(deps_initramfs) initramfs
+	$(Q)$(ginitramfs) -l $(ramfs-input) > $(obj)/.initramfs_data.cpio.gz.d
+	$(call if_changed,initfs)
diff --git a/usr/Kconfig b/usr/Kconfig
index 86cecb5..7f5847a 100644
--- a/usr/Kconfig
+++ b/usr/Kconfig
@@ -44,3 +44,24 @@
 	  owned by group root in the initial ramdisk image.
 
 	  If you are not sure, leave it set to "0".
+
+config KLIBC_ERRLIST
+	bool "Early userspace real error messages" if EMBEDDED
+	default y
+	help
+	  If this is set, kinit (and other klibc-derived binaries)
+	  will have the standard list of error messages built in, and
+	  thus will report, for example, "No such file or directory"
+	  instead of "Error 1".  Leaving it out will save
+	  approximately 4K from each static binary (one, unless you
+	  have a different initramfs_source.txt) or the shared
+	  library.
+
+	  If you are not sure, "Y" is highly recommended.
+
+config KLIBC_ZLIB
+	bool
+	default y
+	help
+	  This builds the zlib portion of klibc.  This is currently
+	  required.
diff --git a/usr/Makefile b/usr/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 201f27f..0000000
--- a/usr/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,52 +0,0 @@
-#
-# kbuild file for usr/ - including initramfs image
-#
-
-klibcdirs:;
-PHONY += klibcdirs
-
-
-# Generate builtin.o based on initramfs_data.o
-obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD) := initramfs_data.o
-
-# initramfs_data.o contains the initramfs_data.cpio.gz image.
-# The image is included using .incbin, a dependency which is not
-# tracked automatically.
-$(obj)/initramfs_data.o: $(obj)/initramfs_data.cpio.gz FORCE
-
-#####
-# Generate the initramfs cpio archive
-
-hostprogs-y := gen_init_cpio
-initramfs   := $(CONFIG_SHELL) $(srctree)/scripts/gen_initramfs_list.sh
-ramfs-input := $(if $(filter-out "",$(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE)), \
-			$(shell echo $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE)),-d)
-ramfs-args  := \
-        $(if $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_UID), -u $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_UID)) \
-        $(if $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_GID), -g $(CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_GID))
-
-# .initramfs_data.cpio.gz.d is used to identify all files included
-# in initramfs and to detect if any files are added/removed.
-# Removed files are identified by directory timestamp being updated
-# The dependency list is generated by gen_initramfs.sh -l
-ifneq ($(wildcard $(obj)/.initramfs_data.cpio.gz.d),)
-	include $(obj)/.initramfs_data.cpio.gz.d
-endif
-
-quiet_cmd_initfs = GEN     $@
-      cmd_initfs = $(initramfs) -o $@ $(ramfs-args) $(ramfs-input)
-
-targets := initramfs_data.cpio.gz
-# do not try to update files included in initramfs
-$(deps_initramfs): ;
-
-$(deps_initramfs): klibcdirs
-# We rebuild initramfs_data.cpio.gz if:
-# 1) Any included file is newer then initramfs_data.cpio.gz
-# 2) There are changes in which files are included (added or deleted)
-# 3) If gen_init_cpio are newer than initramfs_data.cpio.gz
-# 4) arguments to gen_initramfs.sh changes
-$(obj)/initramfs_data.cpio.gz: $(obj)/gen_init_cpio $(deps_initramfs) klibcdirs
-	$(Q)$(initramfs) -l $(ramfs-input) > $(obj)/.initramfs_data.cpio.gz.d
-	$(call if_changed,initfs)
-
diff --git a/usr/dash/Kbuild b/usr/dash/Kbuild
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..edaa93f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/Kbuild
@@ -0,0 +1,111 @@
+#
+# Kbuild file for dash
+#
+
+config-cppflags := -DBSD=1 -DSMALL -DJOBS=0 -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -DSHELL
+config-cppflags += -DGLOB_BROKEN -DIFS_BROKEN
+
+EXTRA_KLIBCCFLAGS := -I$(srctree)/$(src) -I$(objtree)/$(obj)
+EXTRA_KLIBCCFLAGS += -include $(srctree)/$(src)/config.h
+EXTRA_KLIBCCFLAGS += $(config-cppflags)
+
+HOST_EXTRACFLAGS  := $(config-cppflags)
+
+init-o-files := alias.o arith_yylex.o cd.o error.o eval.o exec.o expand.o \
+		histedit.o input.o jobs.o mail.o main.o memalloc.o miscbltin.o \
+		mystring.o options.o parser.o redir.o show.o trap.o output.o \
+		bltin/printf.o system.o bltin/test.o var.o
+
+gen-o-files := arith.o builtins.o init.o nodes.o syntax.o
+
+sh-y := $(init-o-files) $(gen-o-files)
+
+hostprogs-y := mkinit mksyntax mknodes mksignames
+gen-h-files := arith.h builtins.h nodes.h syntax.h token.h
+
+static-y := sh
+
+# The shared binary
+shared-y    := sh.shared
+sh.shared-y := $(sh-y)
+
+# For cleaning
+targets := sh sh.g sh.shared sh.shared.g $(gen-o-files)
+
+# explicit dependency for all generated files
+$(addprefix $(obj)/, $(sh-y)): $(addprefix $(obj)/, $(gen-h-files))
+
+# Generate token.h
+targets += token.h
+quiet_cmd_mktokens = GEN     $@
+      cmd_mktokens = sh $< > $@
+$(obj)/token.h: $(src)/mktokens
+	$(call if_changed,mktokens)
+
+# Generate builtins.def
+targets += builtins.def
+quiet_cmd_mkbuiltins_def = GEN     $@
+      cmd_mkbuiltins_def = $(HOSTCC) $(hostc_flags) -x c -E -o $@ $<
+$(obj)/builtins.def: $(src)/builtins.def.in $(src)/config.h
+	$(call if_changed,mkbuiltins_def)
+
+# Generate builtins{.c + .h}
+targets += builtins.c builtins.h
+quiet_cmd_mkbuiltins = GEN     $@
+      cmd_mkbuiltins = mkdir -p $(obj)/bltin && cd $(obj) && \
+                       sh $(srctree)/$(src)/mkbuiltins builtins.def
+$(obj)/builtins.c: $(src)/mkbuiltins $(obj)/builtins.def
+	$(call cmd,mkbuiltins)
+
+# side effect..
+$(obj)/builtins.h: $(obj)/builtins.c
+	$(Q):
+
+# Generate init.c
+targets += init.c
+init-c-files := $(addprefix $(srctree)/$(src)/, $(init-o-files:.o=.c))
+quiet_cmd_mkinit = GEN     $@
+      cmd_mkinit = cd $(obj) && ./mkinit $(init-c-files)
+$(obj)/init.c: $(obj)/mkinit $(init-c-files)
+	$(call cmd,mkinit)
+
+# Generate nodes{.c + .h}
+targets += nodes.c nodes.h
+quiet_cmd_mknodes = GEN     $@
+      cmd_mknodes = cd $(obj) && ./mknodes $(srctree)/$(src)/nodetypes \
+			       $(srctree)/$(src)/nodes.c.pat
+$(obj)/nodes.c: $(obj)/mknodes $(src)/nodetypes $(src)/nodes.c.pat
+	$(call cmd,mknodes)
+
+# side effect..
+$(obj)/nodes.h: $(obj)/nodes.c
+	$(Q):
+
+# Generate syntax{.c + .h}
+targets += syntax.c syntax.h
+quiet_cmd_mksyntax = GEN     $@
+      cmd_mksyntax = cd $(obj) && ./mksyntax
+$(obj)/syntax.c: $(obj)/mksyntax
+	$(call cmd,mksyntax)
+
+# side effect..
+$(obj)/syntax.h: $(obj)/syntax.c
+	$(Q):
+
+# Generate arith parser - arith{.c + .h}
+targets += arith.c arith.h
+# Prefer bison, but BSD yacc should work as well
+YACC ?= bison
+
+quiet_cmd_yacc	= YACC    $@
+      cmd_yacc = $(YACC) -d -o $(@:.h=.c) $<
+
+$(obj)/arith.h: $(src)/arith.y
+	$(call if_changed,yacc)
+
+# side effect..
+$(obj)/arith.c: $(obj)/arith.h
+	$(Q):
+
+# Targets to install
+install-y := sh.shared
diff --git a/usr/dash/README.klibc b/usr/dash/README.klibc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0394fb0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/README.klibc
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+This version of dash was obtained from
+
+http://gondor.apana.org.au/~herbert/dash/dash.git/
+
+It corresponds to changeset 3c98399cdf8d376b2c1ebd9cd32ca5d8c84f3ac9.
+
+The only changes made are the addition of config.h and a new Makefile.
diff --git a/usr/dash/TOUR b/usr/dash/TOUR
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0c60e2a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/TOUR
@@ -0,0 +1,356 @@
+#	@(#)TOUR	8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+
+NOTE -- This is the original TOUR paper distributed with ash and
+does not represent the current state of the shell.  It is provided anyway
+since it provides helpful information for how the shell is structured,
+but be warned that things have changed -- the current shell is
+still under development.
+
+================================================================
+
+                       A Tour through Ash
+
+               Copyright 1989 by Kenneth Almquist.
+
+
+DIRECTORIES:  The subdirectory bltin contains commands which can
+be compiled stand-alone.  The rest of the source is in the main
+ash directory.
+
+SOURCE CODE GENERATORS:  Files whose names begin with "mk" are
+programs that generate source code.  A complete list of these
+programs is:
+
+        program         intput files        generates
+        -------         ------------        ---------
+        mkbuiltins      builtins            builtins.h builtins.c
+        mkinit          *.c                 init.c
+        mknodes         nodetypes           nodes.h nodes.c
+        mksignames          -               signames.h signames.c
+        mksyntax            -               syntax.h syntax.c
+        mktokens            -               token.h
+        bltin/mkexpr    unary_op binary_op  operators.h operators.c
+
+There are undoubtedly too many of these.  Mkinit searches all the
+C source files for entries looking like:
+
+        INIT {
+              x = 1;    /* executed during initialization */
+        }
+
+        RESET {
+              x = 2;    /* executed when the shell does a longjmp
+                           back to the main command loop */
+        }
+
+        SHELLPROC {
+              x = 3;    /* executed when the shell runs a shell procedure */
+        }
+
+It pulls this code out into routines which are when particular
+events occur.  The intent is to improve modularity by isolating
+the information about which modules need to be explicitly
+initialized/reset within the modules themselves.
+
+Mkinit recognizes several constructs for placing declarations in
+the init.c file.
+        INCLUDE "file.h"
+includes a file.  The storage class MKINIT makes a declaration
+available in the init.c file, for example:
+        MKINIT int funcnest;    /* depth of function calls */
+MKINIT alone on a line introduces a structure or union declara-
+tion:
+        MKINIT
+        struct redirtab {
+              short renamed[10];
+        };
+Preprocessor #define statements are copied to init.c without any
+special action to request this.
+
+INDENTATION:  The ash source is indented in multiples of six
+spaces.  The only study that I have heard of on the subject con-
+cluded that the optimal amount to indent is in the range of four
+to six spaces.  I use six spaces since it is not too big a jump
+from the widely used eight spaces.  If you really hate six space
+indentation, use the adjind (source included) program to change
+it to something else.
+
+EXCEPTIONS:  Code for dealing with exceptions appears in
+exceptions.c.  The C language doesn't include exception handling,
+so I implement it using setjmp and longjmp.  The global variable
+exception contains the type of exception.  EXERROR is raised by
+calling error.  EXINT is an interrupt.  EXSHELLPROC is an excep-
+tion which is raised when a shell procedure is invoked.  The pur-
+pose of EXSHELLPROC is to perform the cleanup actions associated
+with other exceptions.  After these cleanup actions, the shell
+can interpret a shell procedure itself without exec'ing a new
+copy of the shell.
+
+INTERRUPTS:  In an interactive shell, an interrupt will cause an
+EXINT exception to return to the main command loop.  (Exception:
+EXINT is not raised if the user traps interrupts using the trap
+command.)  The INTOFF and INTON macros (defined in exception.h)
+provide uninterruptable critical sections.  Between the execution
+of INTOFF and the execution of INTON, interrupt signals will be
+held for later delivery.  INTOFF and INTON can be nested.
+
+MEMALLOC.C:  Memalloc.c defines versions of malloc and realloc
+which call error when there is no memory left.  It also defines a
+stack oriented memory allocation scheme.  Allocating off a stack
+is probably more efficient than allocation using malloc, but the
+big advantage is that when an exception occurs all we have to do
+to free up the memory in use at the time of the exception is to
+restore the stack pointer.  The stack is implemented using a
+linked list of blocks.
+
+STPUTC:  If the stack were contiguous, it would be easy to store
+strings on the stack without knowing in advance how long the
+string was going to be:
+        p = stackptr;
+        *p++ = c;       /* repeated as many times as needed */
+        stackptr = p;
+The folloing three macros (defined in memalloc.h) perform these
+operations, but grow the stack if you run off the end:
+        STARTSTACKSTR(p);
+        STPUTC(c, p);   /* repeated as many times as needed */
+        grabstackstr(p);
+
+We now start a top-down look at the code:
+
+MAIN.C:  The main routine performs some initialization, executes
+the user's profile if necessary, and calls cmdloop.  Cmdloop is
+repeatedly parses and executes commands.
+
+OPTIONS.C:  This file contains the option processing code.  It is
+called from main to parse the shell arguments when the shell is
+invoked, and it also contains the set builtin.  The -i and -j op-
+tions (the latter turns on job control) require changes in signal
+handling.  The routines setjobctl (in jobs.c) and setinteractive
+(in trap.c) are called to handle changes to these options.
+
+PARSING:  The parser code is all in parser.c.  A recursive des-
+cent parser is used.  Syntax tables (generated by mksyntax) are
+used to classify characters during lexical analysis.  There are
+three tables:  one for normal use, one for use when inside single
+quotes, and one for use when inside double quotes.  The tables
+are machine dependent because they are indexed by character vari-
+ables and the range of a char varies from machine to machine.
+
+PARSE OUTPUT:  The output of the parser consists of a tree of
+nodes.  The various types of nodes are defined in the file node-
+types.
+
+Nodes of type NARG are used to represent both words and the con-
+tents of here documents.  An early version of ash kept the con-
+tents of here documents in temporary files, but keeping here do-
+cuments in memory typically results in significantly better per-
+formance.  It would have been nice to make it an option to use
+temporary files for here documents, for the benefit of small
+machines, but the code to keep track of when to delete the tem-
+porary files was complex and I never fixed all the bugs in it.
+(AT&T has been maintaining the Bourne shell for more than ten
+years, and to the best of my knowledge they still haven't gotten
+it to handle temporary files correctly in obscure cases.)
+
+The text field of a NARG structure points to the text of the
+word.  The text consists of ordinary characters and a number of
+special codes defined in parser.h.  The special codes are:
+
+        CTLVAR              Variable substitution
+        CTLENDVAR           End of variable substitution
+        CTLBACKQ            Command substitution
+        CTLBACKQ|CTLQUOTE   Command substitution inside double quotes
+        CTLESC              Escape next character
+
+A variable substitution contains the following elements:
+
+        CTLVAR type name '=' [ alternative-text CTLENDVAR ]
+
+The type field is a single character specifying the type of sub-
+stitution.  The possible types are:
+
+        VSNORMAL            $var
+        VSMINUS             ${var-text}
+        VSMINUS|VSNUL       ${var:-text}
+        VSPLUS              ${var+text}
+        VSPLUS|VSNUL        ${var:+text}
+        VSQUESTION          ${var?text}
+        VSQUESTION|VSNUL    ${var:?text}
+        VSASSIGN            ${var=text}
+        VSASSIGN|VSNUL      ${var=text}
+
+In addition, the type field will have the VSQUOTE flag set if the
+variable is enclosed in double quotes.  The name of the variable
+comes next, terminated by an equals sign.  If the type is not
+VSNORMAL, then the text field in the substitution follows, ter-
+minated by a CTLENDVAR byte.
+
+Commands in back quotes are parsed and stored in a linked list.
+The locations of these commands in the string are indicated by
+CTLBACKQ and CTLBACKQ+CTLQUOTE characters, depending upon whether
+the back quotes were enclosed in double quotes.
+
+The character CTLESC escapes the next character, so that in case
+any of the CTL characters mentioned above appear in the input,
+they can be passed through transparently.  CTLESC is also used to
+escape '*', '?', '[', and '!' characters which were quoted by the
+user and thus should not be used for file name generation.
+
+CTLESC characters have proved to be particularly tricky to get
+right.  In the case of here documents which are not subject to
+variable and command substitution, the parser doesn't insert any
+CTLESC characters to begin with (so the contents of the text
+field can be written without any processing).  Other here docu-
+ments, and words which are not subject to splitting and file name
+generation, have the CTLESC characters removed during the vari-
+able and command substitution phase.  Words which are subject
+splitting and file name generation have the CTLESC characters re-
+moved as part of the file name phase.
+
+EXECUTION:  Command execution is handled by the following files:
+        eval.c     The top level routines.
+        redir.c    Code to handle redirection of input and output.
+        jobs.c     Code to handle forking, waiting, and job control.
+        exec.c     Code to to path searches and the actual exec sys call.
+        expand.c   Code to evaluate arguments.
+        var.c      Maintains the variable symbol table.  Called from expand.c.
+
+EVAL.C:  Evaltree recursively executes a parse tree.  The exit
+status is returned in the global variable exitstatus.  The alter-
+native entry evalbackcmd is called to evaluate commands in back
+quotes.  It saves the result in memory if the command is a buil-
+tin; otherwise it forks off a child to execute the command and
+connects the standard output of the child to a pipe.
+
+JOBS.C:  To create a process, you call makejob to return a job
+structure, and then call forkshell (passing the job structure as
+an argument) to create the process.  Waitforjob waits for a job
+to complete.  These routines take care of process groups if job
+control is defined.
+
+REDIR.C:  Ash allows file descriptors to be redirected and then
+restored without forking off a child process.  This is accom-
+plished by duplicating the original file descriptors.  The redir-
+tab structure records where the file descriptors have be dupli-
+cated to.
+
+EXEC.C:  The routine find_command locates a command, and enters
+the command in the hash table if it is not already there.  The
+third argument specifies whether it is to print an error message
+if the command is not found.  (When a pipeline is set up,
+find_command is called for all the commands in the pipeline be-
+fore any forking is done, so to get the commands into the hash
+table of the parent process.  But to make command hashing as
+transparent as possible, we silently ignore errors at that point
+and only print error messages if the command cannot be found
+later.)
+
+The routine shellexec is the interface to the exec system call.
+
+EXPAND.C:  Arguments are processed in three passes.  The first
+(performed by the routine argstr) performs variable and command
+substitution.  The second (ifsbreakup) performs word splitting
+and the third (expandmeta) performs file name generation.  If the
+"/u" directory is simulated, then when "/u/username" is replaced
+by the user's home directory, the flag "didudir" is set.  This
+tells the cd command that it should print out the directory name,
+just as it would if the "/u" directory were implemented using
+symbolic links.
+
+VAR.C:  Variables are stored in a hash table.  Probably we should
+switch to extensible hashing.  The variable name is stored in the
+same string as the value (using the format "name=value") so that
+no string copying is needed to create the environment of a com-
+mand.  Variables which the shell references internally are preal-
+located so that the shell can reference the values of these vari-
+ables without doing a lookup.
+
+When a program is run, the code in eval.c sticks any environment
+variables which precede the command (as in "PATH=xxx command") in
+the variable table as the simplest way to strip duplicates, and
+then calls "environment" to get the value of the environment.
+There are two consequences of this.  First, if an assignment to
+PATH precedes the command, the value of PATH before the assign-
+ment must be remembered and passed to shellexec.  Second, if the
+program turns out to be a shell procedure, the strings from the
+environment variables which preceded the command must be pulled
+out of the table and replaced with strings obtained from malloc,
+since the former will automatically be freed when the stack (see
+the entry on memalloc.c) is emptied.
+
+BUILTIN COMMANDS:  The procedures for handling these are scat-
+tered throughout the code, depending on which location appears
+most appropriate.  They can be recognized because their names al-
+ways end in "cmd".  The mapping from names to procedures is
+specified in the file builtins, which is processed by the mkbuil-
+tins command.
+
+A builtin command is invoked with argc and argv set up like a
+normal program.  A builtin command is allowed to overwrite its
+arguments.  Builtin routines can call nextopt to do option pars-
+ing.  This is kind of like getopt, but you don't pass argc and
+argv to it.  Builtin routines can also call error.  This routine
+normally terminates the shell (or returns to the main command
+loop if the shell is interactive), but when called from a builtin
+command it causes the builtin command to terminate with an exit
+status of 2.
+
+The directory bltins contains commands which can be compiled in-
+dependently but can also be built into the shell for efficiency
+reasons.  The makefile in this directory compiles these programs
+in the normal fashion (so that they can be run regardless of
+whether the invoker is ash), but also creates a library named
+bltinlib.a which can be linked with ash.  The header file bltin.h
+takes care of most of the differences between the ash and the
+stand-alone environment.  The user should call the main routine
+"main", and #define main to be the name of the routine to use
+when the program is linked into ash.  This #define should appear
+before bltin.h is included; bltin.h will #undef main if the pro-
+gram is to be compiled stand-alone.
+
+CD.C:  This file defines the cd and pwd builtins.  The pwd com-
+mand runs /bin/pwd the first time it is invoked (unless the user
+has already done a cd to an absolute pathname), but then
+remembers the current directory and updates it when the cd com-
+mand is run, so subsequent pwd commands run very fast.  The main
+complication in the cd command is in the docd command, which
+resolves symbolic links into actual names and informs the user
+where the user ended up if he crossed a symbolic link.
+
+SIGNALS:  Trap.c implements the trap command.  The routine set-
+signal figures out what action should be taken when a signal is
+received and invokes the signal system call to set the signal ac-
+tion appropriately.  When a signal that a user has set a trap for
+is caught, the routine "onsig" sets a flag.  The routine dotrap
+is called at appropriate points to actually handle the signal.
+When an interrupt is caught and no trap has been set for that
+signal, the routine "onint" in error.c is called.
+
+OUTPUT:  Ash uses it's own output routines.  There are three out-
+put structures allocated.  "Output" represents the standard out-
+put, "errout" the standard error, and "memout" contains output
+which is to be stored in memory.  This last is used when a buil-
+tin command appears in backquotes, to allow its output to be col-
+lected without doing any I/O through the UNIX operating system.
+The variables out1 and out2 normally point to output and errout,
+respectively, but they are set to point to memout when appropri-
+ate inside backquotes.
+
+INPUT:  The basic input routine is pgetc, which reads from the
+current input file.  There is a stack of input files; the current
+input file is the top file on this stack.  The code allows the
+input to come from a string rather than a file.  (This is for the
+-c option and the "." and eval builtin commands.)  The global
+variable plinno is saved and restored when files are pushed and
+popped from the stack.  The parser routines store the number of
+the current line in this variable.
+
+DEBUGGING:  If DEBUG is defined in shell.h, then the shell will
+write debugging information to the file $HOME/trace.  Most of
+this is done using the TRACE macro, which takes a set of printf
+arguments inside two sets of parenthesis.  Example:
+"TRACE(("n=%d0, n))".  The double parenthesis are necessary be-
+cause the preprocessor can't handle functions with a variable
+number of arguments.  Defining DEBUG also causes the shell to
+generate a core dump if it is sent a quit signal.  The tracing
+code is in show.c.
diff --git a/usr/dash/alias.c b/usr/dash/alias.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..daeacbb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/alias.c
@@ -0,0 +1,227 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "input.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+#include "alias.h"
+#include "options.h"	/* XXX for argptr (should remove?) */
+
+#define ATABSIZE 39
+
+struct alias *atab[ATABSIZE];
+
+STATIC void setalias(const char *, const char *);
+STATIC struct alias *freealias(struct alias *);
+STATIC struct alias **__lookupalias(const char *);
+
+STATIC
+void
+setalias(const char *name, const char *val)
+{
+	struct alias *ap, **app;
+
+	app = __lookupalias(name);
+	ap = *app;
+	INTOFF;
+	if (ap) {
+		if (!(ap->flag & ALIASINUSE)) {
+			ckfree(ap->val);
+		}
+		ap->val	= savestr(val);
+		ap->flag &= ~ALIASDEAD;
+	} else {
+		/* not found */
+		ap = ckmalloc(sizeof (struct alias));
+		ap->name = savestr(name);
+		ap->val = savestr(val);
+		ap->flag = 0;
+		ap->next = 0;
+		*app = ap;
+	}
+	INTON;
+}
+
+int
+unalias(const char *name)
+{
+	struct alias **app;
+
+	app = __lookupalias(name);
+
+	if (*app) {
+		INTOFF;
+		*app = freealias(*app);
+		INTON;
+		return (0);
+	}
+
+	return (1);
+}
+
+void
+rmaliases(void)
+{
+	struct alias *ap, **app;
+	int i;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	for (i = 0; i < ATABSIZE; i++) {
+		app = &atab[i];
+		for (ap = *app; ap; ap = *app) {
+			*app = freealias(*app);
+			if (ap == *app) {
+				app = &ap->next;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	INTON;
+}
+
+struct alias *
+lookupalias(const char *name, int check)
+{
+	struct alias *ap = *__lookupalias(name);
+
+	if (check && ap && (ap->flag & ALIASINUSE))
+		return (NULL);
+	return (ap);
+}
+
+/*
+ * TODO - sort output
+ */
+int
+aliascmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	char *n, *v;
+	int ret = 0;
+	struct alias *ap;
+
+	if (argc == 1) {
+		int i;
+
+		for (i = 0; i < ATABSIZE; i++)
+			for (ap = atab[i]; ap; ap = ap->next) {
+				printalias(ap);
+			}
+		return (0);
+	}
+	while ((n = *++argv) != NULL) {
+		if ((v = strchr(n+1, '=')) == NULL) { /* n+1: funny ksh stuff */
+			if ((ap = *__lookupalias(n)) == NULL) {
+				outfmt(out2, "%s: %s not found\n", "alias", n);
+				ret = 1;
+			} else
+				printalias(ap);
+		} else {
+			*v++ = '\0';
+			setalias(n, v);
+		}
+	}
+
+	return (ret);
+}
+
+int
+unaliascmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	while ((i = nextopt("a")) != '\0') {
+		if (i == 'a') {
+			rmaliases();
+			return (0);
+		}
+	}
+	for (i = 0; *argptr; argptr++) {
+		if (unalias(*argptr)) {
+			outfmt(out2, "%s: %s not found\n", "unalias", *argptr);
+			i = 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return (i);
+}
+
+STATIC struct alias *
+freealias(struct alias *ap) {
+	struct alias *next;
+
+	if (ap->flag & ALIASINUSE) {
+		ap->flag |= ALIASDEAD;
+		return ap;
+	}
+
+	next = ap->next;
+	ckfree(ap->name);
+	ckfree(ap->val);
+	ckfree(ap);
+	return next;
+}
+
+void
+printalias(const struct alias *ap) {
+	out1fmt("%s=%s\n", ap->name, single_quote(ap->val));
+}
+
+STATIC struct alias **
+__lookupalias(const char *name) {
+	unsigned int hashval;
+	struct alias **app;
+	const char *p;
+	unsigned int ch;
+
+	p = name;
+
+	ch = (unsigned char)*p;
+	hashval = ch << 4;
+	while (ch) {
+		hashval += ch;
+		ch = (unsigned char)*++p;
+	}
+	app = &atab[hashval % ATABSIZE];
+
+	for (; *app; app = &(*app)->next) {
+		if (equal(name, (*app)->name)) {
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return app;
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/alias.h b/usr/dash/alias.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fb841d6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/alias.h
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)alias.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+#define ALIASINUSE	1
+#define ALIASDEAD	2
+
+struct alias {
+	struct alias *next;
+	char *name;
+	char *val;
+	int flag;
+};
+
+struct alias *lookupalias(const char *, int);
+int aliascmd(int, char **);
+int unaliascmd(int, char **);
+void rmaliases(void);
+int unalias(const char *);
+void printalias(const struct alias *);
diff --git a/usr/dash/arith.y b/usr/dash/arith.y
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..07b0b39
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/arith.y
@@ -0,0 +1,155 @@
+%{
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include "expand.h"
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+
+const char *arith_buf, *arith_startbuf;
+
+#ifndef YYBISON
+int yyparse(void);
+#endif
+void yyerror(const char *);
+#ifdef TESTARITH
+int main(int , char *[]);
+int sh_error(char *);
+#endif
+
+%}
+%token ARITH_NUM ARITH_LPAREN ARITH_RPAREN
+
+%left ARITH_OR
+%left ARITH_AND
+%left ARITH_BOR
+%left ARITH_BXOR
+%left ARITH_BAND
+%left ARITH_EQ ARITH_NE
+%left ARITH_LT ARITH_GT ARITH_GE ARITH_LE
+%left ARITH_LSHIFT ARITH_RSHIFT
+%left ARITH_ADD ARITH_SUB
+%left ARITH_MUL ARITH_DIV ARITH_REM
+%left ARITH_UNARYMINUS ARITH_UNARYPLUS ARITH_NOT ARITH_BNOT
+%%
+
+exp:	expr {
+			return ($1);
+	}
+	;
+
+
+expr:	ARITH_LPAREN expr ARITH_RPAREN { $$ = $2; }
+	| expr ARITH_OR expr	{ $$ = $1 || $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_AND expr	{ $$ = $1 && $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_BOR expr	{ $$ = $1 | $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_BXOR expr	{ $$ = $1 ^ $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_BAND expr	{ $$ = $1 & $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_EQ expr	{ $$ = $1 == $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_GT expr	{ $$ = $1 > $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_GE expr	{ $$ = $1 >= $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_LT expr	{ $$ = $1 < $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_LE expr	{ $$ = $1 <= $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_NE expr	{ $$ = $1 != $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_LSHIFT expr { $$ = $1 << $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_RSHIFT expr { $$ = $1 >> $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_ADD expr	{ $$ = $1 + $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_SUB expr	{ $$ = $1 - $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_MUL expr	{ $$ = $1 * $3; }
+	| expr ARITH_DIV expr	{
+			if ($3 == 0)
+				yyerror("division by zero");
+			$$ = $1 / $3;
+		}
+	| expr ARITH_REM expr   {
+			if ($3 == 0)
+				yyerror("division by zero");
+			$$ = $1 % $3;
+		}
+	| ARITH_NOT expr	{ $$ = !($2); }
+	| ARITH_BNOT expr	{ $$ = ~($2); }
+	| ARITH_SUB expr %prec ARITH_UNARYMINUS { $$ = -($2); }
+	| ARITH_ADD expr %prec ARITH_UNARYPLUS { $$ = $2; }
+	| ARITH_NUM
+	;
+%%
+int
+arith(s)
+	const char *s;
+{
+	long result;
+
+	arith_buf = arith_startbuf = s;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	result = yyparse();
+	arith_lex_reset();	/* reprime lex */
+	INTON;
+
+	return (result);
+}
+
+
+/*************************/
+#ifdef TEST_ARITH
+#include <stdio.h>
+main(argc, argv)
+	char *argv[];
+{
+	printf("%d\n", exp(argv[1]));
+}
+sh_error(s)
+	char *s;
+{
+	fprintf(stderr, "exp: %s\n", s);
+	exit(1);
+}
+#endif
+
+void
+yyerror(s)
+	const char *s;
+{
+
+#ifndef YYBISON
+	yyerrok;
+#endif
+	yyclearin;
+	arith_lex_reset();	/* reprime lex */
+	sh_error("arithmetic expression: %s: \"%s\"", s, arith_startbuf);
+	/* NOTREACHED */
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/arith_yylex.c b/usr/dash/arith_yylex.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4fa2051
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/arith_yylex.c
@@ -0,0 +1,163 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 2002
+ *	Herbert Xu.
+ * Copyright (c) 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include "arith.h"
+#include "expand.h"
+#include "error.h"
+
+extern int yylval;
+extern const char *arith_buf, *arith_startbuf;
+
+int
+yylex()
+{
+	int value;
+	const char *buf = arith_buf;
+
+	for (;;) {
+		switch (*buf) {
+		case ' ':
+		case '\t':
+		case '\n':
+			buf++;
+			continue;
+		default:
+err:
+			sh_error("arith: syntax error: \"%s\"", arith_startbuf);
+			/* NOTREACHED */
+		case '0':
+		case '1':
+		case '2':
+		case '3':
+		case '4':
+		case '5':
+		case '6':
+		case '7':
+		case '8':
+		case '9':
+			yylval = strtoll(buf, (char **) &arith_buf, 0);
+			return ARITH_NUM;
+		case '=':
+			if (*++buf != '=') {
+				goto err;
+			}
+			value = ARITH_EQ;
+			break;
+		case '>':
+			switch (*++buf) {
+			case '=':
+				value = ARITH_GE;
+				break;
+			case '>':
+				value = ARITH_RSHIFT;
+				break;
+			default:
+				value = ARITH_GT;
+				goto out;
+			}
+			break;
+		case '<':
+			switch (*++buf) {
+			case '=':
+				value = ARITH_LE;
+				break;
+			case '<':
+				value = ARITH_LSHIFT;
+				break;
+			default:
+				value = ARITH_LT;
+				goto out;
+			}
+			break;
+		case '|':
+			if (*++buf != '|') {
+				value = ARITH_BOR;
+				goto out;
+			}
+			value = ARITH_OR;
+			break;
+		case '&':
+			if (*++buf != '&') {
+				value = ARITH_BAND;
+				goto out;
+			}
+			value = ARITH_AND;
+			break;
+		case '!':
+			if (*++buf != '=') {
+				value = ARITH_NOT;
+				goto out;
+			}
+			value = ARITH_NE;
+			break;
+		case 0:
+			value = 0;
+			goto out;
+		case '(':
+			value = ARITH_LPAREN;
+			break;
+		case ')':
+			value = ARITH_RPAREN;
+			break;
+		case '*':
+			value = ARITH_MUL;
+			break;
+		case '/':
+			value = ARITH_DIV;
+			break;
+		case '%':
+			value = ARITH_REM;
+			break;
+		case '+':
+			value = ARITH_ADD;
+			break;
+		case '-':
+			value = ARITH_SUB;
+			break;
+		case '~':
+			value = ARITH_BNOT;
+			break;
+		case '^':
+			value = ARITH_BXOR;
+			break;
+		}
+		break;
+	}
+
+	buf++;
+out:
+	arith_buf = buf;
+	return value;
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/bltin/bltin.h b/usr/dash/bltin/bltin.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f5ac06f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/bltin/bltin.h
@@ -0,0 +1,89 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)bltin.h	8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is included by programs which are optionally built into the
+ * shell.  If SHELL is defined, we try to map the standard UNIX library
+ * routines to ash routines using defines.
+ */
+
+#include "../shell.h"
+#include "../mystring.h"
+#include "../options.h"
+#ifdef SHELL
+#include "../memalloc.h"
+#include "../output.h"
+#include "../error.h"
+#ifndef USE_GLIBC_STDIO
+#undef stdout
+#undef stderr
+#undef putc
+#undef putchar
+#undef fileno
+#define stdout out1
+#define stderr out2
+#define printf out1fmt
+#define putc(c, file)	outc(c, file)
+#define putchar(c)	out1c(c)
+#define FILE struct output
+#define fprintf outfmt
+#define fputs outstr
+#define fflush flushout
+#define fileno(f) ((f)->fd)
+#define ferror outerr
+#endif
+#define INITARGS(argv)
+#define	error sh_error
+#define	warn sh_warn
+#define	warnx sh_warnx
+#define exit sh_exit
+#define setprogname(s)
+#define getprogname() commandname
+#define setlocate(l,s) 0
+
+#define getenv(p) bltinlookup((p),0)
+
+#else
+#undef NULL
+#include <stdio.h>
+#undef main
+#define INITARGS(argv)	if ((commandname = argv[0]) == NULL) {fputs("Argc is zero\n", stderr); exit(2);} else
+#endif
+
+int echocmd(int, char **);
+
+
+extern const char *commandname;
diff --git a/usr/dash/bltin/echo.1 b/usr/dash/bltin/echo.1
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fbc7fb4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/bltin/echo.1
@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+.\" Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+.\"	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+.\" Kenneth Almquist.
+.\" Copyright 1989 by Kenneth Almquist
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\"    without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\"	@(#)echo.1	8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+.\"
+.Dd May 31, 1993
+.Dt ECHO 1
+.Os
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm echo
+.Nd produce message in a shell script
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm
+.Op Fl n | Fl e
+.Ar args ...
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+.Nm
+prints its arguments on the standard output, separated by spaces.
+Unless the
+.Fl n
+option is present, a newline is output following the arguments.
+The
+.Fl e
+option causes
+.Nm
+to treat the escape sequences specially, as described in the following
+paragraph.
+The
+.Fl e
+option is the default, and is provided solely for compatibility with
+other systems.
+Only one of the options
+.Fl n
+and
+.Fl e
+may be given.
+.Pp
+If any of the following sequences of characters is encountered during
+output, the sequence is not output.  Instead, the specified action is
+performed:
+.Bl -tag -width indent
+.It Li \eb
+A backspace character is output.
+.It Li \ec
+Subsequent output is suppressed.  This is normally used at the end of the
+last argument to suppress the trailing newline that
+.Nm
+would otherwise output.
+.It Li \ef
+Output a form feed.
+.It Li \en
+Output a newline character.
+.It Li \er
+Output a carriage return.
+.It Li \et
+Output a (horizontal) tab character.
+.It Li \ev
+Output a vertical tab.
+.It Li \e0 Ns Ar digits
+Output the character whose value is given by zero to three digits.
+If there are zero digits, a nul character is output.
+.It Li \e\e
+Output a backslash.
+.El
+.Sh HINTS
+Remember that backslash is special to the shell and needs to be escaped.
+To output a message to standard error, say
+.Pp
+.D1  echo message \*[Gt]\*[Am]2
+.Sh BUGS
+The octal character escape mechanism
+.Pq Li \e0 Ns Ar digits
+differs from the
+C language mechanism.
+.Pp
+There is no way to force
+.Nm
+to treat its arguments literally, rather than interpreting them as
+options and escape sequences.
diff --git a/usr/dash/bltin/printf.1 b/usr/dash/bltin/printf.1
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b1265a5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/bltin/printf.1
@@ -0,0 +1,354 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993
+.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+.\" Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+.\"	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\"    without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\"	from: @(#)printf.1	8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93
+.\"
+.Dd November 5, 1993
+.Dt PRINTF 1
+.Os
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm printf
+.Nd formatted output
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm
+.Ar format
+.Op Ar arguments  ...
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+.Nm
+formats and prints its arguments, after the first, under control
+of the
+.Ar format  .
+The
+.Ar format
+is a character string which contains three types of objects: plain characters,
+which are simply copied to standard output, character escape sequences which
+are converted and copied to the standard output, and format specifications,
+each of which causes printing of the next successive
+.Ar argument  .
+.Pp
+The
+.Ar arguments
+after the first are treated as strings if the corresponding format is
+either
+.Cm b ,
+.Cm B ,
+.Cm c
+or
+.Cm s ;
+otherwise it is evaluated as a C constant, with the following extensions:
+.Pp
+.Bl -bullet -offset indent -compact
+.It
+A leading plus or minus sign is allowed.
+.It
+If the leading character is a single or double quote, the value is the
+.Tn ASCII
+code of the next character.
+.El
+.Pp
+The format string is reused as often as necessary to satisfy the
+.Ar arguments  .
+Any extra format specifications are evaluated with zero or the null
+string.
+.Pp
+Character escape sequences are in backslash notation as defined in
+.St -ansiC .
+The characters and their meanings are as follows:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -offset indent
+.It Cm \ee
+Write an \*[Lt]escape\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \ea
+Write a \*[Lt]bell\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \eb
+Write a \*[Lt]backspace\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \ef
+Write a \*[Lt]form-feed\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \en
+Write a \*[Lt]new-line\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \er
+Write a \*[Lt]carriage return\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \et
+Write a \*[Lt]tab\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \ev
+Write a \*[Lt]vertical tab\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \e\'
+Write a \*[Lt]single quote\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \e"
+Write a \*[Lt]double quote\*[Gt] character.
+.It Cm \e\e
+Write a backslash character.
+.It Cm \e Ns Ar num
+Write an 8\-bit character whose
+.Tn ASCII
+value is the 1\-, 2\-, or 3\-digit octal number
+.Ar num .
+.It Cm \ex Ns Ar xx
+Write an 8\-bit character whose
+.Tn ASCII
+value is the 1\- or 2\-digit hexadecimal number
+.Ar xx .
+.El
+.Pp
+Each format specification is introduced by the percent character
+(``%'').
+The remainder of the format specification includes,
+in the following order:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It "Zero or more of the following flags:"
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Cm #
+A `#' character
+specifying that the value should be printed in an ``alternative form''.
+For
+.Cm b ,
+.Cm c ,
+.Cm d ,
+and
+.Cm s
+formats, this option has no effect.
+For the
+.Cm o
+format the precision of the number is increased to force the first
+character of the output string to a zero.
+For the
+.Cm x
+.Pq Cm X
+format, a non-zero result has the string
+.Li 0x
+.Pq Li 0X
+prepended to it.
+For
+.Cm e  ,
+.Cm E ,
+.Cm f  ,
+.Cm g ,
+and
+.Cm G
+formats, the result will always contain a decimal point, even if no
+digits follow the point (normally, a decimal point only appears in the
+results of those formats if a digit follows the decimal point).
+For
+.Cm g
+and
+.Cm G
+formats, trailing zeros are not removed from the result as they
+would otherwise be.
+.\" I turned this off - decided it isn't a valid use of '#'
+.\" For the
+.\" .Cm B
+.\" format, backslash-escape sequences are expanded first;
+.It Cm \&\-
+A minus sign `\-' which specifies
+.Em left adjustment
+of the output in the indicated field;
+.It Cm \&+
+A `+' character specifying that there should always be
+a sign placed before the number when using signed formats.
+.It Sq \&\ \&
+A space specifying that a blank should be left before a positive number
+for a signed format.
+A `+' overrides a space if both are used;
+.It Cm \&0
+A zero `0' character indicating that zero-padding should be used
+rather than blank-padding.
+A `\-' overrides a `0' if both are used;
+.El
+.It "Field Width:"
+An optional digit string specifying a
+.Em field width ;
+if the output string has fewer characters than the field width it will
+be blank-padded on the left (or right, if the left-adjustment indicator
+has been given) to make up the field width (note that a leading zero
+is a flag, but an embedded zero is part of a field width);
+.It Precision :
+An optional period,
+.Sq Cm \&.\& ,
+followed by an optional digit string giving a
+.Em precision
+which specifies the number of digits to appear after the decimal point,
+for
+.Cm e
+and
+.Cm f
+formats, or the maximum number of characters to be printed
+from a string
+.Sm off
+.Pf ( Cm b No ,
+.Sm on
+.Cm B
+and
+.Cm s
+formats); if the digit string is missing, the precision is treated
+as zero;
+.It Format :
+A character which indicates the type of format to use (one of
+.Cm diouxXfwEgGbBcs ) .
+.El
+.Pp
+A field width or precision may be
+.Sq Cm \&*
+instead of a digit string.
+In this case an
+.Ar argument
+supplies the field width or precision.
+.Pp
+The format characters and their meanings are:
+.Bl -tag -width Fl
+.It Cm diouXx
+The
+.Ar argument
+is printed as a signed decimal (d or i), unsigned octal, unsigned decimal,
+or unsigned hexadecimal (X or x), respectively.
+.It Cm f
+The
+.Ar argument
+is printed in the style
+.Sm off
+.Pf [\-]ddd Cm \&. No ddd
+.Sm on
+where the number of d's
+after the decimal point is equal to the precision specification for
+the argument.
+If the precision is missing, 6 digits are given; if the precision
+is explicitly 0, no digits and no decimal point are printed.
+.It Cm eE
+The
+.Ar argument
+is printed in the style
+.Sm off
+.Pf [\-]d Cm \&. No ddd Cm e No \\*(Pmdd
+.Sm on
+where there
+is one digit before the decimal point and the number after is equal to
+the precision specification for the argument; when the precision is
+missing, 6 digits are produced.
+An upper-case E is used for an `E' format.
+.It Cm gG
+The
+.Ar argument
+is printed in style
+.Cm f
+or in style
+.Cm e
+.Pq Cm E
+whichever gives full precision in minimum space.
+.It Cm b
+Characters from the string
+.Ar argument
+are printed with backslash-escape sequences expanded.
+.br
+The following additional backslash-escape sequences are supported:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Cm \ec
+Causes
+.Nm
+to ignore any remaining characters in the string operand containing it,
+any remaining string operands, and any additional characters in
+the format operand.
+.It Cm \e0 Ns Ar num
+Write an 8\-bit character whose
+.Tn ASCII
+value is the 1\-, 2\-, or 3\-digit
+octal number
+.Ar num .
+.It Cm \e^ Ns Ar c
+Write the control character
+.Ar c .
+Generates characters `\e000' through `\e037`, and `\e177' (from `\e^?').
+.It Cm \eM\- Ns Ar c
+Write the character
+.Ar c
+with the 8th bit set.
+Generates characters `\e241' through `\e376`.
+.It Cm \eM^ Ns Ar c
+Write the control character
+.Ar c
+with the 8th bit set.
+Generates characters `\e000' through `\e037`, and `\e177' (from `\eM^?').
+.El
+.It Cm B
+Characters from the string
+.Ar argument
+are printed with unprintable characters backslash-escaped using the
+.Sm off
+.Pf ` Cm \e Ar c No ',
+.Pf ` Cm \e^ Ar c No ',
+.Pf ` Cm \eM\- Ar c No '
+or
+.Pf ` Cm \eM^ Ar c No ',
+.Sm on
+formats described above.
+.It Cm c
+The first character of
+.Ar argument
+is printed.
+.It Cm s
+Characters from the string
+.Ar argument
+are printed until the end is reached or until the number of characters
+indicated by the precision specification is reached; if the
+precision is omitted, all characters in the string are printed.
+.It Cm \&%
+Print a `%'; no argument is used.
+.El
+.Pp
+In no case does a non-existent or small field width cause truncation of
+a field; padding takes place only if the specified field width exceeds
+the actual width.
+.Sh EXIT STATUS
+.Nm
+exits 0 on success, 1 on failure.
+.Sh SEE ALSO
+.Xr echo 1 ,
+.Xr printf 3 ,
+.Xr printf 9
+.Xr vis 3
+.Sh STANDARDS
+The
+.Nm
+utility conforms to
+.St -p1003.1-2001 .
+.Pp
+Support for the floating point formats and `*' as a field width and precision
+are optional in POSIX.
+.Pp
+The behaviour of the %B format and the \e', \e", \exxx, \ee and
+\e[M][\-|^]c escape sequences are undefined in POSIX.
+.Sh BUGS
+Since the floating point numbers are translated from
+.Tn ASCII
+to floating-point and
+then back again, floating-point precision may be lost.
+.Pp
+Hexadecimal character constants are restricted to, and should be specified
+as, two character constants.  This is contrary to the ISO C standard but
+does guarantee detection of the end of the constant.
diff --git a/usr/dash/bltin/printf.c b/usr/dash/bltin/printf.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..75ba40d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/bltin/printf.c
@@ -0,0 +1,476 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 1989, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <stdarg.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+static char	*conv_escape_str(char *);
+static char	*conv_escape(char *, int *);
+static int	 getchr(void);
+static intmax_t	 getintmax(void);
+static uintmax_t getuintmax(void);
+static char	*getstr(void);
+static char	*mklong(const char *, const char *);
+static void      check_conversion(const char *, const char *);
+#ifdef HAVE_STRTOD
+static double	 getdouble(void);
+#endif
+
+static int	rval;
+static char  **gargv;
+
+#define isodigit(c)	((c) >= '0' && (c) <= '7')
+#define octtobin(c)	((c) - '0')
+
+#include "bltin.h"
+#include "system.h"
+
+#define PF(f, func) { \
+	switch ((char *)param - (char *)array) { \
+	default: \
+		(void)printf(f, array[0], array[1], func); \
+		break; \
+	case sizeof(*param): \
+		(void)printf(f, array[0], func); \
+		break; \
+	case 0: \
+		(void)printf(f, func); \
+		break; \
+	} \
+}
+
+int printfcmd(int argc, char *argv[])
+{
+	char *fmt;
+	char *format;
+	int ch;
+
+	rval = 0;
+
+	nextopt(nullstr);
+
+	argv = argptr;
+	format = *argv;
+
+	if (!format) {
+		warnx("usage: printf format [arg ...]");
+		goto err;
+	}
+
+	gargv = ++argv;
+
+#define SKIP1	"#-+ 0"
+#define SKIP2	"*0123456789"
+	do {
+		/*
+		 * Basic algorithm is to scan the format string for conversion
+		 * specifications -- once one is found, find out if the field
+		 * width or precision is a '*'; if it is, gather up value.
+		 * Note, format strings are reused as necessary to use up the
+		 * provided arguments, arguments of zero/null string are
+		 * provided to use up the format string.
+		 */
+
+		/* find next format specification */
+		for (fmt = format; (ch = *fmt++) ;) {
+			char *start;
+			char nextch;
+			int array[2];
+			int *param;
+
+			if (ch == '\\') {
+				int c_ch;
+				fmt = conv_escape(fmt, &c_ch);
+				ch = c_ch;
+				goto pc;
+			}
+			if (ch != '%' || (*fmt == '%' && (++fmt || 1))) {
+pc:
+				putchar(ch);
+				continue;
+			}
+
+			/* Ok - we've found a format specification,
+			   Save its address for a later printf(). */
+			start = fmt - 1;
+			param = array;
+
+			/* skip to field width */
+			fmt += strspn(fmt, SKIP1);
+			if (*fmt == '*')
+				*param++ = getintmax();
+
+			/* skip to possible '.', get following precision */
+			fmt += strspn(fmt, SKIP2);
+			if (*fmt == '.')
+				++fmt;
+			if (*fmt == '*')
+				*param++ = getintmax();
+
+			fmt += strspn(fmt, SKIP2);
+
+			ch = *fmt;
+			if (!ch) {
+				warnx("missing format character");
+				goto err;
+			}
+			/* null terminate format string to we can use it
+			   as an argument to printf. */
+			nextch = fmt[1];
+			fmt[1] = 0;
+			switch (ch) {
+
+			case 'b': {
+				char *p = conv_escape_str(getstr());
+				*fmt = 's';
+				PF(start, p);
+				/* escape if a \c was encountered */
+				if (rval & 0x100)
+					goto out;
+				*fmt = 'b';
+				break;
+			}
+			case 'c': {
+				int p = getchr();
+				PF(start, p);
+				break;
+			}
+			case 's': {
+				char *p = getstr();
+				PF(start, p);
+				break;
+			}
+			case 'd':
+			case 'i': {
+				intmax_t p = getintmax();
+				char *f = mklong(start, fmt);
+				PF(f, p);
+				break;
+			}
+			case 'o':
+			case 'u':
+			case 'x':
+			case 'X': {
+				uintmax_t p = getuintmax();
+				char *f = mklong(start, fmt);
+				PF(f, p);
+				break;
+			}
+#ifdef HAVE_STRTOD
+			case 'e':
+			case 'E':
+			case 'f':
+			case 'g':
+			case 'G': {
+				double p = getdouble();
+				PF(start, p);
+				break;
+			}
+#endif
+			default:
+				warnx("%s: invalid directive", start);
+				goto err;
+			}
+			*++fmt = nextch;
+		}
+	} while (gargv != argv && *gargv);
+
+out:
+	return (rval & ~0x100);
+err:
+	return 1;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Print SysV echo(1) style escape string
+ *	Halts processing string if a \c escape is encountered.
+ */
+static char *
+conv_escape_str(char *str)
+{
+	int ch;
+	char *cp;
+
+	/* convert string into a temporary buffer... */
+	STARTSTACKSTR(cp);
+
+	do {
+		int c;
+
+		ch = *str++;
+		if (ch != '\\')
+			continue;
+
+		ch = *str++;
+		if (ch == 'c') {
+			/* \c as in SYSV echo - abort all processing.... */
+			rval |= 0x100;
+			ch = 0;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * %b string octal constants are not like those in C.
+		 * They start with a \0, and are followed by 0, 1, 2,
+		 * or 3 octal digits.
+		 */
+		if (ch == '0') {
+			unsigned char i;
+			i = 3;
+			ch = 0;
+			do {
+				unsigned k = octtobin(*str);
+				if (k > 7)
+					break;
+				str++;
+				ch <<= 3;
+				ch += k;
+			} while (--i);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* Finally test for sequences valid in the format string */
+		str = conv_escape(str - 1, &c);
+		ch = c;
+	} while (STPUTC(ch, cp), ch);
+
+	return stackblock();
+}
+
+/*
+ * Print "standard" escape characters
+ */
+static char *
+conv_escape(char *str, int *conv_ch)
+{
+	int value;
+	int ch;
+
+	ch = *str;
+
+	switch (ch) {
+	default:
+	case 0:
+		value = '\\';
+		goto out;
+
+	case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3':
+	case '4': case '5': case '6': case '7':
+		ch = 3;
+		value = 0;
+		do {
+			value <<= 3;
+			value += octtobin(*str++);
+		} while (isodigit(*str) && --ch);
+		goto out;
+
+	case '\\':	value = '\\';	break;	/* backslash */
+	case 'a':	value = '\a';	break;	/* alert */
+	case 'b':	value = '\b';	break;	/* backspace */
+	case 'f':	value = '\f';	break;	/* form-feed */
+	case 'n':	value = '\n';	break;	/* newline */
+	case 'r':	value = '\r';	break;	/* carriage-return */
+	case 't':	value = '\t';	break;	/* tab */
+	case 'v':	value = '\v';	break;	/* vertical-tab */
+	}
+
+	str++;
+out:
+	*conv_ch = value;
+	return str;
+}
+
+static char *
+mklong(const char *str, const char *ch)
+{
+	char *copy;
+	size_t len;
+
+	len = ch - str + 3;
+	STARTSTACKSTR(copy);
+	copy = makestrspace(len, copy);
+	memcpy(copy, str, len - 3);
+	copy[len - 3] = 'j';
+	copy[len - 2] = *ch;
+	copy[len - 1] = '\0';
+	return (copy);
+}
+
+static int
+getchr(void)
+{
+	int val = 0;
+
+	if (*gargv)
+		val = **gargv++;
+	return val;
+}
+
+static char *
+getstr(void)
+{
+	char *val = nullstr;
+
+	if (*gargv)
+		val = *gargv++;
+	return val;
+}
+
+static intmax_t
+getintmax(void)
+{
+	intmax_t val = 0;
+	char *cp, *ep;
+
+	cp = *gargv;
+	if (cp == NULL)
+		goto out;
+	gargv++;
+
+	val = (unsigned char) cp[1];
+	if (*cp == '\"' || *cp == '\'')
+		goto out;
+
+	errno = 0;
+	val = strtoimax(cp, &ep, 0);
+	check_conversion(cp, ep);
+out:
+	return val;
+}
+
+static uintmax_t
+getuintmax(void)
+{
+	uintmax_t val = 0;
+	char *cp, *ep;
+
+	cp = *gargv;
+	if (cp == NULL)
+		goto out;
+	gargv++;
+
+	val = (unsigned char) cp[1];
+	if (*cp == '\"' || *cp == '\'')
+		goto out;
+
+	errno = 0;
+	val = strtoumax(cp, &ep, 0);
+	check_conversion(cp, ep);
+out:
+	return val;
+}
+
+#ifdef HAVE_STRTOD
+static double
+getdouble(void)
+{
+	double val;
+	char *cp, *ep;
+
+	cp = *gargv;
+	if (cp == NULL)
+		return 0;
+	gargv++;
+
+	if (*cp == '\"' || *cp == '\'')
+		return (unsigned char) cp[1];
+
+	errno = 0;
+	val = strtod(cp, &ep);
+	check_conversion(cp, ep);
+	return val;
+}
+#endif
+
+static void
+check_conversion(const char *s, const char *ep)
+{
+	if (*ep) {
+		if (ep == s)
+			warnx("%s: expected numeric value", s);
+		else
+			warnx("%s: not completely converted", s);
+		rval = 1;
+	} else if (errno == ERANGE) {
+		warnx("%s: %s", s, strerror(ERANGE));
+		rval = 1;
+	}
+}
+
+int
+echocmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int nonl = 0;
+	struct output *outs = out1;
+
+	if (!*++argv)
+		goto end;
+	if (equal(*argv, "-n")) {
+		nonl = ~nonl;
+		if (!*++argv)
+			goto end;
+	}
+
+	do {
+		char c;
+
+		c = *(*argv)++;
+		if (!c)
+			goto next;
+		if (c != '\\')
+			goto print;
+
+		outstr(conv_escape_str(*argv - 1), outs);
+		if (rval & 0x100)
+			break;
+next:
+		c = ' ';
+		if (!*++argv) {
+end:
+			if (nonl) {
+				break;
+			}
+			c = '\n';
+		}
+print:
+		outc(c, outs);
+	} while (*argv);
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/bltin/test.1 b/usr/dash/bltin/test.1
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..42435fb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/bltin/test.1
@@ -0,0 +1,309 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+.\" Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+.\"	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\"    without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\"     @(#)test.1	8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+.\"
+.Dd May 31, 1993
+.Dt TEST 1
+.Os
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm test ,
+.Nm \&[
+.Nd condition evaluation utility
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm test
+.Ar expression
+.Nm \&[
+.Ar expression Cm ]
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
+.Nm test
+utility evaluates the expression and, if it evaluates
+to true, returns a zero (true) exit status; otherwise
+it returns 1 (false).
+If there is no expression, test also
+returns 1 (false).
+.Pp
+All operators and flags are separate arguments to the
+.Nm test
+utility.
+.Pp
+The following primaries are used to construct expression:
+.Bl -tag -width Ar
+.It Fl b Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is a block special
+file.
+.It Fl c Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is a character
+special file.
+.It Fl d Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is a directory.
+.It Fl e Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists (regardless of type).
+.It Fl f Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is a regular file.
+.It Fl g Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and its set group ID flag
+is set.
+.It Fl h Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is a symbolic link.
+.It Fl k Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and its sticky bit is set.
+.It Fl n Ar string
+True if the length of
+.Ar string
+is nonzero.
+.It Fl p Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+is a named pipe
+.Po Tn FIFO Pc .
+.It Fl r Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is readable.
+.It Fl s Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and has a size greater
+than zero.
+.It Fl t Ar file_descriptor
+True if the file whose file descriptor number
+is
+.Ar file_descriptor
+is open and is associated with a terminal.
+.It Fl u Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and its set user ID flag
+is set.
+.It Fl w Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is writable.
+True
+indicates only that the write flag is on.
+The file is not writable on a read-only file
+system even if this test indicates true.
+.It Fl x Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is executable.
+True
+indicates only that the execute flag is on.
+If
+.Ar file
+is a directory, true indicates that
+.Ar file
+can be searched.
+.It Fl z Ar string
+True if the length of
+.Ar string
+is zero.
+.It Fl L Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is a symbolic link.
+This operator is retained for compatibility with previous versions of
+this program.
+Do not rely on its existence; use
+.Fl h
+instead.
+.It Fl O Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and its owner matches the effective user id of this process.
+.It Fl G Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and its group matches the effective group id of this process.
+.It Fl S Ar file
+True if
+.Ar file
+exists and is a socket.
+.It Ar file1 Fl nt Ar file2
+True if
+.Ar file1
+exists and is newer than
+.Ar file2 .
+.It Ar file1 Fl ot Ar file2
+True if
+.Ar file1
+exists and is older than
+.Ar file2 .
+.It Ar file1 Fl ef Ar file2
+True if
+.Ar file1
+and
+.Ar file2
+exist and refer to the same file.
+.It Ar string
+True if
+.Ar string
+is not the null
+string.
+.It Ar \&s\&1 Cm \&= Ar \&s\&2
+True if the strings
+.Ar \&s\&1
+and
+.Ar \&s\&2
+are identical.
+.It Ar \&s\&1 Cm \&!= Ar \&s\&2
+True if the strings
+.Ar \&s\&1
+and
+.Ar \&s\&2
+are not identical.
+.It Ar \&s\&1 Cm \&\*[Lt] Ar \&s\&2
+True if string
+.Ar \&s\&1
+comes before
+.Ar \&s\&2
+based on the ASCII value of their characters.
+.It Ar \&s\&1 Cm \&\*[Gt] Ar \&s\&2
+True if string
+.Ar \&s\&1
+comes after
+.Ar \&s\&2
+based on the ASCII value of their characters.
+.It Ar \&n\&1 Fl \&eq Ar \&n\&2
+True if the integers
+.Ar \&n\&1
+and
+.Ar \&n\&2
+are algebraically
+equal.
+.It Ar \&n\&1 Fl \&ne Ar \&n\&2
+True if the integers
+.Ar \&n\&1
+and
+.Ar \&n\&2
+are not
+algebraically equal.
+.It Ar \&n\&1 Fl \&gt Ar \&n\&2
+True if the integer
+.Ar \&n\&1
+is algebraically
+greater than the integer
+.Ar \&n\&2 .
+.It Ar \&n\&1 Fl \&ge Ar \&n\&2
+True if the integer
+.Ar \&n\&1
+is algebraically
+greater than or equal to the integer
+.Ar \&n\&2 .
+.It Ar \&n\&1 Fl \&lt Ar \&n\&2
+True if the integer
+.Ar \&n\&1
+is algebraically less
+than the integer
+.Ar \&n\&2 .
+.It Ar \&n\&1 Fl \&le Ar \&n\&2
+True if the integer
+.Ar \&n\&1
+is algebraically less
+than or equal to the integer
+.Ar \&n\&2 .
+.El
+.Pp
+These primaries can be combined with the following operators:
+.Bl -tag -width Ar
+.It Cm \&! Ar expression
+True if
+.Ar expression
+is false.
+.It Ar expression1 Fl a Ar expression2
+True if both
+.Ar expression1
+and
+.Ar expression2
+are true.
+.It Ar expression1 Fl o Ar expression2
+True if either
+.Ar expression1
+or
+.Ar expression2
+are true.
+.It Cm \&( Ns Ar expression Ns Cm \&)
+True if expression is true.
+.El
+.Pp
+The
+.Fl a
+operator has higher precedence than the
+.Fl o
+operator.
+.Sh GRAMMAR AMBIGUITY
+The
+.Nm test
+grammar is inherently ambiguous.
+In order to assure a degree of consistency, the cases described in
+.St -p1003.2
+section 4.62.4,
+are evaluated consistently according to the rules specified in the
+standards document.
+All other cases are subject to the ambiguity in the command semantics.
+.Sh EXIT STATUS
+The
+.Nm test
+utility exits with one of the following values:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It 0
+expression evaluated to true.
+.It 1
+expression evaluated to false or expression was
+missing.
+.It \*[Gt]1
+An error occurred.
+.El
+.Sh STANDARDS
+The
+.Nm test
+utility implements a superset of the
+.St -p1003.2
+specification.
diff --git a/usr/dash/bltin/test.c b/usr/dash/bltin/test.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..77949de
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/bltin/test.c
@@ -0,0 +1,500 @@
+/*
+ * test(1); version 7-like  --  author Erik Baalbergen
+ * modified by Eric Gisin to be used as built-in.
+ * modified by Arnold Robbins to add SVR3 compatibility
+ * (-x -c -b -p -u -g -k) plus Korn's -L -nt -ot -ef and new -S (socket).
+ * modified by J.T. Conklin for NetBSD.
+ *
+ * This program is in the Public Domain.
+ */
+
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdarg.h>
+#include "bltin.h"
+
+/* test(1) accepts the following grammar:
+	oexpr	::= aexpr | aexpr "-o" oexpr ;
+	aexpr	::= nexpr | nexpr "-a" aexpr ;
+	nexpr	::= primary | "!" primary
+	primary	::= unary-operator operand
+		| operand binary-operator operand
+		| operand
+		| "(" oexpr ")"
+		;
+	unary-operator ::= "-r"|"-w"|"-x"|"-f"|"-d"|"-c"|"-b"|"-p"|
+		"-u"|"-g"|"-k"|"-s"|"-t"|"-z"|"-n"|"-o"|"-O"|"-G"|"-L"|"-S";
+
+	binary-operator ::= "="|"!="|"-eq"|"-ne"|"-ge"|"-gt"|"-le"|"-lt"|
+			"-nt"|"-ot"|"-ef";
+	operand ::= <any legal UNIX file name>
+*/
+
+enum token {
+	EOI,
+	FILRD,
+	FILWR,
+	FILEX,
+	FILEXIST,
+	FILREG,
+	FILDIR,
+	FILCDEV,
+	FILBDEV,
+	FILFIFO,
+	FILSOCK,
+	FILSYM,
+	FILGZ,
+	FILTT,
+	FILSUID,
+	FILSGID,
+	FILSTCK,
+	FILNT,
+	FILOT,
+	FILEQ,
+	FILUID,
+	FILGID,
+	STREZ,
+	STRNZ,
+	STREQ,
+	STRNE,
+	STRLT,
+	STRGT,
+	INTEQ,
+	INTNE,
+	INTGE,
+	INTGT,
+	INTLE,
+	INTLT,
+	UNOT,
+	BAND,
+	BOR,
+	LPAREN,
+	RPAREN,
+	OPERAND
+};
+
+enum token_types {
+	UNOP,
+	BINOP,
+	BUNOP,
+	BBINOP,
+	PAREN
+};
+
+static struct t_op {
+	const char *op_text;
+	short op_num, op_type;
+} const ops [] = {
+	{"-r",	FILRD,	UNOP},
+	{"-w",	FILWR,	UNOP},
+	{"-x",	FILEX,	UNOP},
+	{"-e",	FILEXIST,UNOP},
+	{"-f",	FILREG,	UNOP},
+	{"-d",	FILDIR,	UNOP},
+	{"-c",	FILCDEV,UNOP},
+	{"-b",	FILBDEV,UNOP},
+	{"-p",	FILFIFO,UNOP},
+	{"-u",	FILSUID,UNOP},
+	{"-g",	FILSGID,UNOP},
+	{"-k",	FILSTCK,UNOP},
+	{"-s",	FILGZ,	UNOP},
+	{"-t",	FILTT,	UNOP},
+	{"-z",	STREZ,	UNOP},
+	{"-n",	STRNZ,	UNOP},
+	{"-h",	FILSYM,	UNOP},		/* for backwards compat */
+	{"-O",	FILUID,	UNOP},
+	{"-G",	FILGID,	UNOP},
+	{"-L",	FILSYM,	UNOP},
+	{"-S",	FILSOCK,UNOP},
+	{"=",	STREQ,	BINOP},
+	{"!=",	STRNE,	BINOP},
+	{"<",	STRLT,	BINOP},
+	{">",	STRGT,	BINOP},
+	{"-eq",	INTEQ,	BINOP},
+	{"-ne",	INTNE,	BINOP},
+	{"-ge",	INTGE,	BINOP},
+	{"-gt",	INTGT,	BINOP},
+	{"-le",	INTLE,	BINOP},
+	{"-lt",	INTLT,	BINOP},
+	{"-nt",	FILNT,	BINOP},
+	{"-ot",	FILOT,	BINOP},
+	{"-ef",	FILEQ,	BINOP},
+	{"!",	UNOT,	BUNOP},
+	{"-a",	BAND,	BBINOP},
+	{"-o",	BOR,	BBINOP},
+	{"(",	LPAREN,	PAREN},
+	{")",	RPAREN,	PAREN},
+	{0,	0,	0}
+};
+
+static char **t_wp;
+static struct t_op const *t_wp_op;
+
+static void syntax(const char *, const char *);
+static int oexpr(enum token);
+static int aexpr(enum token);
+static int nexpr(enum token);
+static int primary(enum token);
+static int binop(void);
+static int filstat(char *, enum token);
+static enum token t_lex(char *);
+static int isoperand(void);
+static int getn(const char *);
+static int newerf(const char *, const char *);
+static int olderf(const char *, const char *);
+static int equalf(const char *, const char *);
+static int test_st_mode(const struct stat64 *, int);
+static int bash_group_member(gid_t);
+
+int
+testcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int res;
+
+	if (strcmp(argv[0], "[") == 0) {
+		if (strcmp(argv[--argc], "]"))
+			error("missing ]");
+		argv[argc] = NULL;
+	}
+
+	if (argc < 2)
+		return 1;
+
+	t_wp = &argv[1];
+	res = !oexpr(t_lex(*t_wp));
+
+	if (*t_wp != NULL && *++t_wp != NULL)
+		syntax(*t_wp, "unexpected operator");
+
+	return res;
+}
+
+static void
+syntax(const char *op, const char *msg)
+{
+	if (op && *op)
+		error("%s: %s", op, msg);
+	else
+		error("%s", msg);
+}
+
+static int
+oexpr(enum token n)
+{
+	int res;
+
+	res = aexpr(n);
+	if (t_lex(*++t_wp) == BOR)
+		return oexpr(t_lex(*++t_wp)) || res;
+	t_wp--;
+	return res;
+}
+
+static int
+aexpr(enum token n)
+{
+	int res;
+
+	res = nexpr(n);
+	if (t_lex(*++t_wp) == BAND)
+		return aexpr(t_lex(*++t_wp)) && res;
+	t_wp--;
+	return res;
+}
+
+static int
+nexpr(enum token n)
+{
+	if (n == UNOT)
+		return !nexpr(t_lex(*++t_wp));
+	return primary(n);
+}
+
+static int
+primary(enum token n)
+{
+	enum token nn;
+	int res;
+
+	if (n == EOI)
+		return 0;		/* missing expression */
+	if (n == LPAREN) {
+		if ((nn = t_lex(*++t_wp)) == RPAREN)
+			return 0;	/* missing expression */
+		res = oexpr(nn);
+		if (t_lex(*++t_wp) != RPAREN)
+			syntax(NULL, "closing paren expected");
+		return res;
+	}
+	if (t_wp_op && t_wp_op->op_type == UNOP) {
+		/* unary expression */
+		if (*++t_wp == NULL)
+			syntax(t_wp_op->op_text, "argument expected");
+		switch (n) {
+		case STREZ:
+			return strlen(*t_wp) == 0;
+		case STRNZ:
+			return strlen(*t_wp) != 0;
+		case FILTT:
+			return isatty(getn(*t_wp));
+		default:
+			return filstat(*t_wp, n);
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (t_lex(t_wp[1]), t_wp_op && t_wp_op->op_type == BINOP) {
+		return binop();
+	}
+
+	return strlen(*t_wp) > 0;
+}
+
+static int
+binop(void)
+{
+	const char *opnd1, *opnd2;
+	struct t_op const *op;
+
+	opnd1 = *t_wp;
+	(void) t_lex(*++t_wp);
+	op = t_wp_op;
+
+	if ((opnd2 = *++t_wp) == (char *)0)
+		syntax(op->op_text, "argument expected");
+
+	switch (op->op_num) {
+	default:
+#ifdef DEBUG
+		abort();
+		/* NOTREACHED */
+#endif
+	case STREQ:
+		return strcmp(opnd1, opnd2) == 0;
+	case STRNE:
+		return strcmp(opnd1, opnd2) != 0;
+	case STRLT:
+		return strcmp(opnd1, opnd2) < 0;
+	case STRGT:
+		return strcmp(opnd1, opnd2) > 0;
+	case INTEQ:
+		return getn(opnd1) == getn(opnd2);
+	case INTNE:
+		return getn(opnd1) != getn(opnd2);
+	case INTGE:
+		return getn(opnd1) >= getn(opnd2);
+	case INTGT:
+		return getn(opnd1) > getn(opnd2);
+	case INTLE:
+		return getn(opnd1) <= getn(opnd2);
+	case INTLT:
+		return getn(opnd1) < getn(opnd2);
+	case FILNT:
+		return newerf (opnd1, opnd2);
+	case FILOT:
+		return olderf (opnd1, opnd2);
+	case FILEQ:
+		return equalf (opnd1, opnd2);
+	}
+}
+
+static int
+filstat(char *nm, enum token mode)
+{
+	struct stat64 s;
+
+	if (mode == FILSYM ? lstat64(nm, &s) : stat64(nm, &s))
+		return 0;
+
+	switch (mode) {
+	case FILRD:
+		return test_st_mode(&s, R_OK);
+	case FILWR:
+		return test_st_mode(&s, W_OK);
+	case FILEX:
+		return test_st_mode(&s, X_OK);
+	case FILEXIST:
+		return 1;
+	case FILREG:
+		return S_ISREG(s.st_mode);
+	case FILDIR:
+		return S_ISDIR(s.st_mode);
+	case FILCDEV:
+		return S_ISCHR(s.st_mode);
+	case FILBDEV:
+		return S_ISBLK(s.st_mode);
+	case FILFIFO:
+		return S_ISFIFO(s.st_mode);
+	case FILSOCK:
+		return S_ISSOCK(s.st_mode);
+	case FILSYM:
+		return S_ISLNK(s.st_mode);
+	case FILSUID:
+		return (s.st_mode & S_ISUID) != 0;
+	case FILSGID:
+		return (s.st_mode & S_ISGID) != 0;
+	case FILSTCK:
+		return (s.st_mode & S_ISVTX) != 0;
+	case FILGZ:
+		return !!s.st_size;
+	case FILUID:
+		return s.st_uid == geteuid();
+	case FILGID:
+		return s.st_gid == getegid();
+	default:
+		return 1;
+	}
+}
+
+static enum token
+t_lex(char *s)
+{
+	struct t_op const *op;
+
+	op = ops;
+
+	if (s == 0) {
+		t_wp_op = (struct t_op *)0;
+		return EOI;
+	}
+	while (op->op_text) {
+		if (strcmp(s, op->op_text) == 0) {
+			if ((op->op_type == UNOP && isoperand()) ||
+			    (op->op_num == LPAREN && *(t_wp+1) == 0))
+				break;
+			t_wp_op = op;
+			return op->op_num;
+		}
+		op++;
+	}
+	t_wp_op = (struct t_op *)0;
+	return OPERAND;
+}
+
+static int
+isoperand(void)
+{
+	struct t_op const *op;
+	char *s, *t;
+
+	op = ops;
+	if ((s  = *(t_wp+1)) == 0)
+		return 1;
+	if ((t = *(t_wp+2)) == 0)
+		return 0;
+	while (op->op_text) {
+		if (strcmp(s, op->op_text) == 0)
+	    		return op->op_type == BINOP &&
+	    		    (t[0] != ')' || t[1] != '\0');
+		op++;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* atoi with error detection */
+static int
+getn(const char *s)
+{
+	char *p;
+	long r;
+
+	errno = 0;
+	r = strtol(s, &p, 10);
+
+	if (errno != 0)
+	      error("%s: out of range", s);
+
+	while (isspace((unsigned char)*p))
+	      p++;
+
+	if (*p)
+	      error("%s: bad number", s);
+
+	return (int) r;
+}
+
+static int
+newerf (const char *f1, const char *f2)
+{
+	struct stat b1, b2;
+
+	return (stat (f1, &b1) == 0 &&
+		stat (f2, &b2) == 0 &&
+		b1.st_mtime > b2.st_mtime);
+}
+
+static int
+olderf (const char *f1, const char *f2)
+{
+	struct stat b1, b2;
+
+	return (stat (f1, &b1) == 0 &&
+		stat (f2, &b2) == 0 &&
+		b1.st_mtime < b2.st_mtime);
+}
+
+static int
+equalf (const char *f1, const char *f2)
+{
+	struct stat b1, b2;
+
+	return (stat (f1, &b1) == 0 &&
+		stat (f2, &b2) == 0 &&
+		b1.st_dev == b2.st_dev &&
+		b1.st_ino == b2.st_ino);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Similar to what access(2) does, but uses the effective uid and gid.
+ * Doesn't make the mistake of telling root that any file is executable.
+ * Returns non-zero if the file is accessible.
+ */
+static int
+test_st_mode(const struct stat64 *st, int mode)
+{
+	int euid = geteuid();
+
+	if (euid == 0) {
+		/* Root can read or write any file. */
+		if (mode != X_OK)
+			return 1;
+
+		/* Root can execute any file that has any one of the execute
+		   bits set. */
+		mode = S_IXUSR | S_IXGRP | S_IXOTH;
+	} else if (st->st_uid == euid)
+		mode <<= 6;
+	else if (bash_group_member(st->st_gid))
+		mode <<= 3;
+
+	return st->st_mode & mode;
+}
+
+/* Return non-zero if GID is one that we have in our groups list. */
+static int
+bash_group_member(gid_t gid)
+{
+	register int i;
+	gid_t *group_array;
+	int ngroups;
+
+	/* Short-circuit if possible, maybe saving a call to getgroups(). */
+	if (gid == getgid() || gid == getegid())
+		return (1);
+
+	ngroups = getgroups(0, NULL);
+	group_array = stalloc(ngroups * sizeof(gid_t));
+	getgroups(ngroups, group_array);
+
+	/* Search through the list looking for GID. */
+	for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++)
+		if (gid == group_array[i])
+			return (1);
+
+	return (0);
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/builtins.def.in b/usr/dash/builtins.def.in
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cfb69d7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/builtins.def.in
@@ -0,0 +1,92 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)builtins.def	8.4 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file lists all the builtin commands.  The first column is the name
+ * of a C routine.
+ * The -a flag specifies that this is a posix 'assignment builtin' command.
+ * The -s flag specifies that this is a posix 'special builtin' command.
+ * The -u flag specifies that this is a posix 'standard utility'.
+ * The rest of the line specifies the command name or names used to run
+ * the command.
+ */
+
+#ifndef JOBS
+#define JOBS 1
+#endif
+
+#if JOBS
+bgcmd		-u bg
+fgcmd		-u fg
+#endif
+
+#ifndef SMALL
+histcmd		-u fc
+#endif
+
+breakcmd	-s break -s continue
+cdcmd		-u cd chdir
+commandcmd	-u command
+dotcmd		-s .
+echocmd		echo
+evalcmd		-s eval
+execcmd		-s exec
+exitcmd		-s exit
+exportcmd	-as export -as readonly
+falsecmd	-u false
+getoptscmd	-u getopts
+hashcmd		hash
+jobscmd		-u jobs
+localcmd	-a local
+printfcmd	printf
+pwdcmd		pwd
+readcmd		-u read
+returncmd	-s return
+setcmd		-s set
+shiftcmd	-s shift
+trapcmd		-s trap
+truecmd		-s : -u true
+typecmd		type
+umaskcmd	-u umask
+unaliascmd	-u unalias
+unsetcmd	-s unset
+waitcmd		-u wait
+aliascmd	-au alias
+#ifdef HAVE_GETRLIMIT
+ulimitcmd	ulimit
+#endif
+testcmd		test [
+killcmd		-u kill
diff --git a/usr/dash/cd.c b/usr/dash/cd.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..567393f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/cd.c
@@ -0,0 +1,304 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+/*
+ * The cd and pwd commands.
+ */
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "var.h"
+#include "nodes.h"	/* for jobs.h */
+#include "jobs.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "exec.h"
+#include "redir.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+#include "show.h"
+#include "cd.h"
+
+#define CD_PHYSICAL 1
+#define CD_PRINT 2
+
+STATIC int docd(const char *, int);
+STATIC const char *updatepwd(const char *);
+STATIC char *getpwd(void);
+STATIC int cdopt(void);
+
+STATIC char *curdir = nullstr;		/* current working directory */
+STATIC char *physdir = nullstr;		/* physical working directory */
+
+STATIC int
+cdopt()
+{
+	int flags = 0;
+	int i, j;
+
+	j = 'L';
+	while ((i = nextopt("LP"))) {
+		if (i != j) {
+			flags ^= CD_PHYSICAL;
+			j = i;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return flags;
+}
+
+int
+cdcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	const char *dest;
+	const char *path;
+	const char *p;
+	char c;
+	struct stat statb;
+	int flags;
+
+	flags = cdopt();
+	dest = *argptr;
+	if (!dest)
+		dest = bltinlookup(homestr);
+	else if (dest[0] == '-' && dest[1] == '\0') {
+		dest = bltinlookup("OLDPWD");
+		flags |= CD_PRINT;
+	}
+	if (!dest)
+		dest = nullstr;
+	if (*dest == '/')
+		goto step7;
+	if (*dest == '.') {
+		c = dest[1];
+dotdot:
+		switch (c) {
+		case '\0':
+		case '/':
+			goto step6;
+		case '.':
+			c = dest[2];
+			if (c != '.')
+				goto dotdot;
+		}
+	}
+	if (!*dest)
+		dest = ".";
+	if (!(path = bltinlookup("CDPATH"))) {
+step6:
+step7:
+		p = dest;
+		goto docd;
+	}
+	do {
+		c = *path;
+		p = padvance(&path, dest);
+		if (stat(p, &statb) >= 0 && S_ISDIR(statb.st_mode)) {
+			if (c && c != ':')
+				flags |= CD_PRINT;
+docd:
+			if (!docd(p, flags))
+				goto out;
+			break;
+		}
+	} while (path);
+	sh_error("can't cd to %s", dest);
+	/* NOTREACHED */
+out:
+	if (flags & CD_PRINT)
+		out1fmt(snlfmt, curdir);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Actually do the chdir.  We also call hashcd to let the routines in exec.c
+ * know that the current directory has changed.
+ */
+
+STATIC int
+docd(const char *dest, int flags)
+{
+	const char *dir = 0;
+	int err;
+
+	TRACE(("docd(\"%s\", %d) called\n", dest, flags));
+
+	INTOFF;
+	if (!(flags & CD_PHYSICAL)) {
+		dir = updatepwd(dest);
+		if (dir)
+			dest = dir;
+	}
+	err = chdir(dest);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+	setpwd(dir, 1);
+	hashcd();
+out:
+	INTON;
+	return err;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Update curdir (the name of the current directory) in response to a
+ * cd command.
+ */
+
+STATIC const char *
+updatepwd(const char *dir)
+{
+	char *new;
+	char *p;
+	char *cdcomppath;
+	const char *lim;
+
+	cdcomppath = sstrdup(dir);
+	STARTSTACKSTR(new);
+	if (*dir != '/') {
+		if (curdir == nullstr)
+			return 0;
+		new = stputs(curdir, new);
+	}
+	new = makestrspace(strlen(dir) + 2, new);
+	lim = stackblock() + 1;
+	if (*dir != '/') {
+		if (new[-1] != '/')
+			USTPUTC('/', new);
+		if (new > lim && *lim == '/')
+			lim++;
+	} else {
+		USTPUTC('/', new);
+		cdcomppath++;
+		if (dir[1] == '/' && dir[2] != '/') {
+			USTPUTC('/', new);
+			cdcomppath++;
+			lim++;
+		}
+	}
+	p = strtok(cdcomppath, "/");
+	while (p) {
+		switch(*p) {
+		case '.':
+			if (p[1] == '.' && p[2] == '\0') {
+				while (new > lim) {
+					STUNPUTC(new);
+					if (new[-1] == '/')
+						break;
+				}
+				break;
+			} else if (p[1] == '\0')
+				break;
+			/* fall through */
+		default:
+			new = stputs(p, new);
+			USTPUTC('/', new);
+		}
+		p = strtok(0, "/");
+	}
+	if (new > lim)
+		STUNPUTC(new);
+	*new = 0;
+	return stackblock();
+}
+
+
+#define MAXPWD 256
+
+/*
+ * Find out what the current directory is. If we already know the current
+ * directory, this routine returns immediately.
+ */
+inline
+STATIC char *
+getpwd()
+{
+	char buf[PATH_MAX];
+	char *dir = getcwd(buf, sizeof(buf));
+	return dir ? savestr(dir) : nullstr;
+}
+
+int
+pwdcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int flags;
+	const char *dir = curdir;
+
+	flags = cdopt();
+	if (flags) {
+		if (physdir == nullstr)
+			setpwd(dir, 0);
+		dir = physdir;
+	}
+	out1fmt(snlfmt, dir);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+void
+setpwd(const char *val, int setold)
+{
+	char *oldcur, *dir;
+
+	oldcur = dir = curdir;
+
+	if (setold) {
+		setvar("OLDPWD", oldcur, VEXPORT);
+	}
+	INTOFF;
+	if (physdir != nullstr) {
+		if (physdir != oldcur)
+			free(physdir);
+		physdir = nullstr;
+	}
+	if (oldcur == val || !val) {
+		char *s = getpwd();
+		physdir = s;
+		if (!val)
+			dir = s;
+	} else
+		dir = savestr(val);
+	if (oldcur != dir && oldcur != nullstr) {
+		free(oldcur);
+	}
+	curdir = dir;
+	INTON;
+	setvar("PWD", dir, VEXPORT);
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/cd.h b/usr/dash/cd.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8763161
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/cd.h
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1995
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ */
+
+int	cdcmd(int, char **);
+int	pwdcmd(int, char **);
+void	setpwd(const char *, int);
diff --git a/usr/dash/config.h b/usr/dash/config.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1b587cc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/config.h
@@ -0,0 +1,85 @@
+/* config.h.  Generated by configure.  */
+/* config.h.in.  Generated from configure.ac by autoheader.  */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `bsearch' function. */
+#define HAVE_BSEARCH 1
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `getpwnam' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_GETPWNAM */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `getrlimit' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_GETRLIMIT */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `isalpha' function. */
+#define HAVE_ISALPHA 1
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `killpg' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_KILLPG */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `mempcpy' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_MEMPCPY */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `sigsetmask' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_SIGSETMASK */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `stpcpy' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_STPCPY */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `strchrnul' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_STRCHRNUL */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `strsignal' function. */
+#define HAVE_STRSIGNAL 1
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `strtod' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_STRTOD */
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `strtoimax' function. */
+#define HAVE_STRTOIMAX 1
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `strtoumax' function. */
+#define HAVE_STRTOUMAX 1
+
+/* Define to 1 if you have the `sysconf' function. */
+/* #undef HAVE_SYSCONF */
+
+/* Name of package */
+#define PACKAGE "dash"
+
+/* Define to the address where bug reports for this package should be sent. */
+#define PACKAGE_BUGREPORT ""
+
+/* Define to the full name of this package. */
+#define PACKAGE_NAME "dash"
+
+/* Define to the full name and version of this package. */
+#define PACKAGE_STRING "dash 0.5.2"
+
+/* Define to the one symbol short name of this package. */
+#define PACKAGE_TARNAME "dash"
+
+/* Define to the version of this package. */
+#define PACKAGE_VERSION "0.5.2"
+
+/* Version number of package */
+#define VERSION "0.5.2"
+
+/* Enable GNU extensions on systems that have them.  */
+#ifndef _GNU_SOURCE
+# define _GNU_SOURCE 1
+#endif
+
+/* 64-bit operations are the same as 32-bit */
+#define fstat64 fstat
+
+/* 64-bit operations are the same as 32-bit */
+#define lstat64 lstat
+
+/* 64-bit operations are the same as 32-bit */
+#define open64 open
+
+/* klibc has bsd_signal instead of signal */
+#define signal bsd_signal
+
+/* 64-bit operations are the same as 32-bit */
+#define stat64 stat
diff --git a/usr/dash/error.c b/usr/dash/error.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..338243d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/error.c
@@ -0,0 +1,233 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * Errors and exceptions.
+ */
+
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "main.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "show.h"
+#include "eval.h"
+#include "parser.h"
+#include "trap.h"
+#include "system.h"
+
+
+/*
+ * Code to handle exceptions in C.
+ */
+
+struct jmploc *handler;
+int exception;
+int suppressint;
+volatile sig_atomic_t intpending;
+
+
+static void exverror(int, const char *, va_list)
+    __attribute__((__noreturn__));
+
+/*
+ * Called to raise an exception.  Since C doesn't include exceptions, we
+ * just do a longjmp to the exception handler.  The type of exception is
+ * stored in the global variable "exception".
+ */
+
+void
+exraise(int e)
+{
+#ifdef DEBUG
+	if (handler == NULL)
+		abort();
+#endif
+	INTOFF;
+
+	exception = e;
+	longjmp(handler->loc, 1);
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Called from trap.c when a SIGINT is received.  (If the user specifies
+ * that SIGINT is to be trapped or ignored using the trap builtin, then
+ * this routine is not called.)  Suppressint is nonzero when interrupts
+ * are held using the INTOFF macro.  (The test for iflag is just
+ * defensive programming.)
+ */
+
+void
+onint(void) {
+	int i;
+
+	intpending = 0;
+	sigclearmask();
+	i = EXSIG;
+	if (gotsig[SIGINT - 1] && !trap[SIGINT]) {
+		if (!(rootshell && iflag)) {
+			signal(SIGINT, SIG_DFL);
+			raise(SIGINT);
+		}
+		i = EXINT;
+	}
+	exraise(i);
+	/* NOTREACHED */
+}
+
+static void
+exvwarning2(const char *msg, va_list ap)
+{
+	struct output *errs;
+	const char *name;
+	const char *fmt;
+
+	errs = out2;
+	name = arg0;
+	fmt = "%s: ";
+	if (commandname) {
+		name = commandname;
+		fmt = "%s: %d: ";
+	}
+	outfmt(errs, fmt, name, startlinno);
+	doformat(errs, msg, ap);
+#if FLUSHERR
+	outc('\n', errs);
+#else
+	outcslow('\n', errs);
+#endif
+}
+
+#define exvwarning(a, b, c) exvwarning2(b, c)
+
+/*
+ * Exverror is called to raise the error exception.  If the second argument
+ * is not NULL then error prints an error message using printf style
+ * formatting.  It then raises the error exception.
+ */
+static void
+exverror(int cond, const char *msg, va_list ap)
+{
+#ifdef DEBUG
+	if (msg) {
+		TRACE(("exverror(%d, \"", cond));
+		TRACEV((msg, ap));
+		TRACE(("\") pid=%d\n", getpid()));
+	} else
+		TRACE(("exverror(%d, NULL) pid=%d\n", cond, getpid()));
+	if (msg)
+#endif
+		exvwarning(-1, msg, ap);
+
+	flushall();
+	exraise(cond);
+	/* NOTREACHED */
+}
+
+
+void
+sh_error(const char *msg, ...)
+{
+	va_list ap;
+
+	va_start(ap, msg);
+	exverror(EXERROR, msg, ap);
+	/* NOTREACHED */
+	va_end(ap);
+}
+
+
+void
+exerror(int cond, const char *msg, ...)
+{
+	va_list ap;
+
+	va_start(ap, msg);
+	exverror(cond, msg, ap);
+	/* NOTREACHED */
+	va_end(ap);
+}
+
+/*
+ * error/warning routines for external builtins
+ */
+
+void
+sh_warnx(const char *fmt, ...)
+{
+	va_list ap;
+
+	va_start(ap, fmt);
+	exvwarning(-1, fmt, ap);
+	va_end(ap);
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Return a string describing an error.  The returned string may be a
+ * pointer to a static buffer that will be overwritten on the next call.
+ * Action describes the operation that got the error.
+ */
+
+const char *
+errmsg(int e, int action)
+{
+	if (e != ENOENT && e != ENOTDIR)
+		return strerror(e);
+
+	if (action & E_OPEN)
+		return "No such file";
+	else if (action & E_CREAT)
+		return "Directory nonexistent";
+	else
+		return "not found";
+}
+
+
+#ifdef REALLY_SMALL
+void
+__inton() {
+	if (--suppressint == 0 && intpending) {
+		onint();
+	}
+}
+#endif
diff --git a/usr/dash/error.h b/usr/dash/error.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..326600b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/error.h
@@ -0,0 +1,145 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)error.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+#ifndef DASH_ERROR_H
+#define DASH_ERROR_H
+
+#include <setjmp.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+
+/*
+ * Types of operations (passed to the errmsg routine).
+ */
+
+#define E_OPEN 01	/* opening a file */
+#define E_CREAT 02	/* creating a file */
+#define E_EXEC 04	/* executing a program */
+
+
+/*
+ * We enclose jmp_buf in a structure so that we can declare pointers to
+ * jump locations.  The global variable handler contains the location to
+ * jump to when an exception occurs, and the global variable exception
+ * contains a code identifying the exeception.  To implement nested
+ * exception handlers, the user should save the value of handler on entry
+ * to an inner scope, set handler to point to a jmploc structure for the
+ * inner scope, and restore handler on exit from the scope.
+ */
+
+struct jmploc {
+	jmp_buf loc;
+};
+
+extern struct jmploc *handler;
+extern int exception;
+
+/* exceptions */
+#define EXINT 0		/* SIGINT received */
+#define EXERROR 1	/* a generic error */
+#define EXSHELLPROC 2	/* execute a shell procedure */
+#define EXEXEC 3	/* command execution failed */
+#define EXEXIT 4	/* exit the shell */
+#define EXSIG 5		/* trapped signal in wait(1) */
+
+
+/*
+ * These macros allow the user to suspend the handling of interrupt signals
+ * over a period of time.  This is similar to SIGHOLD to or sigblock, but
+ * much more efficient and portable.  (But hacking the kernel is so much
+ * more fun than worrying about efficiency and portability. :-))
+ */
+
+extern int suppressint;
+extern volatile sig_atomic_t intpending;
+extern int exsig;
+
+#define barrier() ({ __asm__ __volatile__ ("": : :"memory"); })
+#define INTOFF \
+	({ \
+		suppressint++; \
+		barrier(); \
+		0; \
+	})
+#ifdef REALLY_SMALL
+void __inton(void);
+#define INTON __inton()
+#else
+#define INTON \
+	({ \
+		barrier(); \
+		if (--suppressint == 0 && intpending) onint(); \
+		0; \
+	})
+#endif
+#define FORCEINTON \
+	({ \
+		barrier(); \
+		suppressint = 0; \
+		if (intpending) onint(); \
+		0; \
+	})
+#define SAVEINT(v) ((v) = suppressint)
+#define RESTOREINT(v) \
+	({ \
+		barrier(); \
+		if ((suppressint = (v)) == 0 && intpending) onint(); \
+		0; \
+	})
+#define CLEAR_PENDING_INT intpending = 0
+#define int_pending() intpending
+#define EXSIGON() \
+	({ \
+		exsig++; \
+		barrier(); \
+		if (pendingsigs) \
+			exraise(EXSIG); \
+		0; \
+	})
+/* EXSIG is turned off by evalbltin(). */
+
+void exraise(int) __attribute__((__noreturn__));
+#ifdef USE_NORETURN
+void onint(void) __attribute__((__noreturn__));
+#else
+void onint(void);
+#endif
+void sh_error(const char *, ...) __attribute__((__noreturn__));
+void exerror(int, const char *, ...) __attribute__((__noreturn__));
+const char *errmsg(int, int);
+
+void sh_warnx(const char *, ...);
+
+#endif		/* DASH_ERROR_H */
diff --git a/usr/dash/eval.c b/usr/dash/eval.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..44ba850
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/eval.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1100 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+
+/*
+ * Evaluate a command.
+ */
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "nodes.h"
+#include "syntax.h"
+#include "expand.h"
+#include "parser.h"
+#include "jobs.h"
+#include "eval.h"
+#include "builtins.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "exec.h"
+#include "redir.h"
+#include "input.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "trap.h"
+#include "var.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "show.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+#ifndef SMALL
+#include "myhistedit.h"
+#endif
+
+
+/* flags in argument to evaltree */
+#define EV_EXIT 01		/* exit after evaluating tree */
+#define EV_TESTED 02		/* exit status is checked; ignore -e flag */
+#define EV_BACKCMD 04		/* command executing within back quotes */
+
+int evalskip;			/* set if we are skipping commands */
+STATIC int skipcount;		/* number of levels to skip */
+MKINIT int loopnest;		/* current loop nesting level */
+static int funcnest;		/* depth of function calls */
+
+
+char *commandname;
+struct strlist *cmdenviron;
+int exitstatus;			/* exit status of last command */
+int back_exitstatus;		/* exit status of backquoted command */
+
+
+#if !defined(__alpha__) || (defined(__GNUC__) && __GNUC__ >= 3)
+STATIC
+#endif
+void evaltreenr(union node *, int) __attribute__ ((__noreturn__));
+STATIC void evalloop(union node *, int);
+STATIC void evalfor(union node *, int);
+STATIC void evalcase(union node *, int);
+STATIC void evalsubshell(union node *, int);
+STATIC void expredir(union node *);
+STATIC void evalpipe(union node *, int);
+#ifdef notyet
+STATIC void evalcommand(union node *, int, struct backcmd *);
+#else
+STATIC void evalcommand(union node *, int);
+#endif
+STATIC int evalbltin(const struct builtincmd *, int, char **);
+STATIC int evalfun(struct funcnode *, int, char **, int);
+STATIC void prehash(union node *);
+STATIC int eprintlist(struct output *, struct strlist *, int);
+STATIC int bltincmd(int, char **);
+
+
+STATIC const struct builtincmd bltin = {
+	name: nullstr,
+	builtin: bltincmd
+};
+
+
+/*
+ * Called to reset things after an exception.
+ */
+
+#ifdef mkinit
+INCLUDE "eval.h"
+
+RESET {
+	evalskip = 0;
+	loopnest = 0;
+}
+#endif
+
+
+
+/*
+ * The eval commmand.
+ */
+
+int
+evalcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+        char *p;
+        char *concat;
+        char **ap;
+
+        if (argc > 1) {
+                p = argv[1];
+                if (argc > 2) {
+                        STARTSTACKSTR(concat);
+                        ap = argv + 2;
+                        for (;;) {
+                        	concat = stputs(p, concat);
+                                if ((p = *ap++) == NULL)
+                                        break;
+                                STPUTC(' ', concat);
+                        }
+                        STPUTC('\0', concat);
+                        p = grabstackstr(concat);
+                }
+                evalstring(p, ~SKIPEVAL);
+
+        }
+        return exitstatus;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Execute a command or commands contained in a string.
+ */
+
+int
+evalstring(char *s, int mask)
+{
+	union node *n;
+	struct stackmark smark;
+	int skip;
+
+	setinputstring(s);
+	setstackmark(&smark);
+
+	skip = 0;
+	while ((n = parsecmd(0)) != NEOF) {
+		evaltree(n, 0);
+		popstackmark(&smark);
+		skip = evalskip;
+		if (skip)
+			break;
+	}
+	popfile();
+
+	skip &= mask;
+	evalskip = skip;
+	return skip;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Evaluate a parse tree.  The value is left in the global variable
+ * exitstatus.
+ */
+
+void
+evaltree(union node *n, int flags)
+{
+	int checkexit = 0;
+	void (*evalfn)(union node *, int);
+	unsigned isor;
+	int status;
+	if (n == NULL) {
+		TRACE(("evaltree(NULL) called\n"));
+		goto out;
+	}
+#ifndef SMALL
+	displayhist = 1;	/* show history substitutions done with fc */
+#endif
+	TRACE(("pid %d, evaltree(%p: %d, %d) called\n",
+	    getpid(), n, n->type, flags));
+	switch (n->type) {
+	default:
+#ifdef DEBUG
+		out1fmt("Node type = %d\n", n->type);
+#ifndef USE_GLIBC_STDIO
+		flushout(out1);
+#endif
+		break;
+#endif
+	case NNOT:
+		evaltree(n->nnot.com, EV_TESTED);
+		status = !exitstatus;
+		goto setstatus;
+	case NREDIR:
+		expredir(n->nredir.redirect);
+		status = redirectsafe(n->nredir.redirect, REDIR_PUSH);
+		if (!status) {
+			evaltree(n->nredir.n, flags & EV_TESTED);
+			status = exitstatus;
+		}
+		popredir(0);
+		goto setstatus;
+	case NCMD:
+#ifdef notyet
+		if (eflag && !(flags & EV_TESTED))
+			checkexit = ~0;
+		evalcommand(n, flags, (struct backcmd *)NULL);
+		break;
+#else
+		evalfn = evalcommand;
+checkexit:
+		if (eflag && !(flags & EV_TESTED))
+			checkexit = ~0;
+		goto calleval;
+#endif
+	case NFOR:
+		evalfn = evalfor;
+		goto calleval;
+	case NWHILE:
+	case NUNTIL:
+		evalfn = evalloop;
+		goto calleval;
+	case NSUBSHELL:
+	case NBACKGND:
+		evalfn = evalsubshell;
+		goto calleval;
+	case NPIPE:
+		evalfn = evalpipe;
+#ifdef notyet
+		if (eflag && !(flags & EV_TESTED))
+			checkexit = ~0;
+		goto calleval;
+#else
+		goto checkexit;
+#endif
+	case NCASE:
+		evalfn = evalcase;
+		goto calleval;
+	case NAND:
+	case NOR:
+	case NSEMI:
+#if NAND + 1 != NOR
+#error NAND + 1 != NOR
+#endif
+#if NOR + 1 != NSEMI
+#error NOR + 1 != NSEMI
+#endif
+		isor = n->type - NAND;
+		evaltree(
+			n->nbinary.ch1,
+			(flags | ((isor >> 1) - 1)) & EV_TESTED
+		);
+		if (!exitstatus == isor)
+			break;
+		if (!evalskip) {
+			n = n->nbinary.ch2;
+evaln:
+			evalfn = evaltree;
+calleval:
+			evalfn(n, flags);
+			break;
+		}
+		break;
+	case NIF:
+		evaltree(n->nif.test, EV_TESTED);
+		if (evalskip)
+			break;
+		if (exitstatus == 0) {
+			n = n->nif.ifpart;
+			goto evaln;
+		} else if (n->nif.elsepart) {
+			n = n->nif.elsepart;
+			goto evaln;
+		}
+		goto success;
+	case NDEFUN:
+		defun(n->narg.text, n->narg.next);
+success:
+		status = 0;
+setstatus:
+		exitstatus = status;
+		break;
+	}
+out:
+	if ((checkexit & exitstatus))
+		evalskip |= SKIPEVAL;
+	else if (pendingsigs && dotrap())
+		goto exexit;
+
+	if (flags & EV_EXIT) {
+exexit:
+		exraise(EXEXIT);
+	}
+}
+
+
+#if !defined(__alpha__) || (defined(__GNUC__) && __GNUC__ >= 3)
+STATIC
+#endif
+void evaltreenr(union node *, int) __attribute__ ((alias("evaltree")));
+
+
+STATIC void
+evalloop(union node *n, int flags)
+{
+	int status;
+
+	loopnest++;
+	status = 0;
+	flags &= EV_TESTED;
+	for (;;) {
+		int i;
+
+		evaltree(n->nbinary.ch1, EV_TESTED);
+		if (evalskip) {
+skipping:	  if (evalskip == SKIPCONT && --skipcount <= 0) {
+				evalskip = 0;
+				continue;
+			}
+			if (evalskip == SKIPBREAK && --skipcount <= 0)
+				evalskip = 0;
+			break;
+		}
+		i = exitstatus;
+		if (n->type != NWHILE)
+			i = !i;
+		if (i != 0)
+			break;
+		evaltree(n->nbinary.ch2, flags);
+		status = exitstatus;
+		if (evalskip)
+			goto skipping;
+	}
+	loopnest--;
+	exitstatus = status;
+}
+
+
+
+STATIC void
+evalfor(union node *n, int flags)
+{
+	struct arglist arglist;
+	union node *argp;
+	struct strlist *sp;
+	struct stackmark smark;
+
+	setstackmark(&smark);
+	arglist.lastp = &arglist.list;
+	for (argp = n->nfor.args ; argp ; argp = argp->narg.next) {
+		expandarg(argp, &arglist, EXP_FULL | EXP_TILDE | EXP_RECORD);
+		/* XXX */
+		if (evalskip)
+			goto out;
+	}
+	*arglist.lastp = NULL;
+
+	exitstatus = 0;
+	loopnest++;
+	flags &= EV_TESTED;
+	for (sp = arglist.list ; sp ; sp = sp->next) {
+		setvar(n->nfor.var, sp->text, 0);
+		evaltree(n->nfor.body, flags);
+		if (evalskip) {
+			if (evalskip == SKIPCONT && --skipcount <= 0) {
+				evalskip = 0;
+				continue;
+			}
+			if (evalskip == SKIPBREAK && --skipcount <= 0)
+				evalskip = 0;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	loopnest--;
+out:
+	popstackmark(&smark);
+}
+
+
+
+STATIC void
+evalcase(union node *n, int flags)
+{
+	union node *cp;
+	union node *patp;
+	struct arglist arglist;
+	struct stackmark smark;
+
+	setstackmark(&smark);
+	arglist.lastp = &arglist.list;
+	expandarg(n->ncase.expr, &arglist, EXP_TILDE);
+	exitstatus = 0;
+	for (cp = n->ncase.cases ; cp && evalskip == 0 ; cp = cp->nclist.next) {
+		for (patp = cp->nclist.pattern ; patp ; patp = patp->narg.next) {
+			if (casematch(patp, arglist.list->text)) {
+				if (evalskip == 0) {
+					evaltree(cp->nclist.body, flags);
+				}
+				goto out;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+out:
+	popstackmark(&smark);
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Kick off a subshell to evaluate a tree.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+evalsubshell(union node *n, int flags)
+{
+	struct job *jp;
+	int backgnd = (n->type == NBACKGND);
+	int status;
+
+	expredir(n->nredir.redirect);
+	if (!backgnd && flags & EV_EXIT && !trap[0])
+		goto nofork;
+	INTOFF;
+	jp = makejob(n, 1);
+	if (forkshell(jp, n, backgnd) == 0) {
+		INTON;
+		flags |= EV_EXIT;
+		if (backgnd)
+			flags &=~ EV_TESTED;
+nofork:
+		redirect(n->nredir.redirect, 0);
+		evaltreenr(n->nredir.n, flags);
+		/* never returns */
+	}
+	status = 0;
+	if (! backgnd)
+		status = waitforjob(jp);
+	exitstatus = status;
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Compute the names of the files in a redirection list.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+expredir(union node *n)
+{
+	union node *redir;
+
+	for (redir = n ; redir ; redir = redir->nfile.next) {
+		struct arglist fn;
+		fn.lastp = &fn.list;
+		switch (redir->type) {
+		case NFROMTO:
+		case NFROM:
+		case NTO:
+		case NCLOBBER:
+		case NAPPEND:
+			expandarg(redir->nfile.fname, &fn, EXP_TILDE | EXP_REDIR);
+			redir->nfile.expfname = fn.list->text;
+			break;
+		case NFROMFD:
+		case NTOFD:
+			if (redir->ndup.vname) {
+				expandarg(redir->ndup.vname, &fn, EXP_FULL | EXP_TILDE);
+				fixredir(redir, fn.list->text, 1);
+			}
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Evaluate a pipeline.  All the processes in the pipeline are children
+ * of the process creating the pipeline.  (This differs from some versions
+ * of the shell, which make the last process in a pipeline the parent
+ * of all the rest.)
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+evalpipe(union node *n, int flags)
+{
+	struct job *jp;
+	struct nodelist *lp;
+	int pipelen;
+	int prevfd;
+	int pip[2];
+
+	TRACE(("evalpipe(0x%lx) called\n", (long)n));
+	pipelen = 0;
+	for (lp = n->npipe.cmdlist ; lp ; lp = lp->next)
+		pipelen++;
+	flags |= EV_EXIT;
+	INTOFF;
+	jp = makejob(n, pipelen);
+	prevfd = -1;
+	for (lp = n->npipe.cmdlist ; lp ; lp = lp->next) {
+		prehash(lp->n);
+		pip[1] = -1;
+		if (lp->next) {
+			if (pipe(pip) < 0) {
+				close(prevfd);
+				sh_error("Pipe call failed");
+			}
+		}
+		if (forkshell(jp, lp->n, n->npipe.backgnd) == 0) {
+			INTON;
+			if (pip[1] >= 0) {
+				close(pip[0]);
+			}
+			if (prevfd > 0) {
+				dup2(prevfd, 0);
+				close(prevfd);
+			}
+			if (pip[1] > 1) {
+				dup2(pip[1], 1);
+				close(pip[1]);
+			}
+			evaltreenr(lp->n, flags);
+			/* never returns */
+		}
+		if (prevfd >= 0)
+			close(prevfd);
+		prevfd = pip[0];
+		close(pip[1]);
+	}
+	if (n->npipe.backgnd == 0) {
+		exitstatus = waitforjob(jp);
+		TRACE(("evalpipe:  job done exit status %d\n", exitstatus));
+	}
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Execute a command inside back quotes.  If it's a builtin command, we
+ * want to save its output in a block obtained from malloc.  Otherwise
+ * we fork off a subprocess and get the output of the command via a pipe.
+ * Should be called with interrupts off.
+ */
+
+void
+evalbackcmd(union node *n, struct backcmd *result)
+{
+	int saveherefd;
+
+	result->fd = -1;
+	result->buf = NULL;
+	result->nleft = 0;
+	result->jp = NULL;
+	if (n == NULL) {
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	saveherefd = herefd;
+	herefd = -1;
+
+#ifdef notyet
+	/*
+	 * For now we disable executing builtins in the same
+	 * context as the shell, because we are not keeping
+	 * enough state to recover from changes that are
+	 * supposed only to affect subshells. eg. echo "`cd /`"
+	 */
+	if (n->type == NCMD) {
+		struct ifsregion saveifs;
+		struct ifsregion *savelastp;
+		struct nodelist *saveargbackq;
+
+		saveifs = ifsfirst;
+		savelastp = ifslastp;
+		saveargbackq = argbackq;
+
+		exitstatus = oexitstatus;
+		evalcommand(n, EV_BACKCMD, result);
+
+		ifsfirst = saveifs;
+		ifslastp = savelastp;
+		argbackq = saveargbackq;
+	} else
+#endif
+	{
+		int pip[2];
+		struct job *jp;
+
+		if (pipe(pip) < 0)
+			sh_error("Pipe call failed");
+		jp = makejob(n, 1);
+		if (forkshell(jp, n, FORK_NOJOB) == 0) {
+			FORCEINTON;
+			close(pip[0]);
+			if (pip[1] != 1) {
+				close(1);
+				copyfd(pip[1], 1);
+				close(pip[1]);
+			}
+			eflag = 0;
+			evaltreenr(n, EV_EXIT);
+			/* NOTREACHED */
+		}
+		close(pip[1]);
+		result->fd = pip[0];
+		result->jp = jp;
+	}
+	herefd = saveherefd;
+out:
+	TRACE(("evalbackcmd done: fd=%d buf=0x%x nleft=%d jp=0x%x\n",
+		result->fd, result->buf, result->nleft, result->jp));
+}
+
+static char **
+parse_command_args(char **argv, const char **path)
+{
+	char *cp, c;
+
+	for (;;) {
+		cp = *++argv;
+		if (!cp)
+			return 0;
+		if (*cp++ != '-')
+			break;
+		if (!(c = *cp++))
+			break;
+		if (c == '-' && !*cp) {
+			argv++;
+			break;
+		}
+		do {
+			switch (c) {
+			case 'p':
+				*path = defpath;
+				break;
+			default:
+				/* run 'typecmd' for other options */
+				return 0;
+			}
+		} while ((c = *cp++));
+	}
+	return argv;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Execute a simple command.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+#ifdef notyet
+evalcommand(union node *cmd, int flags, struct backcmd *backcmd)
+#else
+evalcommand(union node *cmd, int flags)
+#endif
+{
+	struct stackmark smark;
+	union node *argp;
+	struct arglist arglist;
+	struct arglist varlist;
+	char **argv;
+	int argc;
+	struct strlist *sp;
+#ifdef notyet
+	int pip[2];
+#endif
+	struct cmdentry cmdentry;
+	struct job *jp;
+	char *lastarg;
+	const char *path;
+	int spclbltin;
+	int execcmd;
+	int status;
+	char **nargv;
+
+	/* First expand the arguments. */
+	TRACE(("evalcommand(0x%lx, %d) called\n", (long)cmd, flags));
+	setstackmark(&smark);
+	back_exitstatus = 0;
+
+	cmdentry.cmdtype = CMDBUILTIN;
+	cmdentry.u.cmd = &bltin;
+	varlist.lastp = &varlist.list;
+	*varlist.lastp = NULL;
+	arglist.lastp = &arglist.list;
+	*arglist.lastp = NULL;
+
+	argc = 0;
+	for (argp = cmd->ncmd.args; argp; argp = argp->narg.next) {
+		struct strlist **spp;
+
+		spp = arglist.lastp;
+		expandarg(argp, &arglist, EXP_FULL | EXP_TILDE);
+		for (sp = *spp; sp; sp = sp->next)
+			argc++;
+	}
+
+	argv = nargv = stalloc(sizeof (char *) * (argc + 1));
+	for (sp = arglist.list ; sp ; sp = sp->next) {
+		TRACE(("evalcommand arg: %s\n", sp->text));
+		*nargv++ = sp->text;
+	}
+	*nargv = NULL;
+
+	lastarg = NULL;
+	if (iflag && funcnest == 0 && argc > 0)
+		lastarg = nargv[-1];
+
+	preverrout.fd = 2;
+	expredir(cmd->ncmd.redirect);
+	status = redirectsafe(cmd->ncmd.redirect, REDIR_PUSH|REDIR_SAVEFD2);
+
+	path = vpath.text;
+	for (argp = cmd->ncmd.assign; argp; argp = argp->narg.next) {
+		struct strlist **spp;
+		char *p;
+
+		spp = varlist.lastp;
+		expandarg(argp, &varlist, EXP_VARTILDE);
+
+		/*
+		 * Modify the command lookup path, if a PATH= assignment
+		 * is present
+		 */
+		p = (*spp)->text;
+		if (varequal(p, path))
+			path = p;
+	}
+
+	/* Print the command if xflag is set. */
+	if (xflag) {
+		struct output *out;
+		int sep;
+
+		out = &preverrout;
+		outstr(expandstr(ps4val()), out);
+		sep = 0;
+		sep = eprintlist(out, varlist.list, sep);
+		eprintlist(out, arglist.list, sep);
+		outcslow('\n', out);
+#ifdef FLUSHERR
+		flushout(out);
+#endif
+	}
+
+	execcmd = 0;
+	spclbltin = -1;
+
+	/* Now locate the command. */
+	if (argc) {
+		const char *oldpath;
+		int cmd_flag = DO_ERR;
+
+		path += 5;
+		oldpath = path;
+		for (;;) {
+			find_command(argv[0], &cmdentry, cmd_flag, path);
+			if (cmdentry.cmdtype == CMDUNKNOWN) {
+				status = 127;
+#ifdef FLUSHERR
+				flushout(&errout);
+#endif
+				goto bail;
+			}
+
+			/* implement bltin and command here */
+			if (cmdentry.cmdtype != CMDBUILTIN)
+				break;
+			if (spclbltin < 0)
+				spclbltin =
+					cmdentry.u.cmd->flags &
+					BUILTIN_SPECIAL
+				;
+			if (cmdentry.u.cmd == EXECCMD)
+				execcmd++;
+			if (cmdentry.u.cmd != COMMANDCMD)
+				break;
+
+			path = oldpath;
+			nargv = parse_command_args(argv, &path);
+			if (!nargv)
+				break;
+			argc -= nargv - argv;
+			argv = nargv;
+			cmd_flag |= DO_NOFUNC;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (status) {
+		/* We have a redirection error. */
+		if (spclbltin > 0)
+			exraise(EXERROR);
+bail:
+		exitstatus = status;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* Execute the command. */
+	switch (cmdentry.cmdtype) {
+	default:
+		/* Fork off a child process if necessary. */
+		if (!(flags & EV_EXIT) || trap[0]) {
+			INTOFF;
+			jp = makejob(cmd, 1);
+			if (forkshell(jp, cmd, FORK_FG) != 0) {
+				exitstatus = waitforjob(jp);
+				INTON;
+				break;
+			}
+			FORCEINTON;
+		}
+		listsetvar(varlist.list, VEXPORT|VSTACK);
+		shellexec(argv, path, cmdentry.u.index);
+		/* NOTREACHED */
+
+	case CMDBUILTIN:
+		cmdenviron = varlist.list;
+		if (cmdenviron) {
+			struct strlist *list = cmdenviron;
+			int i = VNOSET;
+			if (spclbltin > 0 || argc == 0) {
+				i = 0;
+				if (execcmd && argc > 1)
+					i = VEXPORT;
+			}
+			listsetvar(list, i);
+		}
+		if (evalbltin(cmdentry.u.cmd, argc, argv)) {
+			int status;
+			int i, j;
+
+			i = exception;
+			if (i == EXEXIT)
+				goto raise;
+
+			status = 2;
+			j = 0;
+			if (i == EXINT)
+				j = SIGINT;
+			if (i == EXSIG)
+				j = pendingsigs;
+			if (j)
+				status = j + 128;
+			exitstatus = status;
+
+			if (i == EXINT || spclbltin > 0) {
+raise:
+				longjmp(handler->loc, 1);
+			}
+			FORCEINTON;
+		}
+		break;
+
+	case CMDFUNCTION:
+		listsetvar(varlist.list, 0);
+		if (evalfun(cmdentry.u.func, argc, argv, flags))
+			goto raise;
+		break;
+	}
+
+out:
+	popredir(execcmd);
+	if (lastarg)
+		/* dsl: I think this is intended to be used to support
+		 * '_' in 'vi' command mode during line editing...
+		 * However I implemented that within libedit itself.
+		 */
+		setvar("_", lastarg, 0);
+	popstackmark(&smark);
+}
+
+STATIC int
+evalbltin(const struct builtincmd *cmd, int argc, char **argv) {
+	char *volatile savecmdname;
+	struct jmploc *volatile savehandler;
+	struct jmploc jmploc;
+	int i;
+
+	savecmdname = commandname;
+	if ((i = setjmp(jmploc.loc)))
+		goto cmddone;
+	savehandler = handler;
+	handler = &jmploc;
+	commandname = argv[0];
+	argptr = argv + 1;
+	optptr = NULL;			/* initialize nextopt */
+	exitstatus = (*cmd->builtin)(argc, argv);
+	flushall();
+cmddone:
+	exitstatus |= outerr(out1);
+	freestdout();
+	commandname = savecmdname;
+	exsig = 0;
+	handler = savehandler;
+
+	return i;
+}
+
+STATIC int
+evalfun(struct funcnode *func, int argc, char **argv, int flags)
+{
+	volatile struct shparam saveparam;
+	struct localvar *volatile savelocalvars;
+	struct jmploc *volatile savehandler;
+	struct jmploc jmploc;
+	int e;
+
+	saveparam = shellparam;
+	savelocalvars = localvars;
+	if ((e = setjmp(jmploc.loc))) {
+		goto funcdone;
+	}
+	INTOFF;
+	savehandler = handler;
+	handler = &jmploc;
+	localvars = NULL;
+	shellparam.malloc = 0;
+	func->count++;
+	funcnest++;
+	INTON;
+	shellparam.nparam = argc - 1;
+	shellparam.p = argv + 1;
+	shellparam.optind = 1;
+	shellparam.optoff = -1;
+	evaltree(&func->n, flags & EV_TESTED);
+funcdone:
+	INTOFF;
+	funcnest--;
+	freefunc(func);
+	poplocalvars();
+	localvars = savelocalvars;
+	freeparam(&shellparam);
+	shellparam = saveparam;
+	handler = savehandler;
+	INTON;
+	evalskip &= ~SKIPFUNC;
+	return e;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Search for a command.  This is called before we fork so that the
+ * location of the command will be available in the parent as well as
+ * the child.  The check for "goodname" is an overly conservative
+ * check that the name will not be subject to expansion.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+prehash(union node *n)
+{
+	struct cmdentry entry;
+
+	if (n->type == NCMD && n->ncmd.args)
+		if (goodname(n->ncmd.args->narg.text))
+			find_command(n->ncmd.args->narg.text, &entry, 0,
+				     pathval());
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Builtin commands.  Builtin commands whose functions are closely
+ * tied to evaluation are implemented here.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * No command given.
+ */
+
+STATIC int
+bltincmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Preserve exitstatus of a previous possible redirection
+	 * as POSIX mandates
+	 */
+	return back_exitstatus;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Handle break and continue commands.  Break, continue, and return are
+ * all handled by setting the evalskip flag.  The evaluation routines
+ * above all check this flag, and if it is set they start skipping
+ * commands rather than executing them.  The variable skipcount is
+ * the number of loops to break/continue, or the number of function
+ * levels to return.  (The latter is always 1.)  It should probably
+ * be an error to break out of more loops than exist, but it isn't
+ * in the standard shell so we don't make it one here.
+ */
+
+int
+breakcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int n = argc > 1 ? number(argv[1]) : 1;
+
+	if (n <= 0)
+		sh_error(illnum, argv[1]);
+	if (n > loopnest)
+		n = loopnest;
+	if (n > 0) {
+		evalskip = (**argv == 'c')? SKIPCONT : SKIPBREAK;
+		skipcount = n;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * The return command.
+ */
+
+int
+returncmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	/*
+	 * If called outside a function, do what ksh does;
+	 * skip the rest of the file.
+	 */
+	evalskip = funcnest ? SKIPFUNC : SKIPFILE;
+	return argv[1] ? number(argv[1]) : exitstatus;
+}
+
+
+int
+falsecmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	return 1;
+}
+
+
+int
+truecmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+int
+execcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	if (argc > 1) {
+		iflag = 0;		/* exit on error */
+		mflag = 0;
+		optschanged();
+		shellexec(argv + 1, pathval(), 0);
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+STATIC int
+eprintlist(struct output *out, struct strlist *sp, int sep)
+{
+	while (sp) {
+		const char *p;
+
+		p = " %s" + (1 - sep);
+		sep |= 1;
+		outfmt(out, p, sp->text);
+		sp = sp->next;
+	}
+
+	return sep;
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/eval.h b/usr/dash/eval.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..005620d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/eval.h
@@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)eval.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+extern char *commandname;	/* currently executing command */
+extern int exitstatus;		/* exit status of last command */
+extern int back_exitstatus;	/* exit status of backquoted command */
+extern struct strlist *cmdenviron;  /* environment for builtin command */
+
+
+struct backcmd {		/* result of evalbackcmd */
+	int fd;			/* file descriptor to read from */
+	char *buf;		/* buffer */
+	int nleft;		/* number of chars in buffer */
+	struct job *jp;		/* job structure for command */
+};
+
+int evalstring(char *, int);
+union node;	/* BLETCH for ansi C */
+void evaltree(union node *, int);
+void evalbackcmd(union node *, struct backcmd *);
+
+extern int evalskip;
+
+/* reasons for skipping commands (see comment on breakcmd routine) */
+#define SKIPBREAK	(1 << 0)
+#define SKIPCONT	(1 << 1)
+#define SKIPFUNC	(1 << 2)
+#define SKIPFILE	(1 << 3)
+#define SKIPEVAL	(1 << 4)
diff --git a/usr/dash/exec.c b/usr/dash/exec.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..417ba8a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/exec.c
@@ -0,0 +1,869 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <paths.h>
+
+/*
+ * When commands are first encountered, they are entered in a hash table.
+ * This ensures that a full path search will not have to be done for them
+ * on each invocation.
+ *
+ * We should investigate converting to a linear search, even though that
+ * would make the command name "hash" a misnomer.
+ */
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "main.h"
+#include "nodes.h"
+#include "parser.h"
+#include "redir.h"
+#include "eval.h"
+#include "exec.h"
+#include "builtins.h"
+#include "var.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "syntax.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "init.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+#include "show.h"
+#include "jobs.h"
+#include "alias.h"
+#include "system.h"
+
+
+#define CMDTABLESIZE 31		/* should be prime */
+#define ARB 1			/* actual size determined at run time */
+
+
+
+struct tblentry {
+	struct tblentry *next;	/* next entry in hash chain */
+	union param param;	/* definition of builtin function */
+	short cmdtype;		/* index identifying command */
+	char rehash;		/* if set, cd done since entry created */
+	char cmdname[ARB];	/* name of command */
+};
+
+
+STATIC struct tblentry *cmdtable[CMDTABLESIZE];
+STATIC int builtinloc = -1;		/* index in path of %builtin, or -1 */
+
+
+STATIC void tryexec(char *, char **, char **);
+STATIC void printentry(struct tblentry *);
+STATIC void clearcmdentry(int);
+STATIC struct tblentry *cmdlookup(const char *, int);
+STATIC void delete_cmd_entry(void);
+STATIC void addcmdentry(char *, struct cmdentry *);
+STATIC int describe_command(struct output *, char *, int);
+
+
+/*
+ * Exec a program.  Never returns.  If you change this routine, you may
+ * have to change the find_command routine as well.
+ */
+
+void
+shellexec(char **argv, const char *path, int idx)
+{
+	char *cmdname;
+	int e;
+	char **envp;
+	int exerrno;
+
+	clearredir(1);
+	envp = environment();
+	if (strchr(argv[0], '/') != NULL) {
+		tryexec(argv[0], argv, envp);
+		e = errno;
+	} else {
+		e = ENOENT;
+		while ((cmdname = padvance(&path, argv[0])) != NULL) {
+			if (--idx < 0 && pathopt == NULL) {
+				tryexec(cmdname, argv, envp);
+				if (errno != ENOENT && errno != ENOTDIR)
+					e = errno;
+			}
+			stunalloc(cmdname);
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* Map to POSIX errors */
+	switch (e) {
+	case EACCES:
+		exerrno = 126;
+		break;
+	case ENOENT:
+		exerrno = 127;
+		break;
+	default:
+		exerrno = 2;
+		break;
+	}
+	exitstatus = exerrno;
+	TRACE(("shellexec failed for %s, errno %d, suppressint %d\n",
+		argv[0], e, suppressint ));
+	exerror(EXEXEC, "%s: %s", argv[0], errmsg(e, E_EXEC));
+	/* NOTREACHED */
+}
+
+
+STATIC void
+tryexec(char *cmd, char **argv, char **envp)
+{
+	int repeated = 0;
+#if !defined(BSD) && !defined(linux)
+	char *p;
+#endif
+
+repeat:
+#ifdef SYSV
+	do {
+		execve(cmd, argv, envp);
+	} while (errno == EINTR);
+#else
+	execve(cmd, argv, envp);
+#endif
+	if (repeated++) {
+		ckfree(argv);
+	} else if (errno == ENOEXEC) {
+		char **ap;
+		char **new;
+
+		for (ap = argv; *ap; ap++)
+			;
+		ap = new = ckmalloc((ap - argv + 2) * sizeof(char *));
+		*ap++ = cmd = _PATH_BSHELL;
+		while ((*ap++ = *argv++))
+			;
+		argv = new;
+		goto repeat;
+	}
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Do a path search.  The variable path (passed by reference) should be
+ * set to the start of the path before the first call; padvance will update
+ * this value as it proceeds.  Successive calls to padvance will return
+ * the possible path expansions in sequence.  If an option (indicated by
+ * a percent sign) appears in the path entry then the global variable
+ * pathopt will be set to point to it; otherwise pathopt will be set to
+ * NULL.
+ */
+
+const char *pathopt;
+
+char *
+padvance(const char **path, const char *name)
+{
+	const char *p;
+	char *q;
+	const char *start;
+	size_t len;
+
+	if (*path == NULL)
+		return NULL;
+	start = *path;
+	for (p = start ; *p && *p != ':' && *p != '%' ; p++);
+	len = p - start + strlen(name) + 2;	/* "2" is for '/' and '\0' */
+	while (stackblocksize() < len)
+		growstackblock();
+	q = stackblock();
+	if (p != start) {
+		memcpy(q, start, p - start);
+		q += p - start;
+		*q++ = '/';
+	}
+	strcpy(q, name);
+	pathopt = NULL;
+	if (*p == '%') {
+		pathopt = ++p;
+		while (*p && *p != ':')  p++;
+	}
+	if (*p == ':')
+		*path = p + 1;
+	else
+		*path = NULL;
+	return stalloc(len);
+}
+
+
+
+/*** Command hashing code ***/
+
+
+int
+hashcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	struct tblentry **pp;
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+	int c;
+	struct cmdentry entry;
+	char *name;
+
+	while ((c = nextopt("r")) != '\0') {
+		clearcmdentry(0);
+		return 0;
+	}
+	if (*argptr == NULL) {
+		for (pp = cmdtable ; pp < &cmdtable[CMDTABLESIZE] ; pp++) {
+			for (cmdp = *pp ; cmdp ; cmdp = cmdp->next) {
+				if (cmdp->cmdtype == CMDNORMAL)
+					printentry(cmdp);
+			}
+		}
+		return 0;
+	}
+	c = 0;
+	while ((name = *argptr) != NULL) {
+		if ((cmdp = cmdlookup(name, 0)) != NULL
+		 && (cmdp->cmdtype == CMDNORMAL
+		     || (cmdp->cmdtype == CMDBUILTIN && builtinloc >= 0)))
+			delete_cmd_entry();
+		find_command(name, &entry, DO_ERR, pathval());
+		if (entry.cmdtype == CMDUNKNOWN)
+			c = 1;
+		argptr++;
+	}
+	return c;
+}
+
+
+STATIC void
+printentry(struct tblentry *cmdp)
+{
+	int idx;
+	const char *path;
+	char *name;
+
+	idx = cmdp->param.index;
+	path = pathval();
+	do {
+		name = padvance(&path, cmdp->cmdname);
+		stunalloc(name);
+	} while (--idx >= 0);
+	out1str(name);
+	out1fmt(snlfmt, cmdp->rehash ? "*" : nullstr);
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Resolve a command name.  If you change this routine, you may have to
+ * change the shellexec routine as well.
+ */
+
+void
+find_command(char *name, struct cmdentry *entry, int act, const char *path)
+{
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+	int idx;
+	int prev;
+	char *fullname;
+	struct stat64 statb;
+	int e;
+	int updatetbl;
+	struct builtincmd *bcmd;
+
+	/* If name contains a slash, don't use PATH or hash table */
+	if (strchr(name, '/') != NULL) {
+		entry->u.index = -1;
+		if (act & DO_ABS) {
+			while (stat64(name, &statb) < 0) {
+#ifdef SYSV
+				if (errno == EINTR)
+					continue;
+#endif
+				entry->cmdtype = CMDUNKNOWN;
+				return;
+			}
+		}
+		entry->cmdtype = CMDNORMAL;
+		return;
+	}
+
+	updatetbl = (path == pathval());
+	if (!updatetbl) {
+		act |= DO_ALTPATH;
+		if (strstr(path, "%builtin") != NULL)
+			act |= DO_ALTBLTIN;
+	}
+
+	/* If name is in the table, check answer will be ok */
+	if ((cmdp = cmdlookup(name, 0)) != NULL) {
+		int bit;
+
+		switch (cmdp->cmdtype) {
+		default:
+#if DEBUG
+			abort();
+#endif
+		case CMDNORMAL:
+			bit = DO_ALTPATH;
+			break;
+		case CMDFUNCTION:
+			bit = DO_NOFUNC;
+			break;
+		case CMDBUILTIN:
+			bit = DO_ALTBLTIN;
+			break;
+		}
+		if (act & bit) {
+			updatetbl = 0;
+			cmdp = NULL;
+		} else if (cmdp->rehash == 0)
+			/* if not invalidated by cd, we're done */
+			goto success;
+	}
+
+	/* If %builtin not in path, check for builtin next */
+	bcmd = find_builtin(name);
+	if (bcmd && (bcmd->flags & BUILTIN_REGULAR || (
+		act & DO_ALTPATH ? !(act & DO_ALTBLTIN) : builtinloc <= 0
+	)))
+		goto builtin_success;
+
+	/* We have to search path. */
+	prev = -1;		/* where to start */
+	if (cmdp && cmdp->rehash) {	/* doing a rehash */
+		if (cmdp->cmdtype == CMDBUILTIN)
+			prev = builtinloc;
+		else
+			prev = cmdp->param.index;
+	}
+
+	e = ENOENT;
+	idx = -1;
+loop:
+	while ((fullname = padvance(&path, name)) != NULL) {
+		stunalloc(fullname);
+		idx++;
+		if (pathopt) {
+			if (prefix(pathopt, "builtin")) {
+				if (bcmd)
+					goto builtin_success;
+				continue;
+			} else if (!(act & DO_NOFUNC) &&
+				   prefix(pathopt, "func")) {
+				/* handled below */
+			} else {
+				/* ignore unimplemented options */
+				continue;
+			}
+		}
+		/* if rehash, don't redo absolute path names */
+		if (fullname[0] == '/' && idx <= prev) {
+			if (idx < prev)
+				continue;
+			TRACE(("searchexec \"%s\": no change\n", name));
+			goto success;
+		}
+		while (stat64(fullname, &statb) < 0) {
+#ifdef SYSV
+			if (errno == EINTR)
+				continue;
+#endif
+			if (errno != ENOENT && errno != ENOTDIR)
+				e = errno;
+			goto loop;
+		}
+		e = EACCES;	/* if we fail, this will be the error */
+		if (!S_ISREG(statb.st_mode))
+			continue;
+		if (pathopt) {		/* this is a %func directory */
+			stalloc(strlen(fullname) + 1);
+			readcmdfile(fullname);
+			if ((cmdp = cmdlookup(name, 0)) == NULL ||
+			    cmdp->cmdtype != CMDFUNCTION)
+				sh_error("%s not defined in %s", name,
+					 fullname);
+			stunalloc(fullname);
+			goto success;
+		}
+#ifdef notdef
+		/* XXX this code stops root executing stuff, and is buggy
+		   if you need a group from the group list. */
+		if (statb.st_uid == geteuid()) {
+			if ((statb.st_mode & 0100) == 0)
+				goto loop;
+		} else if (statb.st_gid == getegid()) {
+			if ((statb.st_mode & 010) == 0)
+				goto loop;
+		} else {
+			if ((statb.st_mode & 01) == 0)
+				goto loop;
+		}
+#endif
+		TRACE(("searchexec \"%s\" returns \"%s\"\n", name, fullname));
+		if (!updatetbl) {
+			entry->cmdtype = CMDNORMAL;
+			entry->u.index = idx;
+			return;
+		}
+		INTOFF;
+		cmdp = cmdlookup(name, 1);
+		cmdp->cmdtype = CMDNORMAL;
+		cmdp->param.index = idx;
+		INTON;
+		goto success;
+	}
+
+	/* We failed.  If there was an entry for this command, delete it */
+	if (cmdp && updatetbl)
+		delete_cmd_entry();
+	if (act & DO_ERR)
+		sh_warnx("%s: %s", name, errmsg(e, E_EXEC));
+	entry->cmdtype = CMDUNKNOWN;
+	return;
+
+builtin_success:
+	if (!updatetbl) {
+		entry->cmdtype = CMDBUILTIN;
+		entry->u.cmd = bcmd;
+		return;
+	}
+	INTOFF;
+	cmdp = cmdlookup(name, 1);
+	cmdp->cmdtype = CMDBUILTIN;
+	cmdp->param.cmd = bcmd;
+	INTON;
+success:
+	cmdp->rehash = 0;
+	entry->cmdtype = cmdp->cmdtype;
+	entry->u = cmdp->param;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Search the table of builtin commands.
+ */
+
+struct builtincmd *
+find_builtin(const char *name)
+{
+	struct builtincmd *bp;
+
+	bp = bsearch(
+		&name, builtincmd, NUMBUILTINS, sizeof(struct builtincmd),
+		pstrcmp
+	);
+	return bp;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Called when a cd is done.  Marks all commands so the next time they
+ * are executed they will be rehashed.
+ */
+
+void
+hashcd(void)
+{
+	struct tblentry **pp;
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+
+	for (pp = cmdtable ; pp < &cmdtable[CMDTABLESIZE] ; pp++) {
+		for (cmdp = *pp ; cmdp ; cmdp = cmdp->next) {
+			if (cmdp->cmdtype == CMDNORMAL || (
+				cmdp->cmdtype == CMDBUILTIN &&
+				!(cmdp->param.cmd->flags & BUILTIN_REGULAR) &&
+				builtinloc > 0
+			))
+				cmdp->rehash = 1;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Fix command hash table when PATH changed.
+ * Called before PATH is changed.  The argument is the new value of PATH;
+ * pathval() still returns the old value at this point.
+ * Called with interrupts off.
+ */
+
+void
+changepath(const char *newval)
+{
+	const char *old, *new;
+	int idx;
+	int firstchange;
+	int bltin;
+
+	old = pathval();
+	new = newval;
+	firstchange = 9999;	/* assume no change */
+	idx = 0;
+	bltin = -1;
+	for (;;) {
+		if (*old != *new) {
+			firstchange = idx;
+			if ((*old == '\0' && *new == ':')
+			 || (*old == ':' && *new == '\0'))
+				firstchange++;
+			old = new;	/* ignore subsequent differences */
+		}
+		if (*new == '\0')
+			break;
+		if (*new == '%' && bltin < 0 && prefix(new + 1, "builtin"))
+			bltin = idx;
+		if (*new == ':') {
+			idx++;
+		}
+		new++, old++;
+	}
+	if (builtinloc < 0 && bltin >= 0)
+		builtinloc = bltin;		/* zap builtins */
+	if (builtinloc >= 0 && bltin < 0)
+		firstchange = 0;
+	clearcmdentry(firstchange);
+	builtinloc = bltin;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Clear out command entries.  The argument specifies the first entry in
+ * PATH which has changed.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+clearcmdentry(int firstchange)
+{
+	struct tblentry **tblp;
+	struct tblentry **pp;
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	for (tblp = cmdtable ; tblp < &cmdtable[CMDTABLESIZE] ; tblp++) {
+		pp = tblp;
+		while ((cmdp = *pp) != NULL) {
+			if ((cmdp->cmdtype == CMDNORMAL &&
+			     cmdp->param.index >= firstchange)
+			 || (cmdp->cmdtype == CMDBUILTIN &&
+			     builtinloc >= firstchange)) {
+				*pp = cmdp->next;
+				ckfree(cmdp);
+			} else {
+				pp = &cmdp->next;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Locate a command in the command hash table.  If "add" is nonzero,
+ * add the command to the table if it is not already present.  The
+ * variable "lastcmdentry" is set to point to the address of the link
+ * pointing to the entry, so that delete_cmd_entry can delete the
+ * entry.
+ *
+ * Interrupts must be off if called with add != 0.
+ */
+
+struct tblentry **lastcmdentry;
+
+
+STATIC struct tblentry *
+cmdlookup(const char *name, int add)
+{
+	unsigned int hashval;
+	const char *p;
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+	struct tblentry **pp;
+
+	p = name;
+	hashval = (unsigned char)*p << 4;
+	while (*p)
+		hashval += (unsigned char)*p++;
+	hashval &= 0x7FFF;
+	pp = &cmdtable[hashval % CMDTABLESIZE];
+	for (cmdp = *pp ; cmdp ; cmdp = cmdp->next) {
+		if (equal(cmdp->cmdname, name))
+			break;
+		pp = &cmdp->next;
+	}
+	if (add && cmdp == NULL) {
+		cmdp = *pp = ckmalloc(sizeof (struct tblentry) - ARB
+					+ strlen(name) + 1);
+		cmdp->next = NULL;
+		cmdp->cmdtype = CMDUNKNOWN;
+		strcpy(cmdp->cmdname, name);
+	}
+	lastcmdentry = pp;
+	return cmdp;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Delete the command entry returned on the last lookup.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+delete_cmd_entry(void)
+{
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	cmdp = *lastcmdentry;
+	*lastcmdentry = cmdp->next;
+	if (cmdp->cmdtype == CMDFUNCTION)
+		freefunc(cmdp->param.func);
+	ckfree(cmdp);
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+
+#ifdef notdef
+void
+getcmdentry(char *name, struct cmdentry *entry)
+{
+	struct tblentry *cmdp = cmdlookup(name, 0);
+
+	if (cmdp) {
+		entry->u = cmdp->param;
+		entry->cmdtype = cmdp->cmdtype;
+	} else {
+		entry->cmdtype = CMDUNKNOWN;
+		entry->u.index = 0;
+	}
+}
+#endif
+
+
+/*
+ * Add a new command entry, replacing any existing command entry for
+ * the same name - except special builtins.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+addcmdentry(char *name, struct cmdentry *entry)
+{
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+
+	cmdp = cmdlookup(name, 1);
+	if (cmdp->cmdtype == CMDFUNCTION) {
+		freefunc(cmdp->param.func);
+	}
+	cmdp->cmdtype = entry->cmdtype;
+	cmdp->param = entry->u;
+	cmdp->rehash = 0;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Define a shell function.
+ */
+
+void
+defun(char *name, union node *func)
+{
+	struct cmdentry entry;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	entry.cmdtype = CMDFUNCTION;
+	entry.u.func = copyfunc(func);
+	addcmdentry(name, &entry);
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Delete a function if it exists.
+ */
+
+void
+unsetfunc(const char *name)
+{
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+
+	if ((cmdp = cmdlookup(name, 0)) != NULL &&
+	    cmdp->cmdtype == CMDFUNCTION)
+		delete_cmd_entry();
+}
+
+/*
+ * Locate and print what a word is...
+ */
+
+int
+typecmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int i;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
+		err |= describe_command(out1, argv[i], 1);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+STATIC int
+describe_command(out, command, verbose)
+	struct output *out;
+	char *command;
+	int verbose;
+{
+	struct cmdentry entry;
+	struct tblentry *cmdp;
+	const struct alias *ap;
+	const char *path = pathval();
+
+	if (verbose) {
+		outstr(command, out);
+	}
+
+	/* First look at the keywords */
+	if (findkwd(command)) {
+		outstr(verbose ? " is a shell keyword" : command, out);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* Then look at the aliases */
+	if ((ap = lookupalias(command, 0)) != NULL) {
+		if (verbose) {
+			outfmt(out, " is an alias for %s", ap->val);
+		} else {
+			outstr("alias ", out);
+			printalias(ap);
+			return 0;
+		}
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* Then check if it is a tracked alias */
+	if ((cmdp = cmdlookup(command, 0)) != NULL) {
+		entry.cmdtype = cmdp->cmdtype;
+		entry.u = cmdp->param;
+	} else {
+		/* Finally use brute force */
+		find_command(command, &entry, DO_ABS, path);
+	}
+
+	switch (entry.cmdtype) {
+	case CMDNORMAL: {
+		int j = entry.u.index;
+		char *p;
+		if (j == -1) {
+			p = command;
+		} else {
+			do {
+				p = padvance(&path, command);
+				stunalloc(p);
+			} while (--j >= 0);
+		}
+		if (verbose) {
+			outfmt(
+				out, " is%s %s",
+				cmdp ? " a tracked alias for" : nullstr, p
+			);
+		} else {
+			outstr(p, out);
+		}
+		break;
+	}
+
+	case CMDFUNCTION:
+		if (verbose) {
+			outstr(" is a shell function", out);
+		} else {
+			outstr(command, out);
+		}
+		break;
+
+	case CMDBUILTIN:
+		if (verbose) {
+			outfmt(
+				out, " is a %sshell builtin",
+				entry.u.cmd->flags & BUILTIN_SPECIAL ?
+					"special " : nullstr
+			);
+		} else {
+			outstr(command, out);
+		}
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		if (verbose) {
+			outstr(": not found\n", out);
+		}
+		return 127;
+	}
+
+out:
+	outc('\n', out);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int
+commandcmd(argc, argv)
+	int argc;
+	char **argv;
+{
+	int c;
+	enum {
+		VERIFY_BRIEF = 1,
+		VERIFY_VERBOSE = 2,
+	} verify = 0;
+
+	while ((c = nextopt("pvV")) != '\0')
+		if (c == 'V')
+			verify |= VERIFY_VERBOSE;
+		else if (c == 'v')
+			verify |= VERIFY_BRIEF;
+#ifdef DEBUG
+		else if (c != 'p')
+			abort();
+#endif
+
+	if (verify)
+		return describe_command(out1, *argptr, verify - VERIFY_BRIEF);
+
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/exec.h b/usr/dash/exec.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..daa6f10
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/exec.h
@@ -0,0 +1,77 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)exec.h	8.3 (Berkeley) 6/8/95
+ */
+
+/* values of cmdtype */
+#define CMDUNKNOWN	-1	/* no entry in table for command */
+#define CMDNORMAL	0	/* command is an executable program */
+#define CMDFUNCTION	1	/* command is a shell function */
+#define CMDBUILTIN	2	/* command is a shell builtin */
+
+
+struct cmdentry {
+	int cmdtype;
+	union param {
+		int index;
+		const struct builtincmd *cmd;
+		struct funcnode *func;
+	} u;
+};
+
+
+/* action to find_command() */
+#define DO_ERR		0x01	/* prints errors */
+#define DO_ABS		0x02	/* checks absolute paths */
+#define DO_NOFUNC	0x04	/* don't return shell functions, for command */
+#define DO_ALTPATH	0x08	/* using alternate path */
+#define DO_ALTBLTIN	0x20	/* %builtin in alt. path */
+
+extern const char *pathopt;	/* set by padvance */
+
+void shellexec(char **, const char *, int)
+    __attribute__((__noreturn__));
+char *padvance(const char **, const char *);
+int hashcmd(int, char **);
+void find_command(char *, struct cmdentry *, int, const char *);
+struct builtincmd *find_builtin(const char *);
+void hashcd(void);
+void changepath(const char *);
+#ifdef notdef
+void getcmdentry(char *, struct cmdentry *);
+#endif
+void defun(char *, union node *);
+void unsetfunc(const char *);
+int typecmd(int, char **);
+int commandcmd(int, char **);
diff --git a/usr/dash/expand.c b/usr/dash/expand.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2eb726e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/expand.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1744 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/time.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <dirent.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#ifdef HAVE_GETPWNAM
+#include <pwd.h>
+#endif
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#if defined(__GLIBC__)
+#if !defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN)
+#include <fnmatch.h>
+#if !defined(GLOB_BROKEN)
+#include <glob.h>
+#endif
+#else
+#include <ctype.h>
+#endif
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * Routines to expand arguments to commands.  We have to deal with
+ * backquotes, shell variables, and file metacharacters.
+ */
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "main.h"
+#include "nodes.h"
+#include "eval.h"
+#include "expand.h"
+#include "syntax.h"
+#include "parser.h"
+#include "jobs.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "var.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+#include "show.h"
+#include "system.h"
+
+/*
+ * _rmescape() flags
+ */
+#define RMESCAPE_ALLOC	0x1	/* Allocate a new string */
+#define RMESCAPE_GLOB	0x2	/* Add backslashes for glob */
+#define RMESCAPE_QUOTED	0x4	/* Remove CTLESC unless in quotes */
+#define RMESCAPE_GROW	0x8	/* Grow strings instead of stalloc */
+#define RMESCAPE_HEAP	0x10	/* Malloc strings instead of stalloc */
+
+/* Add CTLESC when necessary. */
+#define QUOTES_ESC	(EXP_FULL | EXP_CASE)
+/* Do not skip NUL characters. */
+#define QUOTES_KEEPNUL	EXP_TILDE
+
+/*
+ * Structure specifying which parts of the string should be searched
+ * for IFS characters.
+ */
+
+struct ifsregion {
+	struct ifsregion *next;	/* next region in list */
+	int begoff;		/* offset of start of region */
+	int endoff;		/* offset of end of region */
+	int nulonly;		/* search for nul bytes only */
+};
+
+/* output of current string */
+static char *expdest;
+/* list of back quote expressions */
+static struct nodelist *argbackq;
+/* first struct in list of ifs regions */
+static struct ifsregion ifsfirst;
+/* last struct in list */
+static struct ifsregion *ifslastp;
+/* holds expanded arg list */
+static struct arglist exparg;
+
+STATIC void argstr(char *, int);
+STATIC char *exptilde(char *, char *, int);
+STATIC void expbackq(union node *, int, int);
+STATIC const char *subevalvar(char *, char *, int, int, int, int, int);
+STATIC char *evalvar(char *, int);
+STATIC size_t strtodest(const char *, const char *, int);
+STATIC void memtodest(const char *, size_t, const char *, int);
+STATIC ssize_t varvalue(char *, int, int);
+STATIC void recordregion(int, int, int);
+STATIC void removerecordregions(int);
+STATIC void ifsbreakup(char *, struct arglist *);
+STATIC void ifsfree(void);
+STATIC void expandmeta(struct strlist *, int);
+#if defined(__GLIBC__) && !defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN) && !defined(GLOB_BROKEN)
+STATIC void addglob(const glob_t *);
+#else
+STATIC void expmeta(char *, char *);
+#endif
+STATIC void addfname(char *);
+#if !(defined(__GLIBC__) && !defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN) && !defined(GLOB_BROKEN))
+STATIC struct strlist *expsort(struct strlist *);
+STATIC struct strlist *msort(struct strlist *, int);
+#endif
+STATIC int patmatch(char *, const char *);
+#if !defined(__GLIBC__) || defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN)
+STATIC int pmatch(const char *, const char *);
+#else
+#define pmatch(a, b) !fnmatch((a), (b), 0)
+#endif
+STATIC int cvtnum(long);
+STATIC size_t esclen(const char *, const char *);
+STATIC char *scanleft(char *, char *, char *, char *, int, int);
+STATIC char *scanright(char *, char *, char *, char *, int, int);
+STATIC void varunset(const char *, const char *, const char *, int)
+	__attribute__((__noreturn__));
+
+
+/*
+ * Prepare a pattern for a glob(3) call.
+ *
+ * Returns an stalloced string.
+ */
+
+STATIC inline char *
+preglob(const char *pattern, int quoted, int flag) {
+	flag |= RMESCAPE_GLOB;
+	if (quoted) {
+		flag |= RMESCAPE_QUOTED;
+	}
+	return _rmescapes((char *)pattern, flag);
+}
+
+
+STATIC size_t
+esclen(const char *start, const char *p) {
+	size_t esc = 0;
+
+	while (p > start && *--p == (char)CTLESC) {
+		esc++;
+	}
+	return esc;
+}
+
+
+static inline const char *getpwhome(const char *name)
+{
+#ifdef HAVE_GETPWNAM
+	struct passwd *pw = getpwnam(name);
+	return pw ? pw->pw_dir : 0;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Expand shell variables and backquotes inside a here document.
+ */
+
+void
+expandhere(union node *arg, int fd)
+{
+	herefd = fd;
+	expandarg(arg, (struct arglist *)NULL, 0);
+	xwrite(fd, stackblock(), expdest - (char *)stackblock());
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Perform variable substitution and command substitution on an argument,
+ * placing the resulting list of arguments in arglist.  If EXP_FULL is true,
+ * perform splitting and file name expansion.  When arglist is NULL, perform
+ * here document expansion.
+ */
+
+void
+expandarg(union node *arg, struct arglist *arglist, int flag)
+{
+	struct strlist *sp;
+	char *p;
+
+	argbackq = arg->narg.backquote;
+	STARTSTACKSTR(expdest);
+	ifsfirst.next = NULL;
+	ifslastp = NULL;
+	argstr(arg->narg.text, flag);
+	p = _STPUTC('\0', expdest);
+	expdest = p - 1;
+	if (arglist == NULL) {
+		return;			/* here document expanded */
+	}
+	p = grabstackstr(p);
+	exparg.lastp = &exparg.list;
+	/*
+	 * TODO - EXP_REDIR
+	 */
+	if (flag & EXP_FULL) {
+		ifsbreakup(p, &exparg);
+		*exparg.lastp = NULL;
+		exparg.lastp = &exparg.list;
+		expandmeta(exparg.list, flag);
+	} else {
+		if (flag & EXP_REDIR) /*XXX - for now, just remove escapes */
+			rmescapes(p);
+		sp = (struct strlist *)stalloc(sizeof (struct strlist));
+		sp->text = p;
+		*exparg.lastp = sp;
+		exparg.lastp = &sp->next;
+	}
+	if (ifsfirst.next)
+		ifsfree();
+	*exparg.lastp = NULL;
+	if (exparg.list) {
+		*arglist->lastp = exparg.list;
+		arglist->lastp = exparg.lastp;
+	}
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Perform variable and command substitution.  If EXP_FULL is set, output CTLESC
+ * characters to allow for further processing.  Otherwise treat
+ * $@ like $* since no splitting will be performed.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+argstr(char *p, int flag)
+{
+	static const char spclchars[] = {
+		'=',
+		':',
+		CTLQUOTEMARK,
+		CTLENDVAR,
+		CTLESC,
+		CTLVAR,
+		CTLBACKQ,
+		CTLBACKQ | CTLQUOTE,
+		CTLENDARI,
+		0
+	};
+	const char *reject = spclchars;
+	int c;
+	int quotes = flag & QUOTES_ESC;
+	int breakall = flag & EXP_WORD;
+	int inquotes;
+	size_t length;
+	int startloc;
+
+	if (!(flag & EXP_VARTILDE)) {
+		reject += 2;
+	} else if (flag & EXP_VARTILDE2) {
+		reject++;
+	}
+	inquotes = 0;
+	length = 0;
+	if (flag & EXP_TILDE) {
+		char *q;
+
+		flag &= ~EXP_TILDE;
+tilde:
+		q = p;
+		if (*q == (char)CTLESC && (flag & EXP_QWORD))
+			q++;
+		if (*q == '~')
+			p = exptilde(p, q, flag);
+	}
+start:
+	startloc = expdest - (char *)stackblock();
+	for (;;) {
+		length += strcspn(p + length, reject);
+		c = (signed char)p[length];
+		if (c && (!(c & 0x80) || c == CTLENDARI)) {
+			/* c == '=' || c == ':' || c == CTLENDARI */
+			length++;
+		}
+		if (length > 0) {
+			int newloc;
+			expdest = stnputs(p, length, expdest);
+			newloc = expdest - (char *)stackblock();
+			if (breakall && !inquotes && newloc > startloc) {
+				recordregion(startloc, newloc, 0);
+			}
+			startloc = newloc;
+		}
+		p += length + 1;
+		length = 0;
+
+		switch (c) {
+		case '\0':
+			goto breakloop;
+		case '=':
+			if (flag & EXP_VARTILDE2) {
+				p--;
+				continue;
+			}
+			flag |= EXP_VARTILDE2;
+			reject++;
+			/* fall through */
+		case ':':
+			/*
+			 * sort of a hack - expand tildes in variable
+			 * assignments (after the first '=' and after ':'s).
+			 */
+			if (*--p == '~') {
+				goto tilde;
+			}
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		switch (c) {
+		case CTLENDVAR: /* ??? */
+			goto breakloop;
+		case CTLQUOTEMARK:
+			/* "$@" syntax adherence hack */
+			if (
+				!inquotes &&
+				!memcmp(p, dolatstr, DOLATSTRLEN) &&
+				(p[4] == (char)CTLQUOTEMARK || (
+					p[4] == (char)CTLENDVAR &&
+					p[5] == (char)CTLQUOTEMARK
+				))
+			) {
+				p = evalvar(p + 1, flag) + 1;
+				goto start;
+			}
+			inquotes = !inquotes;
+addquote:
+			if (quotes) {
+				p--;
+				length++;
+				startloc++;
+			}
+			break;
+		case CTLESC:
+			startloc++;
+			length++;
+			goto addquote;
+		case CTLVAR:
+			p = evalvar(p, flag);
+			goto start;
+		case CTLBACKQ:
+			c = 0;
+		case CTLBACKQ|CTLQUOTE:
+			expbackq(argbackq->n, c, quotes);
+			argbackq = argbackq->next;
+			goto start;
+		case CTLENDARI:
+			p--;
+			expari(quotes);
+			goto start;
+		}
+	}
+breakloop:
+	;
+}
+
+STATIC char *
+exptilde(char *startp, char *p, int flag)
+{
+	signed char c;
+	char *name;
+	const char *home;
+	int quotes = flag & QUOTES_ESC;
+	int startloc;
+
+	name = p + 1;
+
+	while ((c = *++p) != '\0') {
+		switch(c) {
+		case CTLESC:
+			return (startp);
+		case CTLQUOTEMARK:
+			return (startp);
+		case ':':
+			if (flag & EXP_VARTILDE)
+				goto done;
+			break;
+		case '/':
+		case CTLENDVAR:
+			goto done;
+		}
+	}
+done:
+	*p = '\0';
+	if (*name == '\0') {
+		home = lookupvar(homestr);
+	} else {
+		home = getpwhome(name);
+	}
+	if (!home || !*home)
+		goto lose;
+	*p = c;
+	startloc = expdest - (char *)stackblock();
+	strtodest(home, SQSYNTAX, quotes);
+	recordregion(startloc, expdest - (char *)stackblock(), 0);
+	return (p);
+lose:
+	*p = c;
+	return (startp);
+}
+
+
+STATIC void
+removerecordregions(int endoff)
+{
+	if (ifslastp == NULL)
+		return;
+
+	if (ifsfirst.endoff > endoff) {
+		while (ifsfirst.next != NULL) {
+			struct ifsregion *ifsp;
+			INTOFF;
+			ifsp = ifsfirst.next->next;
+			ckfree(ifsfirst.next);
+			ifsfirst.next = ifsp;
+			INTON;
+		}
+		if (ifsfirst.begoff > endoff)
+			ifslastp = NULL;
+		else {
+			ifslastp = &ifsfirst;
+			ifsfirst.endoff = endoff;
+		}
+		return;
+	}
+
+	ifslastp = &ifsfirst;
+	while (ifslastp->next && ifslastp->next->begoff < endoff)
+		ifslastp=ifslastp->next;
+	while (ifslastp->next != NULL) {
+		struct ifsregion *ifsp;
+		INTOFF;
+		ifsp = ifslastp->next->next;
+		ckfree(ifslastp->next);
+		ifslastp->next = ifsp;
+		INTON;
+	}
+	if (ifslastp->endoff > endoff)
+		ifslastp->endoff = endoff;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Expand arithmetic expression.  Backup to start of expression,
+ * evaluate, place result in (backed up) result, adjust string position.
+ */
+void
+expari(int quotes)
+{
+	char *p, *start;
+	int begoff;
+	int flag;
+	int len;
+
+	/*	ifsfree(); */
+
+	/*
+	 * This routine is slightly over-complicated for
+	 * efficiency.  Next we scan backwards looking for the
+	 * start of arithmetic.
+	 */
+	start = stackblock();
+	p = expdest - 1;
+	*p = '\0';
+	p--;
+	do {
+		int esc;
+
+		while (*p != (char)CTLARI) {
+			p--;
+#ifdef DEBUG
+			if (p < start) {
+				sh_error("missing CTLARI (shouldn't happen)");
+			}
+#endif
+		}
+
+		esc = esclen(start, p);
+		if (!(esc % 2)) {
+			break;
+		}
+
+		p -= esc + 1;
+	} while (1);
+
+	begoff = p - start;
+
+	removerecordregions(begoff);
+
+	flag = p[1];
+
+	expdest = p;
+
+	if (quotes)
+		rmescapes(p + 2);
+
+	len = cvtnum(arith(p + 2));
+
+	if (flag != '"')
+		recordregion(begoff, begoff + len, 0);
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Expand stuff in backwards quotes.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+expbackq(union node *cmd, int quoted, int quotes)
+{
+	struct backcmd in;
+	int i;
+	char buf[128];
+	char *p;
+	char *dest;
+	int startloc;
+	char const *syntax = quoted? DQSYNTAX : BASESYNTAX;
+	struct stackmark smark;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	setstackmark(&smark);
+	dest = expdest;
+	startloc = dest - (char *)stackblock();
+	grabstackstr(dest);
+	evalbackcmd(cmd, (struct backcmd *) &in);
+	popstackmark(&smark);
+
+	p = in.buf;
+	i = in.nleft;
+	if (i == 0)
+		goto read;
+	for (;;) {
+		memtodest(p, i, syntax, quotes);
+read:
+		if (in.fd < 0)
+			break;
+		do {
+			i = read(in.fd, buf, sizeof buf);
+		} while (i < 0 && errno == EINTR);
+		TRACE(("expbackq: read returns %d\n", i));
+		if (i <= 0)
+			break;
+		p = buf;
+	}
+
+	if (in.buf)
+		ckfree(in.buf);
+	if (in.fd >= 0) {
+		close(in.fd);
+		back_exitstatus = waitforjob(in.jp);
+	}
+	INTON;
+
+	/* Eat all trailing newlines */
+	dest = expdest;
+	for (; dest > (char *)stackblock() && dest[-1] == '\n';)
+		STUNPUTC(dest);
+	expdest = dest;
+
+	if (quoted == 0)
+		recordregion(startloc, dest - (char *)stackblock(), 0);
+	TRACE(("evalbackq: size=%d: \"%.*s\"\n",
+		(dest - (char *)stackblock()) - startloc,
+		(dest - (char *)stackblock()) - startloc,
+		stackblock() + startloc));
+}
+
+
+STATIC char *
+scanleft(
+	char *startp, char *rmesc, char *rmescend, char *str, int quotes,
+	int zero
+) {
+	char *loc;
+	char *loc2;
+	char c;
+
+	loc = startp;
+	loc2 = rmesc;
+	do {
+		int match;
+		const char *s = loc2;
+		c = *loc2;
+		if (zero) {
+			*loc2 = '\0';
+			s = rmesc;
+		}
+		match = pmatch(str, s);
+		*loc2 = c;
+		if (match)
+			return loc;
+		if (quotes && *loc == (char)CTLESC)
+			loc++;
+		loc++;
+		loc2++;
+	} while (c);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+STATIC char *
+scanright(
+	char *startp, char *rmesc, char *rmescend, char *str, int quotes,
+	int zero
+) {
+	int esc = 0;
+	char *loc;
+	char *loc2;
+
+	for (loc = str - 1, loc2 = rmescend; loc >= startp; loc2--) {
+		int match;
+		char c = *loc2;
+		const char *s = loc2;
+		if (zero) {
+			*loc2 = '\0';
+			s = rmesc;
+		}
+		match = pmatch(str, s);
+		*loc2 = c;
+		if (match)
+			return loc;
+		loc--;
+		if (quotes) {
+			if (--esc < 0) {
+				esc = esclen(startp, loc);
+			}
+			if (esc % 2) {
+				esc--;
+				loc--;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+STATIC const char *
+subevalvar(char *p, char *str, int strloc, int subtype, int startloc, int varflags, int quotes)
+{
+	char *startp;
+	char *loc;
+	int saveherefd = herefd;
+	struct nodelist *saveargbackq = argbackq;
+	int amount;
+	char *rmesc, *rmescend;
+	int zero;
+	char *(*scan)(char *, char *, char *, char *, int , int);
+
+	herefd = -1;
+	argstr(p, subtype != VSASSIGN && subtype != VSQUESTION ? EXP_CASE : 0);
+	STPUTC('\0', expdest);
+	herefd = saveherefd;
+	argbackq = saveargbackq;
+	startp = stackblock() + startloc;
+
+	switch (subtype) {
+	case VSASSIGN:
+		setvar(str, startp, 0);
+		amount = startp - expdest;
+		STADJUST(amount, expdest);
+		return startp;
+
+	case VSQUESTION:
+		varunset(p, str, startp, varflags);
+		/* NOTREACHED */
+	}
+
+	subtype -= VSTRIMRIGHT;
+#ifdef DEBUG
+	if (subtype < 0 || subtype > 3)
+		abort();
+#endif
+
+	rmesc = startp;
+	rmescend = stackblock() + strloc;
+	if (quotes) {
+		rmesc = _rmescapes(startp, RMESCAPE_ALLOC | RMESCAPE_GROW);
+		if (rmesc != startp) {
+			rmescend = expdest;
+			startp = stackblock() + startloc;
+		}
+	}
+	rmescend--;
+	str = stackblock() + strloc;
+	preglob(str, varflags & VSQUOTE, 0);
+
+	/* zero = subtype == VSTRIMLEFT || subtype == VSTRIMLEFTMAX */
+	zero = subtype >> 1;
+	/* VSTRIMLEFT/VSTRIMRIGHTMAX -> scanleft */
+	scan = (subtype & 1) ^ zero ? scanleft : scanright;
+
+	loc = scan(startp, rmesc, rmescend, str, quotes, zero);
+	if (loc) {
+		if (zero) {
+			memmove(startp, loc, str - loc);
+			loc = startp + (str - loc) - 1;
+		}
+		*loc = '\0';
+		amount = loc - expdest;
+		STADJUST(amount, expdest);
+	}
+	return loc;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Expand a variable, and return a pointer to the next character in the
+ * input string.
+ */
+STATIC char *
+evalvar(char *p, int flag)
+{
+	int subtype;
+	int varflags;
+	char *var;
+	int patloc;
+	int c;
+	int startloc;
+	ssize_t varlen;
+	int easy;
+	int quotes;
+	int quoted;
+
+	quotes = flag & QUOTES_ESC;
+	varflags = *p++;
+	subtype = varflags & VSTYPE;
+	quoted = varflags & VSQUOTE;
+	var = p;
+	easy = (!quoted || (*var == '@' && shellparam.nparam));
+	startloc = expdest - (char *)stackblock();
+	p = strchr(p, '=') + 1;
+
+again:
+	varlen = varvalue(var, varflags, flag);
+	if (varflags & VSNUL)
+		varlen--;
+
+	if (subtype == VSPLUS) {
+		varlen = -1 - varlen;
+		goto vsplus;
+	}
+
+	if (subtype == VSMINUS) {
+vsplus:
+		if (varlen < 0) {
+			argstr(
+				p, flag | EXP_TILDE |
+					(quoted ?  EXP_QWORD : EXP_WORD)
+			);
+			goto end;
+		}
+		if (easy)
+			goto record;
+		goto end;
+	}
+
+	if (subtype == VSASSIGN || subtype == VSQUESTION) {
+		if (varlen < 0) {
+			if (subevalvar(p, var, 0, subtype, startloc,
+				       varflags, 0)) {
+				varflags &= ~VSNUL;
+				/*
+				 * Remove any recorded regions beyond
+				 * start of variable
+				 */
+				removerecordregions(startloc);
+				goto again;
+			}
+			goto end;
+		}
+		if (easy)
+			goto record;
+		goto end;
+	}
+
+	if (varlen < 0 && uflag)
+		varunset(p, var, 0, 0);
+
+	if (subtype == VSLENGTH) {
+		cvtnum(varlen > 0 ? varlen : 0);
+		goto record;
+	}
+
+	if (subtype == VSNORMAL) {
+		if (!easy)
+			goto end;
+record:
+		recordregion(startloc, expdest - (char *)stackblock(), quoted);
+		goto end;
+	}
+
+#ifdef DEBUG
+	switch (subtype) {
+	case VSTRIMLEFT:
+	case VSTRIMLEFTMAX:
+	case VSTRIMRIGHT:
+	case VSTRIMRIGHTMAX:
+		break;
+	default:
+		abort();
+	}
+#endif
+
+	if (varlen >= 0) {
+		/*
+		 * Terminate the string and start recording the pattern
+		 * right after it
+		 */
+		STPUTC('\0', expdest);
+		patloc = expdest - (char *)stackblock();
+		if (subevalvar(p, NULL, patloc, subtype,
+			       startloc, varflags, quotes) == 0) {
+			int amount = expdest - (
+				(char *)stackblock() + patloc - 1
+			);
+			STADJUST(-amount, expdest);
+		}
+		/* Remove any recorded regions beyond start of variable */
+		removerecordregions(startloc);
+		goto record;
+	}
+
+end:
+	if (subtype != VSNORMAL) {	/* skip to end of alternative */
+		int nesting = 1;
+		for (;;) {
+			if ((c = (signed char)*p++) == CTLESC)
+				p++;
+			else if (c == CTLBACKQ || c == (CTLBACKQ|CTLQUOTE)) {
+				if (varlen >= 0)
+					argbackq = argbackq->next;
+			} else if (c == CTLVAR) {
+				if ((*p++ & VSTYPE) != VSNORMAL)
+					nesting++;
+			} else if (c == CTLENDVAR) {
+				if (--nesting == 0)
+					break;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	return p;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Put a string on the stack.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+memtodest(const char *p, size_t len, const char *syntax, int quotes) {
+	char *q;
+
+	if (unlikely(!len))
+		return;
+
+	q = makestrspace(len * 2, expdest);
+
+	do {
+		int c = (signed char)*p++;
+		if (c) {
+			if ((quotes & QUOTES_ESC) &&
+			    (syntax[c] == CCTL || syntax[c] == CBACK))
+				USTPUTC(CTLESC, q);
+		} else if (!(quotes & QUOTES_KEEPNUL))
+			continue;
+		USTPUTC(c, q);
+	} while (--len);
+
+	expdest = q;
+}
+
+
+STATIC size_t
+strtodest(p, syntax, quotes)
+	const char *p;
+	const char *syntax;
+	int quotes;
+{
+	size_t len = strlen(p);
+	memtodest(p, len, syntax, quotes);
+	return len;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Add the value of a specialized variable to the stack string.
+ */
+
+STATIC ssize_t
+varvalue(char *name, int varflags, int flags)
+{
+	int num;
+	char *p;
+	int i;
+	int sep;
+	char sepc;
+	char **ap;
+	char const *syntax;
+	int quoted = varflags & VSQUOTE;
+	int subtype = varflags & VSTYPE;
+	int discard = subtype == VSPLUS || subtype == VSLENGTH;
+	int quotes = (discard ? 0 : (flags & QUOTES_ESC)) | QUOTES_KEEPNUL;
+	ssize_t len = 0;
+
+	sep = quoted ? ((flags & EXP_FULL) << CHAR_BIT) : 0;
+	syntax = quoted ? DQSYNTAX : BASESYNTAX;
+
+	switch (*name) {
+	case '$':
+		num = rootpid;
+		goto numvar;
+	case '?':
+		num = exitstatus;
+		goto numvar;
+	case '#':
+		num = shellparam.nparam;
+		goto numvar;
+	case '!':
+		num = backgndpid;
+		if (num == 0)
+			return -1;
+numvar:
+		len = cvtnum(num);
+		break;
+	case '-':
+		p = makestrspace(NOPTS, expdest);
+		for (i = NOPTS - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
+			if (optlist[i]) {
+				USTPUTC(optletters[i], p);
+				len++;
+			}
+		}
+		expdest = p;
+		break;
+	case '@':
+		if (sep)
+			goto param;
+		/* fall through */
+	case '*':
+		sep = ifsset() ? ifsval()[0] : ' ';
+param:
+		if (!(ap = shellparam.p))
+			return -1;
+		sepc = sep;
+		while ((p = *ap++)) {
+			len += strtodest(p, syntax, quotes);
+
+			if (*ap && sep) {
+				len++;
+				memtodest(&sepc, 1, syntax, quotes);
+			}
+		}
+		break;
+	case '0':
+	case '1':
+	case '2':
+	case '3':
+	case '4':
+	case '5':
+	case '6':
+	case '7':
+	case '8':
+	case '9':
+		num = atoi(name);
+		if (num < 0 || num > shellparam.nparam)
+			return -1;
+		p = num ? shellparam.p[num - 1] : arg0;
+		goto value;
+	default:
+		p = lookupvar(name);
+value:
+		if (!p)
+			return -1;
+
+		len = strtodest(p, syntax, quotes);
+		break;
+	}
+
+	if (discard)
+		STADJUST(-len, expdest);
+	return len;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Record the fact that we have to scan this region of the
+ * string for IFS characters.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+recordregion(int start, int end, int nulonly)
+{
+	struct ifsregion *ifsp;
+
+	if (ifslastp == NULL) {
+		ifsp = &ifsfirst;
+	} else {
+		INTOFF;
+		ifsp = (struct ifsregion *)ckmalloc(sizeof (struct ifsregion));
+		ifsp->next = NULL;
+		ifslastp->next = ifsp;
+		INTON;
+	}
+	ifslastp = ifsp;
+	ifslastp->begoff = start;
+	ifslastp->endoff = end;
+	ifslastp->nulonly = nulonly;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Break the argument string into pieces based upon IFS and add the
+ * strings to the argument list.  The regions of the string to be
+ * searched for IFS characters have been stored by recordregion.
+ */
+STATIC void
+ifsbreakup(char *string, struct arglist *arglist)
+{
+	struct ifsregion *ifsp;
+	struct strlist *sp;
+	char *start;
+	char *p;
+	char *q;
+	const char *ifs, *realifs;
+	int ifsspc;
+	int nulonly;
+
+
+	start = string;
+	if (ifslastp != NULL) {
+		ifsspc = 0;
+		nulonly = 0;
+		realifs = ifsset() ? ifsval() : defifs;
+		ifsp = &ifsfirst;
+		do {
+			p = string + ifsp->begoff;
+			nulonly = ifsp->nulonly;
+			ifs = nulonly ? nullstr : realifs;
+			ifsspc = 0;
+			while (p < string + ifsp->endoff) {
+				q = p;
+				if (*p == (char)CTLESC)
+					p++;
+				if (strchr(ifs, *p)) {
+					if (!nulonly)
+						ifsspc = (strchr(defifs, *p) != NULL);
+					/* Ignore IFS whitespace at start */
+					if (q == start && ifsspc) {
+						p++;
+						start = p;
+						continue;
+					}
+					*q = '\0';
+					sp = (struct strlist *)stalloc(sizeof *sp);
+					sp->text = start;
+					*arglist->lastp = sp;
+					arglist->lastp = &sp->next;
+					p++;
+					if (!nulonly) {
+						for (;;) {
+							if (p >= string + ifsp->endoff) {
+								break;
+							}
+							q = p;
+							if (*p == (char)CTLESC)
+								p++;
+							if (strchr(ifs, *p) == NULL ) {
+								p = q;
+								break;
+							} else if (strchr(defifs, *p) == NULL) {
+								if (ifsspc) {
+									p++;
+									ifsspc = 0;
+								} else {
+									p = q;
+									break;
+								}
+							} else
+								p++;
+						}
+					}
+					start = p;
+				} else
+					p++;
+			}
+		} while ((ifsp = ifsp->next) != NULL);
+		if (nulonly)
+			goto add;
+	}
+
+	if (!*start)
+		return;
+
+add:
+	sp = (struct strlist *)stalloc(sizeof *sp);
+	sp->text = start;
+	*arglist->lastp = sp;
+	arglist->lastp = &sp->next;
+}
+
+STATIC void
+ifsfree(void)
+{
+	struct ifsregion *p;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	p = ifsfirst.next;
+	do {
+		struct ifsregion *ifsp;
+		ifsp = p->next;
+		ckfree(p);
+		p = ifsp;
+	} while (p);
+	ifslastp = NULL;
+	ifsfirst.next = NULL;
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Expand shell metacharacters.  At this point, the only control characters
+ * should be escapes.  The results are stored in the list exparg.
+ */
+
+#if defined(__GLIBC__) && !defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN) && !defined(GLOB_BROKEN)
+STATIC void
+expandmeta(str, flag)
+	struct strlist *str;
+	int flag;
+{
+	/* TODO - EXP_REDIR */
+
+	while (str) {
+		const char *p;
+		glob_t pglob;
+		int i;
+
+		if (fflag)
+			goto nometa;
+		INTOFF;
+		p = preglob(str->text, 0, RMESCAPE_ALLOC | RMESCAPE_HEAP);
+		i = glob(p, GLOB_NOMAGIC, 0, &pglob);
+		if (p != str->text)
+			ckfree(p);
+		switch (i) {
+		case 0:
+			if (!(pglob.gl_flags & GLOB_MAGCHAR))
+				goto nometa2;
+			addglob(&pglob);
+			globfree(&pglob);
+			INTON;
+			break;
+		case GLOB_NOMATCH:
+nometa2:
+			globfree(&pglob);
+			INTON;
+nometa:
+			*exparg.lastp = str;
+			rmescapes(str->text);
+			exparg.lastp = &str->next;
+			break;
+		default:	/* GLOB_NOSPACE */
+			sh_error("Out of space");
+		}
+		str = str->next;
+	}
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Add the result of glob(3) to the list.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+addglob(pglob)
+	const glob_t *pglob;
+{
+	char **p = pglob->gl_pathv;
+
+	do {
+		addfname(*p);
+	} while (*++p);
+}
+
+
+#else	/* defined(__GLIBC__) && !defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN) && !defined(GLOB_BROKEN) */
+STATIC char *expdir;
+
+
+STATIC void
+expandmeta(struct strlist *str, int flag)
+{
+	static const char metachars[] = {
+		'*', '?', '[', 0
+	};
+	/* TODO - EXP_REDIR */
+
+	while (str) {
+		struct strlist **savelastp;
+		struct strlist *sp;
+		char *p;
+
+		if (fflag)
+			goto nometa;
+		if (!strpbrk(str->text, metachars))
+			goto nometa;
+		savelastp = exparg.lastp;
+
+		INTOFF;
+		p = preglob(str->text, 0, RMESCAPE_ALLOC | RMESCAPE_HEAP);
+		{
+			int i = strlen(str->text);
+			expdir = ckmalloc(i < 2048 ? 2048 : i); /* XXX */
+		}
+
+		expmeta(expdir, p);
+		ckfree(expdir);
+		if (p != str->text)
+			ckfree(p);
+		INTON;
+		if (exparg.lastp == savelastp) {
+			/*
+			 * no matches
+			 */
+nometa:
+			*exparg.lastp = str;
+			rmescapes(str->text);
+			exparg.lastp = &str->next;
+		} else {
+			*exparg.lastp = NULL;
+			*savelastp = sp = expsort(*savelastp);
+			while (sp->next != NULL)
+				sp = sp->next;
+			exparg.lastp = &sp->next;
+		}
+		str = str->next;
+	}
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Do metacharacter (i.e. *, ?, [...]) expansion.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+expmeta(char *enddir, char *name)
+{
+	char *p;
+	const char *cp;
+	char *start;
+	char *endname;
+	int metaflag;
+	struct stat64 statb;
+	DIR *dirp;
+	struct dirent *dp;
+	int atend;
+	int matchdot;
+
+	metaflag = 0;
+	start = name;
+	for (p = name; *p; p++) {
+		if (*p == '*' || *p == '?')
+			metaflag = 1;
+		else if (*p == '[') {
+			char *q = p + 1;
+			if (*q == '!')
+				q++;
+			for (;;) {
+				if (*q == '\\')
+					q++;
+				if (*q == '/' || *q == '\0')
+					break;
+				if (*++q == ']') {
+					metaflag = 1;
+					break;
+				}
+			}
+		} else if (*p == '\\')
+			p++;
+		else if (*p == '/') {
+			if (metaflag)
+				goto out;
+			start = p + 1;
+		}
+	}
+out:
+	if (metaflag == 0) {	/* we've reached the end of the file name */
+		if (enddir != expdir)
+			metaflag++;
+		p = name;
+		do {
+			if (*p == '\\')
+				p++;
+			*enddir++ = *p;
+		} while (*p++);
+		if (metaflag == 0 || lstat64(expdir, &statb) >= 0)
+			addfname(expdir);
+		return;
+	}
+	endname = p;
+	if (name < start) {
+		p = name;
+		do {
+			if (*p == '\\')
+				p++;
+			*enddir++ = *p++;
+		} while (p < start);
+	}
+	if (enddir == expdir) {
+		cp = ".";
+	} else if (enddir == expdir + 1 && *expdir == '/') {
+		cp = "/";
+	} else {
+		cp = expdir;
+		enddir[-1] = '\0';
+	}
+	if ((dirp = opendir(cp)) == NULL)
+		return;
+	if (enddir != expdir)
+		enddir[-1] = '/';
+	if (*endname == 0) {
+		atend = 1;
+	} else {
+		atend = 0;
+		*endname++ = '\0';
+	}
+	matchdot = 0;
+	p = start;
+	if (*p == '\\')
+		p++;
+	if (*p == '.')
+		matchdot++;
+	while (! int_pending() && (dp = readdir(dirp)) != NULL) {
+		if (dp->d_name[0] == '.' && ! matchdot)
+			continue;
+		if (pmatch(start, dp->d_name)) {
+			if (atend) {
+				scopy(dp->d_name, enddir);
+				addfname(expdir);
+			} else {
+				for (p = enddir, cp = dp->d_name;
+				     (*p++ = *cp++) != '\0';)
+					continue;
+				p[-1] = '/';
+				expmeta(p, endname);
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	closedir(dirp);
+	if (! atend)
+		endname[-1] = '/';
+}
+#endif	/* defined(__GLIBC__) && !defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN) && !defined(GLOB_BROKEN) */
+
+
+/*
+ * Add a file name to the list.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+addfname(char *name)
+{
+	struct strlist *sp;
+
+	sp = (struct strlist *)stalloc(sizeof *sp);
+	sp->text = sstrdup(name);
+	*exparg.lastp = sp;
+	exparg.lastp = &sp->next;
+}
+
+
+#if !(defined(__GLIBC__) && !defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN) && !defined(GLOB_BROKEN))
+/*
+ * Sort the results of file name expansion.  It calculates the number of
+ * strings to sort and then calls msort (short for merge sort) to do the
+ * work.
+ */
+
+STATIC struct strlist *
+expsort(struct strlist *str)
+{
+	int len;
+	struct strlist *sp;
+
+	len = 0;
+	for (sp = str ; sp ; sp = sp->next)
+		len++;
+	return msort(str, len);
+}
+
+
+STATIC struct strlist *
+msort(struct strlist *list, int len)
+{
+	struct strlist *p, *q = NULL;
+	struct strlist **lpp;
+	int half;
+	int n;
+
+	if (len <= 1)
+		return list;
+	half = len >> 1;
+	p = list;
+	for (n = half ; --n >= 0 ; ) {
+		q = p;
+		p = p->next;
+	}
+	q->next = NULL;			/* terminate first half of list */
+	q = msort(list, half);		/* sort first half of list */
+	p = msort(p, len - half);		/* sort second half */
+	lpp = &list;
+	for (;;) {
+		if (strcmp(p->text, q->text) < 0) {
+			*lpp = p;
+			lpp = &p->next;
+			if ((p = *lpp) == NULL) {
+				*lpp = q;
+				break;
+			}
+		} else {
+			*lpp = q;
+			lpp = &q->next;
+			if ((q = *lpp) == NULL) {
+				*lpp = p;
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	return list;
+}
+#endif
+
+
+/*
+ * Returns true if the pattern matches the string.
+ */
+
+STATIC inline int
+patmatch(char *pattern, const char *string)
+{
+	return pmatch(preglob(pattern, 0, 0), string);
+}
+
+
+#if !defined(__GLIBC__) || defined(FNMATCH_BROKEN)
+STATIC int ccmatch(const char *p, int chr, const char **r)
+{
+	static const struct class {
+		char name[10];
+		int (*fn)(int);
+	} classes[] = {
+		{ .name = ":alnum:]", .fn = isalnum },
+		{ .name = ":cntrl:]", .fn = iscntrl },
+		{ .name = ":lower:]", .fn = islower },
+		{ .name = ":space:]", .fn = isspace },
+		{ .name = ":alpha:]", .fn = isalpha },
+		{ .name = ":digit:]", .fn = isdigit },
+		{ .name = ":print:]", .fn = isprint },
+		{ .name = ":upper:]", .fn = isupper },
+		{ .name = ":blank:]", .fn = isblank },
+		{ .name = ":graph:]", .fn = isgraph },
+		{ .name = ":punct:]", .fn = ispunct },
+		{ .name = ":xdigit:]", .fn = isxdigit },
+	};
+	const struct class *class, *end;
+
+	end = classes + sizeof(classes) / sizeof(classes[0]);
+	for (class = classes; class < end; class++) {
+		const char *q;
+
+		q = prefix(p, class->name);
+		if (!q)
+			continue;
+		*r = q;
+		return class->fn(chr);
+	}
+
+	*r = 0;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+STATIC int
+pmatch(const char *pattern, const char *string)
+{
+	const char *p, *q;
+	char c;
+
+	p = pattern;
+	q = string;
+	for (;;) {
+		switch (c = *p++) {
+		case '\0':
+			goto breakloop;
+		case '\\':
+			if (*p) {
+				c = *p++;
+			}
+			goto dft;
+		case '?':
+			if (*q++ == '\0')
+				return 0;
+			break;
+		case '*':
+			c = *p;
+			while (c == '*')
+				c = *++p;
+			if (c != '\\' && c != '?' && c != '*' && c != '[') {
+				while (*q != c) {
+					if (*q == '\0')
+						return 0;
+					q++;
+				}
+			}
+			do {
+				if (pmatch(p, q))
+					return 1;
+			} while (*q++ != '\0');
+			return 0;
+		case '[': {
+			const char *startp;
+			int invert, found;
+			char chr;
+
+			startp = p;
+			invert = 0;
+			if (*p == '!') {
+				invert++;
+				p++;
+			}
+			found = 0;
+			chr = *q++;
+			if (chr == '\0')
+				return 0;
+			c = *p++;
+			do {
+				if (!c) {
+					p = startp;
+					c = *p;
+					goto dft;
+				}
+				if (c == '[') {
+					const char *r;
+
+					found |= ccmatch(p, chr, &r);
+					if (r) {
+						p = r;
+						continue;
+					}
+				} else if (c == '\\')
+					c = *p++;
+				if (*p == '-' && p[1] != ']') {
+					p++;
+					if (*p == '\\')
+						p++;
+					if (chr >= c && chr <= *p)
+						found = 1;
+					p++;
+				} else {
+					if (chr == c)
+						found = 1;
+				}
+			} while ((c = *p++) != ']');
+			if (found == invert)
+				return 0;
+			break;
+		}
+dft:	        default:
+			if (*q++ != c)
+				return 0;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+breakloop:
+	if (*q != '\0')
+		return 0;
+	return 1;
+}
+#endif
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Remove any CTLESC characters from a string.
+ */
+
+char *
+_rmescapes(char *str, int flag)
+{
+	char *p, *q, *r;
+	static const char qchars[] = { CTLESC, CTLQUOTEMARK, 0 };
+	unsigned inquotes;
+	int notescaped;
+	int globbing;
+
+	p = strpbrk(str, qchars);
+	if (!p) {
+		return str;
+	}
+	q = p;
+	r = str;
+	if (flag & RMESCAPE_ALLOC) {
+		size_t len = p - str;
+		size_t fulllen = len + strlen(p) + 1;
+
+		if (flag & RMESCAPE_GROW) {
+			r = makestrspace(fulllen, expdest);
+		} else if (flag & RMESCAPE_HEAP) {
+			r = ckmalloc(fulllen);
+		} else {
+			r = stalloc(fulllen);
+		}
+		q = r;
+		if (len > 0) {
+			q = mempcpy(q, str, len);
+		}
+	}
+	inquotes = (flag & RMESCAPE_QUOTED) ^ RMESCAPE_QUOTED;
+	globbing = flag & RMESCAPE_GLOB;
+	notescaped = globbing;
+	while (*p) {
+		if (*p == (char)CTLQUOTEMARK) {
+			inquotes = ~inquotes;
+			p++;
+			notescaped = globbing;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (*p == '\\') {
+			/* naked back slash */
+			notescaped = 0;
+			goto copy;
+		}
+		if (*p == (char)CTLESC) {
+			p++;
+			if (notescaped && inquotes && *p != '/') {
+				*q++ = '\\';
+			}
+		}
+		notescaped = globbing;
+copy:
+		*q++ = *p++;
+	}
+	*q = '\0';
+	if (flag & RMESCAPE_GROW) {
+		expdest = r;
+		STADJUST(q - r + 1, expdest);
+	}
+	return r;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * See if a pattern matches in a case statement.
+ */
+
+int
+casematch(union node *pattern, char *val)
+{
+	struct stackmark smark;
+	int result;
+
+	setstackmark(&smark);
+	argbackq = pattern->narg.backquote;
+	STARTSTACKSTR(expdest);
+	ifslastp = NULL;
+	argstr(pattern->narg.text, EXP_TILDE | EXP_CASE);
+	STACKSTRNUL(expdest);
+	result = patmatch(stackblock(), val);
+	popstackmark(&smark);
+	return result;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Our own itoa().
+ */
+
+STATIC int
+cvtnum(long num)
+{
+	int len;
+
+	expdest = makestrspace(32, expdest);
+	len = fmtstr(expdest, 32, "%ld", num);
+	STADJUST(len, expdest);
+	return len;
+}
+
+STATIC void
+varunset(const char *end, const char *var, const char *umsg, int varflags)
+{
+	const char *msg;
+	const char *tail;
+
+	tail = nullstr;
+	msg = "parameter not set";
+	if (umsg) {
+		if (*end == (char)CTLENDVAR) {
+			if (varflags & VSNUL)
+				tail = " or null";
+		} else
+			msg = umsg;
+	}
+	sh_error("%.*s: %s%s", end - var - 1, var, msg, tail);
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/expand.h b/usr/dash/expand.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d304595
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/expand.h
@@ -0,0 +1,83 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)expand.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+#ifndef DASH_STRLIST_H
+#define DASH_STRLIST_H
+
+struct strlist {
+	struct strlist *next;
+	char *text;
+};
+
+
+struct arglist {
+	struct strlist *list;
+	struct strlist **lastp;
+};
+
+/*
+ * expandarg() flags
+ */
+#define EXP_FULL	0x1	/* perform word splitting & file globbing */
+#define EXP_TILDE	0x2	/* do normal tilde expansion */
+#define	EXP_VARTILDE	0x4	/* expand tildes in an assignment */
+#define	EXP_REDIR	0x8	/* file glob for a redirection (1 match only) */
+#define EXP_CASE	0x10	/* keeps quotes around for CASE pattern */
+#define EXP_RECORD	0x20	/* need to record arguments for ifs breakup */
+#define EXP_VARTILDE2	0x40	/* expand tildes after colons only */
+#define EXP_WORD	0x80	/* expand word in parameter expansion */
+#define EXP_QWORD	0x100	/* expand word in quoted parameter expansion */
+
+
+union node;
+void expandhere(union node *, int);
+void expandarg(union node *, struct arglist *, int);
+void expari(int);
+#define rmescapes(p) _rmescapes((p), 0)
+char *_rmescapes(char *, int);
+int casematch(union node *, char *);
+
+/* From arith.y */
+int arith(const char *);
+int expcmd(int , char **);
+#ifdef USE_LEX
+void arith_lex_reset(void);
+#else
+#define arith_lex_reset()
+#endif
+int yylex(void);
+
+#endif		/* DASH_STRLIST_H */
diff --git a/usr/dash/funcs/cmv b/usr/dash/funcs/cmv
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..91a67c5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/funcs/cmv
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+#	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+#
+# This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+# Kenneth Almquist.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+#    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
+#
+#	@(#)cmv	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+
+# Conditional move--don't replace an existing file.
+
+cmv() {
+	if test $# != 2
+	then	echo "cmv: arg count"
+		return 2
+	fi
+	if test -f "$2" -o -w "$2"
+	then	echo "$2 exists"
+		return 2
+	fi
+	/bin/mv "$1" "$2"
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/funcs/dirs b/usr/dash/funcs/dirs
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7d840eb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/funcs/dirs
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+#	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+#
+# This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+# Kenneth Almquist.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+#    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
+#
+#	@(#)dirs	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+
+# pushd, popd, and dirs --- written by Chris Bertin
+# Pixel Computer Inc. ...!wjh12!pixel!pixutl!chris
+# as modified by Patrick Elam of GTRI and Kenneth Almquist at UW
+
+pushd () {
+	SAVE=`pwd`
+	if [ "$1" = "" ]
+	then	if [ "$DSTACK" = "" ]
+		then	echo "pushd: directory stack empty."
+			return 1
+		fi
+		set $DSTACK
+		cd $1 || return
+		shift 1
+		DSTACK="$*"
+	else	cd $1 > /dev/null || return
+	fi
+	DSTACK="$SAVE $DSTACK"
+	dirs
+}
+
+popd () {
+	if [ "$DSTACK" = "" ]
+	then	echo "popd: directory stack empty."
+		return 1
+	fi
+	set $DSTACK
+	cd $1
+	shift
+	DSTACK=$*
+	dirs
+}
+
+dirs () {
+	echo "`pwd` $DSTACK"
+	return 0
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/funcs/kill b/usr/dash/funcs/kill
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c5df95f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/funcs/kill
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+#	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+#
+# This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+# Kenneth Almquist.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+#    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
+#
+#	@(#)kill	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+
+# Convert job names to process ids and then run /bin/kill.
+
+kill() {
+	local args x
+	args=
+	for x in "$@"
+	do	case $x in
+		%*)	x=`jobid "$x"` ;;
+		esac
+		args="$args $x"
+	done
+	/bin/kill $args
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/funcs/login b/usr/dash/funcs/login
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..215e535
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/funcs/login
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+#	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+#
+# This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+# Kenneth Almquist.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+#    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
+#
+#	@(#)login	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+
+# replaces the login builtin in the BSD shell
+login () exec login "$@"
diff --git a/usr/dash/funcs/newgrp b/usr/dash/funcs/newgrp
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ec0e7e5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/funcs/newgrp
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+#	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+#
+# This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+# Kenneth Almquist.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+#    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
+#
+#	@(#)newgrp	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+
+newgrp() exec newgrp "$@"
diff --git a/usr/dash/funcs/popd b/usr/dash/funcs/popd
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3b1ab46
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/funcs/popd
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+#	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+#
+# This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+# Kenneth Almquist.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+#    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
+#
+#	@(#)popd	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+
+# pushd, popd, and dirs --- written by Chris Bertin
+# Pixel Computer Inc. ...!wjh12!pixel!pixutl!chris
+# as modified by Patrick Elam of GTRI and Kenneth Almquist at UW
+
+pushd () {
+	SAVE=`pwd`
+	if [ "$1" = "" ]
+	then	if [ "$DSTACK" = "" ]
+		then	echo "pushd: directory stack empty."
+			return 1
+		fi
+		set $DSTACK
+		cd $1 || return
+		shift 1
+		DSTACK="$*"
+	else	cd $1 > /dev/null || return
+	fi
+	DSTACK="$SAVE $DSTACK"
+	dirs
+}
+
+popd () {
+	if [ "$DSTACK" = "" ]
+	then	echo "popd: directory stack empty."
+		return 1
+	fi
+	set $DSTACK
+	cd $1
+	shift
+	DSTACK=$*
+	dirs
+}
+
+dirs () {
+	echo "`pwd` $DSTACK"
+	return 0
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/funcs/pushd b/usr/dash/funcs/pushd
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..483d358
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/funcs/pushd
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+#	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+#
+# This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+# Kenneth Almquist.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+#    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
+#
+#	@(#)pushd	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+
+# pushd, popd, and dirs --- written by Chris Bertin
+# Pixel Computer Inc. ...!wjh12!pixel!pixutl!chris
+# as modified by Patrick Elam of GTRI and Kenneth Almquist at UW
+
+pushd () {
+	SAVE=`pwd`
+	if [ "$1" = "" ]
+	then	if [ "$DSTACK" = "" ]
+		then	echo "pushd: directory stack empty."
+			return 1
+		fi
+		set $DSTACK
+		cd $1 || return
+		shift 1
+		DSTACK="$*"
+	else	cd $1 > /dev/null || return
+	fi
+	DSTACK="$SAVE $DSTACK"
+	dirs
+}
+
+popd () {
+	if [ "$DSTACK" = "" ]
+	then	echo "popd: directory stack empty."
+		return 1
+	fi
+	set $DSTACK
+	cd $1
+	shift
+	DSTACK=$*
+	dirs
+}
+
+dirs () {
+	echo "`pwd` $DSTACK"
+	return 0
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/funcs/suspend b/usr/dash/funcs/suspend
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4484467
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/funcs/suspend
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+#	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+#	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+#
+# This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+# Kenneth Almquist.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+#    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
+#
+#	@(#)suspend	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+
+suspend() {
+	local -
+	set +j
+	kill -TSTP 0
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/gendeps.pl b/usr/dash/gendeps.pl
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..e6797de
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/gendeps.pl
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+#!/usr/bin/perl
+#
+# Generate dependencies for *generated* header files.  Generated
+# header files have to use #include "foo.h" syntax.
+#
+
+($src, $obj, @build_headers) = @ARGV;
+%build_headers = map { $_ => 1 } @build_headers;
+
+open(GENDEPS, "> $obj/.gendeps\0")
+    or die "$0: Cannot create $obj/.gendeps: $!\n";
+
+opendir(DIR, $src) or die "$0: Cannot opendir $src: $!\n";
+while ( defined($file = readdir(DIR)) ) {
+    if ( $file =~ /^(.*)\.c$/ ) {
+	$basename = $1;
+	@hdrs = ();
+	open(FILE, "< $src/$file\0")
+	    or die "$0: Cannot open $src/$file: $!\n";
+	while ( defined($line = <FILE>) ) {
+	    if ( $line =~ /^\s*\#\s*include\s+\"(.*)\"/ ) {
+		$header = $1;
+
+		if ( $build_headers{$header} ) {
+		    push(@hdrs, "\$(obj)/$header");
+		}
+	    }
+	}
+	close(FILE);
+
+	if (scalar(@hdrs)) {
+	    print GENDEPS "\$(obj)/$basename.o: ", join(' ', @hdrs), "\n";
+	}
+    }
+}
+
+closedir(DIR);
+close(GENDEPS);
diff --git a/usr/dash/hetio.c b/usr/dash/hetio.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f7d175f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/hetio.c
@@ -0,0 +1,397 @@
+/*
+ * Termios command line History and Editting for NetBSD sh (ash)
+ * Copyright (c) 1999
+ *	Main code:	Adam Rogoyski <rogoyski@cs.utexas.edu>
+ *	Etc:		Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>
+ *
+ * You may use this code as you wish, so long as the original author(s)
+ * are attributed in any redistributions of the source code.
+ * This code is 'as is' with no warranty.
+ * This code may safely be consumed by a BSD or GPL license.
+ *
+ * v 0.5  19990328	Initial release
+ *
+ * Future plans: Simple file and path name completion. (like BASH)
+ *
+ */
+
+/*
+Usage and Known bugs:
+	Terminal key codes are not extensive, and more will probably
+	need to be added. This version was created on Debian GNU/Linux 2.x.
+	Delete, Backspace, Home, End, and the arrow keys were tested
+	to work in an Xterm and console. Ctrl-A also works as Home.
+	Ctrl-E also works as End. Ctrl-D and Ctrl-U perform their respective
+	functions. The binary size increase is <3K.
+
+	Editting will not display correctly for lines greater then the
+	terminal width. (more then one line.) However, history will.
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <termios.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+
+#include "input.h"
+#include "output.h"
+
+#include "hetio.h"
+
+
+#define  MAX_HISTORY   15			/* Maximum length of the linked list for the command line history */
+
+#define ESC	27
+#define DEL	127
+
+static struct history *his_front = NULL;	/* First element in command line list */
+static struct history *his_end = NULL;		/* Last element in command line list */
+static struct termios old_term, new_term;	/* Current termio and the previous termio before starting ash */
+
+static int history_counter = 0;			/* Number of commands in history list */
+static int reset_term = 0;			/* Set to true if the terminal needs to be reset upon exit */
+static int hetio_inter = 0;
+
+struct history
+{
+   char *s;
+   struct history *p;
+   struct history *n;
+};
+
+
+void input_delete    (int);
+void input_home      (int *);
+void input_end       (int *, int);
+void input_backspace (int *, int *);
+
+
+
+void hetio_init(void)
+{
+	hetio_inter = 1;
+}
+
+
+void hetio_reset_term(void)
+{
+	if (reset_term)
+		tcsetattr(1, TCSANOW, &old_term);
+}
+
+
+void setIO(struct termios *new, struct termios *old)	/* Set terminal IO to canonical mode, and save old term settings. */
+{
+	tcgetattr(0, old);
+	memcpy(new, old, sizeof(*new));
+	new->c_cc[VMIN] = 1;
+	new->c_cc[VTIME] = 0;
+	new->c_lflag &= ~ICANON; /* unbuffered input */
+	new->c_lflag &= ~ECHO;
+	tcsetattr(0, TCSANOW, new);
+}
+
+void input_home(int *cursor)				/* Command line input routines */
+{
+ 	while (*cursor > 0) {
+		out1c('\b');
+		--*cursor;
+	}
+	flushout(out1);
+}
+
+
+void input_delete(int cursor)
+{
+	int j = 0;
+
+	memmove(parsenextc + cursor, parsenextc + cursor + 1,
+		BUFSIZ - cursor - 1);
+	for (j = cursor; j < (BUFSIZ - 1); j++) {
+		if (!*(parsenextc + j))
+			break;
+		else
+			out1c(*(parsenextc + j));
+	}
+
+	out1str(" \b");
+
+	while (j-- > cursor)
+		out1c('\b');
+	flushout(out1);
+}
+
+
+void input_end(int *cursor, int len)
+{
+	while (*cursor < len) {
+		out1str("\033[C");
+		++*cursor;
+	}
+	flushout(out1);
+}
+
+
+void
+input_backspace(int *cursor, int *len)
+{
+	int j = 0;
+
+	if (*cursor > 0) {
+		out1str("\b \b");
+		--*cursor;
+		memmove(parsenextc + *cursor, parsenextc + *cursor + 1,
+			BUFSIZ - *cursor + 1);
+
+		for (j = *cursor; j < (BUFSIZ - 1); j++) {
+			if (!*(parsenextc + j))
+				break;
+			else
+				out1c(*(parsenextc + j));
+		}
+
+		out1str(" \b");
+
+		while (j-- > *cursor)
+			out1c('\b');
+
+		--*len;
+		flushout(out1);
+	}
+}
+
+int hetio_read_input(int fd)
+{
+	int nr = 0;
+
+	/* Are we an interactive shell? */
+	if (!hetio_inter || fd) {
+		return -255;
+	} else {
+		int len = 0;
+		int j = 0;
+		int cursor = 0;
+		int break_out = 0;
+		int ret = 0;
+		char c = 0;
+		struct history *hp = his_end;
+
+		if (!reset_term) {
+			setIO(&new_term, &old_term);
+			reset_term = 1;
+		} else {
+			tcsetattr(0, TCSANOW, &new_term);
+		}
+
+		memset(parsenextc, 0, BUFSIZ);
+
+		while (1) {
+			if ((ret = read(fd, &c, 1)) < 1)
+				return ret;
+
+			switch (c) {
+   				case 1:		/* Control-A Beginning of line */
+   					input_home(&cursor);
+					break;
+				case 5:		/* Control-E EOL */
+					input_end(&cursor, len);
+					break;
+				case 4:		/* Control-D */
+					if (!len)
+						exitshell(0);
+					break;
+				case 21: 	/* Control-U */
+					/* Return to begining of line. */
+					for (; cursor > 0; cursor--)
+						out1c('\b');
+					/* Erase old command. */
+					for (j = 0; j < len; j++) {
+						/*
+						 * Clear buffer while we're at
+						 * it.
+						 */
+						parsenextc[j] = 0;
+						out1c(' ');
+					}
+					/* return to begining of line */
+					for (; len > 0; len--)
+						out1c('\b');
+					flushout(out1);
+					break;
+				case '\b':	/* Backspace */
+				case DEL:
+					input_backspace(&cursor, &len);
+					break;
+				case '\n':	/* Enter */
+					*(parsenextc + len++ + 1) = c;
+					out1c(c);
+					flushout(out1);
+					break_out = 1;
+					break;
+				case ESC:	/* escape sequence follows */
+					if ((ret = read(fd, &c, 1)) < 1)
+						return ret;
+
+					if (c == '[' ) {    /* 91 */
+						if ((ret = read(fd, &c, 1)) < 1)
+							return ret;
+
+						switch (c) {
+							case 'A':
+								if (hp && hp->p) {		/* Up */
+									hp = hp->p;
+									goto hop;
+								}
+								break;
+							case 'B':
+								if (hp && hp->n && hp->n->s) {	/* Down */
+									hp = hp->n;
+									goto hop;
+								}
+								break;
+
+hop:						/* hop */
+								len = strlen(parsenextc);
+
+								for (; cursor > 0; cursor--)		/* return to begining of line */
+									out1c('\b');
+
+		   						for (j = 0; j < len; j++)		/* erase old command */
+									out1c(' ');
+
+								for (; j > 0; j--)		/* return to begining of line */
+									out1c('\b');
+
+								strcpy (parsenextc, hp->s);		/* write new command */
+								len = strlen (hp->s);
+								out1str(parsenextc);
+								flushout(out1);
+								cursor = len;
+								break;
+							case 'C':		/* Right */
+								if (cursor < len) {
+									out1str("\033[C");
+									cursor++;
+									flushout(out1);
+						 		}
+								break;
+							case 'D':		/* Left */
+								if (cursor > 0) {
+									out1str("\033[D");
+									cursor--;
+									flushout(out1);
+								}
+								break;
+							case '3':		/* Delete */
+								if (cursor != len) {
+									input_delete(cursor);
+									len--;
+								}
+								break;
+							case '1':		/* Home (Ctrl-A) */
+								input_home(&cursor);
+								break;
+							case '4':		/* End (Ctrl-E) */
+								input_end(&cursor, len);
+								break;
+						}
+						if (c == '1' || c == '3' || c == '4')
+							if ((ret = read(fd, &c, 1)) < 1)
+								return ret;  /* read 126 (~) */
+					}
+
+					if (c == 'O') {	/* 79 */
+						if ((ret = read(fd, &c, 1)) < 1)
+							return ret;
+						switch (c) {
+							case 'H':		/* Home (xterm) */
+      								input_home(&cursor);
+								break;
+							case 'F':		/* End (xterm_ */
+								input_end(&cursor, len);
+								break;
+						}
+					}
+
+					c = 0;
+					break;
+
+				default:				/* If it's regular input, do the normal thing */
+					if (!isprint(c))		/* Skip non-printable characters */
+						break;
+
+	       				if (len >= (BUFSIZ - 2))	/* Need to leave space for enter */
+		  				break;
+
+					len++;
+
+					if (cursor == (len - 1)) {	/* Append if at the end of the line */
+						*(parsenextc + cursor) = c;
+					} else {			/* Insert otherwise */
+						memmove(parsenextc + cursor + 1, parsenextc + cursor,
+							len - cursor - 1);
+
+						*(parsenextc + cursor) = c;
+
+						for (j = cursor; j < len; j++)
+							out1c(*(parsenextc + j));
+						for (; j > cursor; j--)
+							out1str("\033[D");
+					}
+
+					cursor++;
+					out1c(c);
+					flushout(out1);
+					break;
+			}
+
+			if (break_out)		/* Enter is the command terminator, no more input. */
+				break;
+		}
+
+		nr = len + 1;
+		tcsetattr(0, TCSANOW, &old_term);
+
+		if (*(parsenextc)) {		/* Handle command history log */
+			struct history *h = his_end;
+
+			if (!h) {       /* No previous history */
+				h = his_front = malloc(sizeof (struct history));
+				h->n = malloc(sizeof (struct history));
+				h->p = NULL;
+				h->s = strdup(parsenextc);
+
+				h->n->p = h;
+				h->n->n = NULL;
+				h->n->s = NULL;
+				his_end = h->n;
+				history_counter++;
+			} else {	/* Add a new history command */
+
+				h->n = malloc(sizeof (struct history));
+
+				h->n->p = h;
+				h->n->n = NULL;
+				h->n->s = NULL;
+				h->s = strdup(parsenextc);
+				his_end = h->n;
+
+				if (history_counter >= MAX_HISTORY) {	/* After max history, remove the last known command */
+					struct history *p = his_front->n;
+
+					p->p = NULL;
+					free(his_front->s);
+					free(his_front);
+					his_front = p;
+				} else {
+					history_counter++;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	return nr;
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/hetio.h b/usr/dash/hetio.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5f49713
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/hetio.h
@@ -0,0 +1,22 @@
+/*
+ * Termios command line History and Editting for NetBSD sh (ash)
+ * Copyright (c) 1999
+ *	Main code:	Adam Rogoyski <rogoyski@cs.utexas.edu>
+ *	Etc:		Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>
+ *
+ * You may use this code as you wish, so long as the original author(s)
+ * are attributed in any redistributions of the source code.
+ * This code is 'as is' with no warranty.
+ * This code may safely be consumed by a BSD or GPL license.
+ *
+ * v 0.5  19990328	Initial release
+ *
+ * Future plans: Simple file and path name completion. (like BASH)
+ *
+ */
+
+void hetio_init(void);
+int hetio_read_input(int fd);
+void hetio_reset_term(void);
+
+extern int hetio_inter;
diff --git a/usr/dash/histedit.c b/usr/dash/histedit.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..36d7937
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/histedit.c
@@ -0,0 +1,492 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#include <paths.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+/*
+ * Editline and history functions (and glue).
+ */
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "parser.h"
+#include "var.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "main.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#ifndef SMALL
+#include "myhistedit.h"
+#include "eval.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+
+#define MAXHISTLOOPS	4	/* max recursions through fc */
+#define DEFEDITOR	"ed"	/* default editor *should* be $EDITOR */
+
+History *hist;	/* history cookie */
+EditLine *el;	/* editline cookie */
+int displayhist;
+static FILE *el_in, *el_out;
+
+STATIC const char *fc_replace(const char *, char *, char *);
+
+#ifdef DEBUG
+extern FILE *tracefile;
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * Set history and editing status.  Called whenever the status may
+ * have changed (figures out what to do).
+ */
+void
+histedit(void)
+{
+	FILE *el_err;
+
+#define editing (Eflag || Vflag)
+
+	if (iflag) {
+		if (!hist) {
+			/*
+			 * turn history on
+			 */
+			INTOFF;
+			hist = history_init();
+			INTON;
+
+			if (hist != NULL)
+				sethistsize(histsizeval());
+			else
+				out2str("sh: can't initialize history\n");
+		}
+		if (editing && !el && isatty(0)) { /* && isatty(2) ??? */
+			/*
+			 * turn editing on
+			 */
+			INTOFF;
+			if (el_in == NULL)
+				el_in = fdopen(0, "r");
+			if (el_out == NULL)
+				el_out = fdopen(2, "w");
+			if (el_in == NULL || el_out == NULL)
+				goto bad;
+			el_err = el_out;
+#if DEBUG
+			if (tracefile)
+				el_err = tracefile;
+#endif
+			el = el_init(arg0, el_in, el_out, el_err);
+			if (el != NULL) {
+				if (hist)
+					el_set(el, EL_HIST, history, hist);
+				el_set(el, EL_PROMPT, getprompt);
+			} else {
+bad:
+				out2str("sh: can't initialize editing\n");
+			}
+			INTON;
+		} else if (!editing && el) {
+			INTOFF;
+			el_end(el);
+			el = NULL;
+			INTON;
+		}
+		if (el) {
+			if (Vflag)
+				el_set(el, EL_EDITOR, "vi");
+			else if (Eflag)
+				el_set(el, EL_EDITOR, "emacs");
+			el_source(el, NULL);
+		}
+	} else {
+		INTOFF;
+		if (el) {	/* no editing if not interactive */
+			el_end(el);
+			el = NULL;
+		}
+		if (hist) {
+			history_end(hist);
+			hist = NULL;
+		}
+		INTON;
+	}
+}
+
+
+void
+sethistsize(const char *hs)
+{
+	int histsize;
+	HistEvent he;
+
+	if (hist != NULL) {
+		if (hs == NULL || *hs == '\0' ||
+		   (histsize = atoi(hs)) < 0)
+			histsize = 100;
+		history(hist, &he, H_SETSIZE, histsize);
+	}
+}
+
+void
+setterm(const char *term)
+{
+	if (el != NULL && term != NULL)
+		if (el_set(el, EL_TERMINAL, term) != 0) {
+			outfmt(out2, "sh: Can't set terminal type %s\n", term);
+			outfmt(out2, "sh: Using dumb terminal settings.\n");
+		}
+}
+
+/*
+ *  This command is provided since POSIX decided to standardize
+ *  the Korn shell fc command.  Oh well...
+ */
+int
+histcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int ch;
+	const char *editor = NULL;
+	HistEvent he;
+	int lflg = 0, nflg = 0, rflg = 0, sflg = 0;
+	int i, retval;
+	const char *firststr, *laststr;
+	int first, last, direction;
+	char *pat = NULL, *repl;	/* ksh "fc old=new" crap */
+	static int active = 0;
+	struct jmploc jmploc;
+	struct jmploc *volatile savehandler;
+	char editfile[MAXPATHLEN + 1];
+	FILE *efp;
+#ifdef __GNUC__
+	/* Avoid longjmp clobbering */
+	(void) &editor;
+	(void) &lflg;
+	(void) &nflg;
+	(void) &rflg;
+	(void) &sflg;
+	(void) &firststr;
+	(void) &laststr;
+	(void) &pat;
+	(void) &repl;
+	(void) &efp;
+	(void) &argc;
+	(void) &argv;
+#endif
+
+	if (hist == NULL)
+		sh_error("history not active");
+
+	if (argc == 1)
+		sh_error("missing history argument");
+
+#ifdef __GLIBC__
+	optind = 0;
+#else
+	optreset = 1; optind = 1; /* initialize getopt */
+#endif
+	while (not_fcnumber(argv[optind]) &&
+	      (ch = getopt(argc, argv, ":e:lnrs")) != -1)
+		switch ((char)ch) {
+		case 'e':
+			editor = optionarg;
+			break;
+		case 'l':
+			lflg = 1;
+			break;
+		case 'n':
+			nflg = 1;
+			break;
+		case 'r':
+			rflg = 1;
+			break;
+		case 's':
+			sflg = 1;
+			break;
+		case ':':
+			sh_error("option -%c expects argument", optopt);
+			/* NOTREACHED */
+		case '?':
+		default:
+			sh_error("unknown option: -%c", optopt);
+			/* NOTREACHED */
+		}
+	argc -= optind, argv += optind;
+
+	/*
+	 * If executing...
+	 */
+	if (lflg == 0 || editor || sflg) {
+		lflg = 0;	/* ignore */
+		editfile[0] = '\0';
+		/*
+		 * Catch interrupts to reset active counter and
+		 * cleanup temp files.
+		 */
+		if (setjmp(jmploc.loc)) {
+			active = 0;
+			if (*editfile)
+				unlink(editfile);
+			handler = savehandler;
+			longjmp(handler->loc, 1);
+		}
+		savehandler = handler;
+		handler = &jmploc;
+		if (++active > MAXHISTLOOPS) {
+			active = 0;
+			displayhist = 0;
+			sh_error("called recursively too many times");
+		}
+		/*
+		 * Set editor.
+		 */
+		if (sflg == 0) {
+			if (editor == NULL &&
+			    (editor = bltinlookup("FCEDIT")) == NULL &&
+			    (editor = bltinlookup("EDITOR")) == NULL)
+				editor = DEFEDITOR;
+			if (editor[0] == '-' && editor[1] == '\0') {
+				sflg = 1;	/* no edit */
+				editor = NULL;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * If executing, parse [old=new] now
+	 */
+	if (lflg == 0 && argc > 0 &&
+	     ((repl = strchr(argv[0], '=')) != NULL)) {
+		pat = argv[0];
+		*repl++ = '\0';
+		argc--, argv++;
+	}
+	/*
+	 * determine [first] and [last]
+	 */
+	switch (argc) {
+	case 0:
+		firststr = lflg ? "-16" : "-1";
+		laststr = "-1";
+		break;
+	case 1:
+		firststr = argv[0];
+		laststr = lflg ? "-1" : argv[0];
+		break;
+	case 2:
+		firststr = argv[0];
+		laststr = argv[1];
+		break;
+	default:
+		sh_error("too many args");
+		/* NOTREACHED */
+	}
+	/*
+	 * Turn into event numbers.
+	 */
+	first = str_to_event(firststr, 0);
+	last = str_to_event(laststr, 1);
+
+	if (rflg) {
+		i = last;
+		last = first;
+		first = i;
+	}
+	/*
+	 * XXX - this should not depend on the event numbers
+	 * always increasing.  Add sequence numbers or offset
+	 * to the history element in next (diskbased) release.
+	 */
+	direction = first < last ? H_PREV : H_NEXT;
+
+	/*
+	 * If editing, grab a temp file.
+	 */
+	if (editor) {
+		int fd;
+		INTOFF;		/* easier */
+		sprintf(editfile, "%s_shXXXXXX", _PATH_TMP);
+		if ((fd = mkstemp(editfile)) < 0)
+			sh_error("can't create temporary file %s", editfile);
+		if ((efp = fdopen(fd, "w")) == NULL) {
+			close(fd);
+			sh_error("can't allocate stdio buffer for temp");
+		}
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Loop through selected history events.  If listing or executing,
+	 * do it now.  Otherwise, put into temp file and call the editor
+	 * after.
+	 *
+	 * The history interface needs rethinking, as the following
+	 * convolutions will demonstrate.
+	 */
+	history(hist, &he, H_FIRST);
+	retval = history(hist, &he, H_NEXT_EVENT, first);
+	for (;retval != -1; retval = history(hist, &he, direction)) {
+		if (lflg) {
+			if (!nflg)
+				out1fmt("%5d ", he.num);
+			out1str(he.str);
+		} else {
+			const char *s = pat ?
+			   fc_replace(he.str, pat, repl) : he.str;
+
+			if (sflg) {
+				if (displayhist) {
+					out2str(s);
+				}
+
+				evalstring(strcpy(stalloc(strlen(s) + 1), s),
+					   ~0);
+				if (displayhist && hist) {
+					/*
+					 *  XXX what about recursive and
+					 *  relative histnums.
+					 */
+					history(hist, &he, H_ENTER, s);
+				}
+			} else
+				fputs(s, efp);
+		}
+		/*
+		 * At end?  (if we were to lose last, we'd sure be
+		 * messed up).
+		 */
+		if (he.num == last)
+			break;
+	}
+	if (editor) {
+		char *editcmd;
+
+		fclose(efp);
+		editcmd = stalloc(strlen(editor) + strlen(editfile) + 2);
+		sprintf(editcmd, "%s %s", editor, editfile);
+		/* XXX - should use no JC command */
+		evalstring(editcmd, ~0);
+		INTON;
+		readcmdfile(editfile);	/* XXX - should read back - quick tst */
+		unlink(editfile);
+	}
+
+	if (lflg == 0 && active > 0)
+		--active;
+	if (displayhist)
+		displayhist = 0;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+STATIC const char *
+fc_replace(const char *s, char *p, char *r)
+{
+	char *dest;
+	int plen = strlen(p);
+
+	STARTSTACKSTR(dest);
+	while (*s) {
+		if (*s == *p && strncmp(s, p, plen) == 0) {
+			while (*r)
+				STPUTC(*r++, dest);
+			s += plen;
+			*p = '\0';	/* so no more matches */
+		} else
+			STPUTC(*s++, dest);
+	}
+	STACKSTRNUL(dest);
+	dest = grabstackstr(dest);
+
+	return (dest);
+}
+
+int
+not_fcnumber(char *s)
+{
+	if (s == NULL)
+		return 0;
+        if (*s == '-')
+                s++;
+	return (!is_number(s));
+}
+
+int
+str_to_event(const char *str, int last)
+{
+	HistEvent he;
+	const char *s = str;
+	int relative = 0;
+	int i, retval;
+
+	retval = history(hist, &he, H_FIRST);
+	switch (*s) {
+	case '-':
+		relative = 1;
+		/*FALLTHROUGH*/
+	case '+':
+		s++;
+	}
+	if (is_number(s)) {
+		i = atoi(s);
+		if (relative) {
+			while (retval != -1 && i--) {
+				retval = history(hist, &he, H_NEXT);
+			}
+			if (retval == -1)
+				retval = history(hist, &he, H_LAST);
+		} else {
+			retval = history(hist, &he, H_NEXT_EVENT, i);
+			if (retval == -1) {
+				/*
+				 * the notion of first and last is
+				 * backwards to that of the history package
+				 */
+				retval = history(hist, &he,
+						last ? H_FIRST : H_LAST);
+			}
+		}
+		if (retval == -1)
+			sh_error("history number %s not found (internal error)",
+				 str);
+	} else {
+		/*
+		 * pattern
+		 */
+		retval = history(hist, &he, H_PREV_STR, str);
+		if (retval == -1)
+			sh_error("history pattern not found: %s", str);
+	}
+	return (he.num);
+}
+#endif
diff --git a/usr/dash/init.h b/usr/dash/init.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e026e86
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/init.h
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)init.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+void init(void);
+void reset(void);
+void initshellproc(void);
diff --git a/usr/dash/input.c b/usr/dash/input.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..057da71
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/input.c
@@ -0,0 +1,563 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <stdio.h>	/* defines BUFSIZ */
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+/*
+ * This file implements the input routines used by the parser.
+ */
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "redir.h"
+#include "syntax.h"
+#include "input.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "alias.h"
+#include "parser.h"
+#include "main.h"
+#ifndef SMALL
+#include "myhistedit.h"
+#endif
+
+#ifdef HETIO
+#include "hetio.h"
+#endif
+
+#define EOF_NLEFT -99		/* value of parsenleft when EOF pushed back */
+#define IBUFSIZ (BUFSIZ + 1)
+
+MKINIT
+struct strpush {
+	struct strpush *prev;	/* preceding string on stack */
+	char *prevstring;
+	int prevnleft;
+	struct alias *ap;	/* if push was associated with an alias */
+	char *string;		/* remember the string since it may change */
+};
+
+/*
+ * The parsefile structure pointed to by the global variable parsefile
+ * contains information about the current file being read.
+ */
+
+MKINIT
+struct parsefile {
+	struct parsefile *prev;	/* preceding file on stack */
+	int linno;		/* current line */
+	int fd;			/* file descriptor (or -1 if string) */
+	int nleft;		/* number of chars left in this line */
+	int lleft;		/* number of chars left in this buffer */
+	char *nextc;		/* next char in buffer */
+	char *buf;		/* input buffer */
+	struct strpush *strpush; /* for pushing strings at this level */
+	struct strpush basestrpush; /* so pushing one is fast */
+};
+
+
+int plinno = 1;			/* input line number */
+int parsenleft;			/* copy of parsefile->nleft */
+MKINIT int parselleft;		/* copy of parsefile->lleft */
+char *parsenextc;		/* copy of parsefile->nextc */
+MKINIT struct parsefile basepf;	/* top level input file */
+MKINIT char basebuf[IBUFSIZ];	/* buffer for top level input file */
+struct parsefile *parsefile = &basepf;	/* current input file */
+int whichprompt;		/* 1 == PS1, 2 == PS2 */
+
+#ifndef SMALL
+EditLine *el;			/* cookie for editline package */
+#endif
+
+STATIC void pushfile(void);
+static int preadfd(void);
+
+#ifdef mkinit
+INCLUDE <stdio.h>
+INCLUDE "input.h"
+INCLUDE "error.h"
+
+INIT {
+	basepf.nextc = basepf.buf = basebuf;
+}
+
+RESET {
+	parselleft = parsenleft = 0;	/* clear input buffer */
+	popallfiles();
+}
+#endif
+
+
+/*
+ * Read a line from the script.
+ */
+
+char *
+pfgets(char *line, int len)
+{
+	char *p = line;
+	int nleft = len;
+	int c;
+
+	while (--nleft > 0) {
+		c = pgetc2();
+		if (c == PEOF) {
+			if (p == line)
+				return NULL;
+			break;
+		}
+		*p++ = c;
+		if (c == '\n')
+			break;
+	}
+	*p = '\0';
+	return line;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Read a character from the script, returning PEOF on end of file.
+ * Nul characters in the input are silently discarded.
+ */
+
+int
+pgetc(void)
+{
+	return pgetc_macro();
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Same as pgetc(), but ignores PEOA.
+ */
+
+int
+pgetc2()
+{
+	int c;
+	do {
+		c = pgetc_macro();
+	} while (c == PEOA);
+	return c;
+}
+
+
+static int
+preadfd(void)
+{
+	int nr;
+	char *buf =  parsefile->buf;
+	parsenextc = buf;
+
+retry:
+#ifndef SMALL
+	if (parsefile->fd == 0 && el) {
+		static const char *rl_cp;
+		static int el_len;
+
+		if (rl_cp == NULL)
+			rl_cp = el_gets(el, &el_len);
+		if (rl_cp == NULL)
+			nr = 0;
+		else {
+			nr = el_len;
+			if (nr > IBUFSIZ - 1)
+				nr = IBUFSIZ - 1;
+			memcpy(buf, rl_cp, nr);
+			if (nr != el_len) {
+				el_len -= nr;
+				rl_cp += nr;
+			} else
+				rl_cp = 0;
+		}
+
+	} else
+#endif
+
+#ifdef HETIO
+		nr = hetio_read_input(parsefile->fd);
+		if (nr == -255)
+#endif
+		nr = read(parsefile->fd, buf, IBUFSIZ - 1);
+
+
+	if (nr < 0) {
+		if (errno == EINTR)
+			goto retry;
+		if (parsefile->fd == 0 && errno == EWOULDBLOCK) {
+			int flags = fcntl(0, F_GETFL, 0);
+			if (flags >= 0 && flags & O_NONBLOCK) {
+				flags &=~ O_NONBLOCK;
+				if (fcntl(0, F_SETFL, flags) >= 0) {
+					out2str("sh: turning off NDELAY mode\n");
+					goto retry;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	return nr;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Refill the input buffer and return the next input character:
+ *
+ * 1) If a string was pushed back on the input, pop it;
+ * 2) If an EOF was pushed back (parsenleft == EOF_NLEFT) or we are reading
+ *    from a string so we can't refill the buffer, return EOF.
+ * 3) If the is more stuff in this buffer, use it else call read to fill it.
+ * 4) Process input up to the next newline, deleting nul characters.
+ */
+
+int
+preadbuffer(void)
+{
+	char *q;
+	int more;
+#ifndef SMALL
+	int something;
+#endif
+	char savec;
+
+	while (unlikely(parsefile->strpush)) {
+		if (
+			parsenleft == -1 && parsefile->strpush->ap &&
+			parsenextc[-1] != ' ' && parsenextc[-1] != '\t'
+		) {
+			return PEOA;
+		}
+		popstring();
+		if (--parsenleft >= 0)
+			return (signed char)*parsenextc++;
+	}
+	if (unlikely(parsenleft == EOF_NLEFT || parsefile->buf == NULL))
+		return PEOF;
+	flushout(&output);
+#ifdef FLUSHERR
+	flushout(&errout);
+#endif
+
+	more = parselleft;
+	if (more <= 0) {
+again:
+		if ((more = preadfd()) <= 0) {
+			parselleft = parsenleft = EOF_NLEFT;
+			return PEOF;
+		}
+	}
+
+	q = parsenextc;
+
+	/* delete nul characters */
+#ifndef SMALL
+	something = 0;
+#endif
+	for (;;) {
+		int c;
+
+		more--;
+		c = *q;
+
+		if (!c)
+			memmove(q, q + 1, more);
+		else {
+			q++;
+
+			if (c == '\n') {
+				parsenleft = q - parsenextc - 1;
+				break;
+			}
+
+#ifndef SMALL
+			switch (c) {
+			default:
+				something = 1;
+				/* fall through */
+			case '\t':
+			case ' ':
+				break;
+			}
+#endif
+		}
+
+		if (more <= 0) {
+			parsenleft = q - parsenextc - 1;
+			if (parsenleft < 0)
+				goto again;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	parselleft = more;
+
+	savec = *q;
+	*q = '\0';
+
+#ifndef SMALL
+	if (parsefile->fd == 0 && hist && something) {
+		HistEvent he;
+		INTOFF;
+		history(hist, &he, whichprompt == 1? H_ENTER : H_APPEND,
+		    parsenextc);
+		INTON;
+	}
+#endif
+
+	if (vflag) {
+		out2str(parsenextc);
+#ifdef FLUSHERR
+		flushout(out2);
+#endif
+	}
+
+	*q = savec;
+
+	return (signed char)*parsenextc++;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Undo the last call to pgetc.  Only one character may be pushed back.
+ * PEOF may be pushed back.
+ */
+
+void
+pungetc(void)
+{
+	parsenleft++;
+	parsenextc--;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Push a string back onto the input at this current parsefile level.
+ * We handle aliases this way.
+ */
+void
+pushstring(char *s, void *ap)
+{
+	struct strpush *sp;
+	size_t len;
+
+	len = strlen(s);
+	INTOFF;
+/*dprintf("*** calling pushstring: %s, %d\n", s, len);*/
+	if (parsefile->strpush) {
+		sp = ckmalloc(sizeof (struct strpush));
+		sp->prev = parsefile->strpush;
+		parsefile->strpush = sp;
+	} else
+		sp = parsefile->strpush = &(parsefile->basestrpush);
+	sp->prevstring = parsenextc;
+	sp->prevnleft = parsenleft;
+	sp->ap = (struct alias *)ap;
+	if (ap) {
+		((struct alias *)ap)->flag |= ALIASINUSE;
+		sp->string = s;
+	}
+	parsenextc = s;
+	parsenleft = len;
+	INTON;
+}
+
+void
+popstring(void)
+{
+	struct strpush *sp = parsefile->strpush;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	if (sp->ap) {
+		if (parsenextc[-1] == ' ' || parsenextc[-1] == '\t') {
+			checkkwd |= CHKALIAS;
+		}
+		if (sp->string != sp->ap->val) {
+			ckfree(sp->string);
+		}
+		sp->ap->flag &= ~ALIASINUSE;
+		if (sp->ap->flag & ALIASDEAD) {
+			unalias(sp->ap->name);
+		}
+	}
+	parsenextc = sp->prevstring;
+	parsenleft = sp->prevnleft;
+/*dprintf("*** calling popstring: restoring to '%s'\n", parsenextc);*/
+	parsefile->strpush = sp->prev;
+	if (sp != &(parsefile->basestrpush))
+		ckfree(sp);
+	INTON;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Set the input to take input from a file.  If push is set, push the
+ * old input onto the stack first.
+ */
+
+int
+setinputfile(const char *fname, int flags)
+{
+	int fd;
+	int fd2;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	if ((fd = open(fname, O_RDONLY)) < 0) {
+		if (flags & INPUT_NOFILE_OK)
+			goto out;
+		sh_error("Can't open %s", fname);
+	}
+	if (fd < 10) {
+		fd2 = copyfd(fd, 10);
+		close(fd);
+		if (fd2 < 0)
+			sh_error("Out of file descriptors");
+		fd = fd2;
+	}
+	setinputfd(fd, flags & INPUT_PUSH_FILE);
+out:
+	INTON;
+	return fd;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Like setinputfile, but takes an open file descriptor.  Call this with
+ * interrupts off.
+ */
+
+void
+setinputfd(int fd, int push)
+{
+	(void) fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC);
+	if (push) {
+		pushfile();
+		parsefile->buf = 0;
+	}
+	parsefile->fd = fd;
+	if (parsefile->buf == NULL)
+		parsefile->buf = ckmalloc(IBUFSIZ);
+	parselleft = parsenleft = 0;
+	plinno = 1;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Like setinputfile, but takes input from a string.
+ */
+
+void
+setinputstring(char *string)
+{
+	INTOFF;
+	pushfile();
+	parsenextc = string;
+	parsenleft = strlen(string);
+	parsefile->buf = NULL;
+	plinno = 1;
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * To handle the "." command, a stack of input files is used.  Pushfile
+ * adds a new entry to the stack and popfile restores the previous level.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+pushfile(void)
+{
+	struct parsefile *pf;
+
+	parsefile->nleft = parsenleft;
+	parsefile->lleft = parselleft;
+	parsefile->nextc = parsenextc;
+	parsefile->linno = plinno;
+	pf = (struct parsefile *)ckmalloc(sizeof (struct parsefile));
+	pf->prev = parsefile;
+	pf->fd = -1;
+	pf->strpush = NULL;
+	pf->basestrpush.prev = NULL;
+	parsefile = pf;
+}
+
+
+void
+popfile(void)
+{
+	struct parsefile *pf = parsefile;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	if (pf->fd >= 0)
+		close(pf->fd);
+	if (pf->buf)
+		ckfree(pf->buf);
+	while (pf->strpush)
+		popstring();
+	parsefile = pf->prev;
+	ckfree(pf);
+	parsenleft = parsefile->nleft;
+	parselleft = parsefile->lleft;
+	parsenextc = parsefile->nextc;
+	plinno = parsefile->linno;
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Return to top level.
+ */
+
+void
+popallfiles(void)
+{
+	while (parsefile != &basepf)
+		popfile();
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Close the file(s) that the shell is reading commands from.  Called
+ * after a fork is done.
+ */
+
+void
+closescript(void)
+{
+	popallfiles();
+	if (parsefile->fd > 0) {
+		close(parsefile->fd);
+		parsefile->fd = 0;
+	}
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/input.h b/usr/dash/input.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1ed9ddf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/input.h
@@ -0,0 +1,68 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)input.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+/* PEOF (the end of file marker) is defined in syntax.h */
+
+enum {
+	INPUT_PUSH_FILE = 1,
+	INPUT_NOFILE_OK = 2,
+};
+
+/*
+ * The input line number.  Input.c just defines this variable, and saves
+ * and restores it when files are pushed and popped.  The user of this
+ * package must set its value.
+ */
+extern int plinno;
+extern int parsenleft;		/* number of characters left in input buffer */
+extern char *parsenextc;	/* next character in input buffer */
+
+char *pfgets(char *, int);
+int pgetc(void);
+int pgetc2(void);
+int preadbuffer(void);
+void pungetc(void);
+void pushstring(char *, void *);
+void popstring(void);
+int setinputfile(const char *, int);
+void setinputfd(int, int);
+void setinputstring(char *);
+void popfile(void);
+void popallfiles(void);
+void closescript(void);
+
+#define pgetc_macro() \
+	(--parsenleft >= 0 ? (signed char)*parsenextc++ : preadbuffer())
diff --git a/usr/dash/jobs.c b/usr/dash/jobs.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..77ed7791
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/jobs.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1499 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <paths.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#ifdef BSD
+#include <sys/wait.h>
+#include <sys/time.h>
+#include <sys/resource.h>
+#endif
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#if JOBS
+#include <termios.h>
+#undef CEOF			/* syntax.h redefines this */
+#endif
+#include "redir.h"
+#include "show.h"
+#include "main.h"
+#include "parser.h"
+#include "nodes.h"
+#include "jobs.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "trap.h"
+#include "syntax.h"
+#include "input.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+#include "system.h"
+
+/* mode flags for set_curjob */
+#define CUR_DELETE 2
+#define CUR_RUNNING 1
+#define CUR_STOPPED 0
+
+/* mode flags for dowait */
+#define DOWAIT_NORMAL 0
+#define DOWAIT_BLOCK 1
+
+/* array of jobs */
+static struct job *jobtab;
+/* size of array */
+static unsigned njobs;
+/* pid of last background process */
+pid_t backgndpid;
+
+#if JOBS
+/* pgrp of shell on invocation */
+static int initialpgrp;
+/* control terminal */
+static int ttyfd = -1;
+#endif
+
+/* current job */
+static struct job *curjob;
+/* number of presumed living untracked jobs */
+static int jobless;
+
+STATIC void set_curjob(struct job *, unsigned);
+STATIC int jobno(const struct job *);
+STATIC int sprint_status(char *, int, int);
+STATIC void freejob(struct job *);
+STATIC struct job *getjob(const char *, int);
+STATIC struct job *growjobtab(void);
+STATIC void forkchild(struct job *, union node *, int);
+STATIC void forkparent(struct job *, union node *, int, pid_t);
+STATIC int dowait(int, struct job *);
+#ifdef SYSV
+STATIC int onsigchild(void);
+#endif
+STATIC int waitproc(int, int *);
+STATIC char *commandtext(union node *);
+STATIC void cmdtxt(union node *);
+STATIC void cmdlist(union node *, int);
+STATIC void cmdputs(const char *);
+STATIC void showpipe(struct job *, struct output *);
+STATIC int getstatus(struct job *);
+
+#if JOBS
+static int restartjob(struct job *, int);
+static void xtcsetpgrp(int, pid_t);
+#endif
+
+STATIC void
+set_curjob(struct job *jp, unsigned mode)
+{
+	struct job *jp1;
+	struct job **jpp, **curp;
+
+	/* first remove from list */
+	jpp = curp = &curjob;
+	do {
+		jp1 = *jpp;
+		if (jp1 == jp)
+			break;
+		jpp = &jp1->prev_job;
+	} while (1);
+	*jpp = jp1->prev_job;
+
+	/* Then re-insert in correct position */
+	jpp = curp;
+	switch (mode) {
+	default:
+#ifdef DEBUG
+		abort();
+#endif
+	case CUR_DELETE:
+		/* job being deleted */
+		break;
+	case CUR_RUNNING:
+		/* newly created job or backgrounded job,
+		   put after all stopped jobs. */
+		do {
+			jp1 = *jpp;
+			if (!JOBS || !jp1 || jp1->state != JOBSTOPPED)
+				break;
+			jpp = &jp1->prev_job;
+		} while (1);
+		/* FALLTHROUGH */
+#if JOBS
+	case CUR_STOPPED:
+#endif
+		/* newly stopped job - becomes curjob */
+		jp->prev_job = *jpp;
+		*jpp = jp;
+		break;
+	}
+}
+
+#if JOBS
+/*
+ * Turn job control on and off.
+ *
+ * Note:  This code assumes that the third arg to ioctl is a character
+ * pointer, which is true on Berkeley systems but not System V.  Since
+ * System V doesn't have job control yet, this isn't a problem now.
+ *
+ * Called with interrupts off.
+ */
+
+int jobctl;
+
+void
+setjobctl(int on)
+{
+	int fd;
+	int pgrp;
+
+	if (on == jobctl || rootshell == 0)
+		return;
+	if (on) {
+		int ofd;
+		ofd = fd = open(_PATH_TTY, O_RDWR);
+		if (fd < 0) {
+			fd += 3;
+			while (!isatty(fd) && --fd >= 0)
+				;
+		}
+		fd = fcntl(fd, F_DUPFD, 10);
+		close(ofd);
+		if (fd < 0)
+			goto out;
+		fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC);
+		do { /* while we are in the background */
+			if ((pgrp = tcgetpgrp(fd)) < 0) {
+out:
+				sh_warnx("can't access tty; job control turned off");
+				mflag = on = 0;
+				goto close;
+			}
+			if (pgrp == getpgrp())
+				break;
+			killpg(0, SIGTTIN);
+		} while (1);
+		initialpgrp = pgrp;
+
+		setsignal(SIGTSTP);
+		setsignal(SIGTTOU);
+		setsignal(SIGTTIN);
+		pgrp = rootpid;
+		setpgid(0, pgrp);
+		xtcsetpgrp(fd, pgrp);
+	} else {
+		/* turning job control off */
+		fd = ttyfd;
+		pgrp = initialpgrp;
+		xtcsetpgrp(fd, pgrp);
+		setpgid(0, pgrp);
+		setsignal(SIGTSTP);
+		setsignal(SIGTTOU);
+		setsignal(SIGTTIN);
+close:
+		close(fd);
+		fd = -1;
+	}
+	ttyfd = fd;
+	jobctl = on;
+}
+#endif
+
+
+int
+killcmd(argc, argv)
+	int argc;
+	char **argv;
+{
+	int signo = -1;
+	int list = 0;
+	int i;
+	pid_t pid;
+	struct job *jp;
+
+	if (argc <= 1) {
+usage:
+		sh_error(
+"Usage: kill [-s sigspec | -signum | -sigspec] [pid | job]... or\n"
+"kill -l [exitstatus]"
+		);
+	}
+
+	if (**++argv == '-') {
+		signo = decode_signal(*argv + 1, 1);
+		if (signo < 0) {
+			int c;
+
+			while ((c = nextopt("ls:")) != '\0')
+				switch (c) {
+				default:
+#ifdef DEBUG
+					abort();
+#endif
+				case 'l':
+					list = 1;
+					break;
+				case 's':
+					signo = decode_signal(optionarg, 1);
+					if (signo < 0) {
+						sh_error(
+							"invalid signal number or name: %s",
+							optionarg
+						);
+					}
+		                        break;
+				}
+			argv = argptr;
+		} else
+			argv++;
+	}
+
+	if (!list && signo < 0)
+		signo = SIGTERM;
+
+	if ((signo < 0 || !*argv) ^ list) {
+		goto usage;
+	}
+
+	if (list) {
+		struct output *out;
+
+		out = out1;
+		if (!*argv) {
+			outstr("0\n", out);
+			for (i = 1; i < NSIG; i++) {
+				outfmt(out, snlfmt, signal_name(i));
+			}
+			return 0;
+		}
+		signo = number(*argv);
+		if (signo > 128)
+			signo -= 128;
+		if (0 < signo && signo < NSIG)
+			outfmt(out, snlfmt, signal_name(signo));
+		else
+			sh_error("invalid signal number or exit status: %s",
+				 *argv);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	i = 0;
+	do {
+		if (**argv == '%') {
+			jp = getjob(*argv, 0);
+			pid = -jp->ps[0].pid;
+		} else
+			pid = **argv == '-' ?
+				-number(*argv + 1) : number(*argv);
+		if (kill(pid, signo) != 0) {
+			sh_warnx("%s\n", strerror(errno));
+			i = 1;
+		}
+	} while (*++argv);
+
+	return i;
+}
+
+STATIC int
+jobno(const struct job *jp)
+{
+	return jp - jobtab + 1;
+}
+
+#if JOBS
+int
+fgcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	struct job *jp;
+	struct output *out;
+	int mode;
+	int retval;
+
+	mode = (**argv == 'f') ? FORK_FG : FORK_BG;
+	nextopt(nullstr);
+	argv = argptr;
+	out = out1;
+	do {
+		jp = getjob(*argv, 1);
+		if (mode == FORK_BG) {
+			set_curjob(jp, CUR_RUNNING);
+			outfmt(out, "[%d] ", jobno(jp));
+		}
+		outstr(jp->ps->cmd, out);
+		showpipe(jp, out);
+		retval = restartjob(jp, mode);
+	} while (*argv && *++argv);
+	return retval;
+}
+
+int bgcmd(int, char **) __attribute__((__alias__("fgcmd")));
+
+
+STATIC int
+restartjob(struct job *jp, int mode)
+{
+	struct procstat *ps;
+	int i;
+	int status;
+	pid_t pgid;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	if (jp->state == JOBDONE)
+		goto out;
+	jp->state = JOBRUNNING;
+	pgid = jp->ps->pid;
+	if (mode == FORK_FG)
+		xtcsetpgrp(ttyfd, pgid);
+	killpg(pgid, SIGCONT);
+	ps = jp->ps;
+	i = jp->nprocs;
+	do {
+		if (WIFSTOPPED(ps->status)) {
+			ps->status = -1;
+		}
+	} while (ps++, --i);
+out:
+	status = (mode == FORK_FG) ? waitforjob(jp) : 0;
+	INTON;
+	return status;
+}
+#endif
+
+STATIC int
+sprint_status(char *s, int status, int sigonly)
+{
+	int col;
+	int st;
+
+	col = 0;
+	st = WEXITSTATUS(status);
+	if (!WIFEXITED(status)) {
+#if JOBS
+		st = WSTOPSIG(status);
+		if (!WIFSTOPPED(status))
+#endif
+			st = WTERMSIG(status);
+		if (sigonly) {
+			if (st == SIGINT || st == SIGPIPE)
+				goto out;
+#if JOBS
+			if (WIFSTOPPED(status))
+				goto out;
+#endif
+		}
+		col = fmtstr(s, 32, strsignal(st));
+		if (WCOREDUMP(status)) {
+			col += fmtstr(s + col, 16, " (core dumped)");
+		}
+	} else if (!sigonly) {
+		if (st)
+			col = fmtstr(s, 16, "Done(%d)", st);
+		else
+			col = fmtstr(s, 16, "Done");
+	}
+
+out:
+	return col;
+}
+
+static void
+showjob(struct output *out, struct job *jp, int mode)
+{
+	struct procstat *ps;
+	struct procstat *psend;
+	int col;
+	int indent;
+	char s[80];
+
+	ps = jp->ps;
+
+	if (mode & SHOW_PGID) {
+		/* just output process (group) id of pipeline */
+		outfmt(out, "%d\n", ps->pid);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	col = fmtstr(s, 16, "[%d]   ", jobno(jp));
+	indent = col;
+
+	if (jp == curjob)
+		s[col - 2] = '+';
+	else if (curjob && jp == curjob->prev_job)
+		s[col - 2] = '-';
+
+	if (mode & SHOW_PID)
+		col += fmtstr(s + col, 16, "%d ", ps->pid);
+
+	psend = ps + jp->nprocs;
+
+	if (jp->state == JOBRUNNING) {
+		scopy("Running", s + col);
+		col += strlen("Running");
+	} else {
+		int status = psend[-1].status;
+#if JOBS
+		if (jp->state == JOBSTOPPED)
+			status = jp->stopstatus;
+#endif
+		col += sprint_status(s + col, status, 0);
+	}
+
+	goto start;
+
+	do {
+		/* for each process */
+		col = fmtstr(s, 48, " |\n%*c%d ", indent, ' ', ps->pid) - 3;
+
+start:
+		outfmt(
+			out, "%s%*c%s",
+			s, 33 - col >= 0 ? 33 - col : 0, ' ', ps->cmd
+		);
+		if (!(mode & SHOW_PID)) {
+			showpipe(jp, out);
+			break;
+		}
+		if (++ps == psend) {
+			outcslow('\n', out);
+			break;
+		}
+	} while (1);
+
+	jp->changed = 0;
+
+	if (jp->state == JOBDONE) {
+		TRACE(("showjob: freeing job %d\n", jobno(jp)));
+		freejob(jp);
+	}
+}
+
+
+int
+jobscmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int mode, m;
+	struct output *out;
+
+	mode = 0;
+	while ((m = nextopt("lp")))
+		if (m == 'l')
+			mode = SHOW_PID;
+		else
+			mode = SHOW_PGID;
+
+	out = out1;
+	argv = argptr;
+	if (*argv)
+		do
+			showjob(out, getjob(*argv,0), mode);
+		while (*++argv);
+	else
+		showjobs(out, mode);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Print a list of jobs.  If "change" is nonzero, only print jobs whose
+ * statuses have changed since the last call to showjobs.
+ */
+
+void
+showjobs(struct output *out, int mode)
+{
+	struct job *jp;
+
+	TRACE(("showjobs(%x) called\n", mode));
+
+	/* If not even one one job changed, there is nothing to do */
+	while (dowait(DOWAIT_NORMAL, NULL) > 0)
+		continue;
+
+	for (jp = curjob; jp; jp = jp->prev_job) {
+		if (!(mode & SHOW_CHANGED) || jp->changed)
+			showjob(out, jp, mode);
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * Mark a job structure as unused.
+ */
+
+STATIC void
+freejob(struct job *jp)
+{
+	struct procstat *ps;
+	int i;
+
+	INTOFF;
+	for (i = jp->nprocs, ps = jp->ps ; --i >= 0 ; ps++) {
+		if (ps->cmd != nullstr)
+			ckfree(ps->cmd);
+	}
+	if (jp->ps != &jp->ps0)
+		ckfree(jp->ps);
+	jp->used = 0;
+	set_curjob(jp, CUR_DELETE);
+	INTON;
+}
+
+
+
+int
+waitcmd(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	struct job *job;
+	int retval;
+	struct job *jp;
+
+	EXSIGON();
+
+	nextopt(nullstr);
+	retval = 0;
+
+	argv = argptr;
+	if (!*argv) {
+		/* wait for all jobs */
+		for (;;) {
+			jp = curjob;
+			while (1) {
+				if (!jp) {
+					/* no running procs */
+					goto out;
+				}
+				if (jp->state == JOBRUNNING)
+					break;
+				jp->waited = 1;
+				jp = jp->prev_job;
+			}
+			dowait(DOWAIT_BLOCK, 0);
+		}
+	}
+
+	retval = 127;
+	do {
+		if (**argv != '%') {
+			pid_t pid = number(*argv);
+			job = curjob;
+			goto start;
+			do {
+				if (job->ps[job->nprocs - 1].pid == pid)
+					break;
+				job = job->prev_job;
+start:
+				if (!job)
+					goto repeat;
+			} while (1);
+		} else
+			job = getjob(*argv, 0);
+		/* loop until process terminated or stopped */
+		while (job->state == JOBRUNNING)
+			dowait(DOWAIT_BLOCK, 0);
+		job->waited = 1;
+		retval = getstatus(job);
+repeat:
+		;
+	} while (*++argv);
+
+out:
+	return retval;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Convert a job name to a job structure.
+ */
+
+STATIC struct job *
+getjob(const char *name, int getctl)
+{
+	struct job *jp;
+	struct job *found;
+	const char *err_msg = "No such job: %s";
+	unsigned num;
+	int c;
+	const char *p;
+	char *(*match)(const char *, const char *);
+
+	jp = curjob;
+	p = name;
+	if (!p)
+		goto currentjob;
+
+	if (*p != '%')
+		goto err;
+
+	c = *++p;
+	if (!c)
+		goto currentjob;
+
+	if (!p[1]) {
+		if (c == '+' || c == '%') {
+currentjob:
+			err_msg = "No current job";
+			goto check;
+		} else if (c == '-') {
+			if (jp)
+				jp = jp->prev_job;
+			err_msg = "No previous job";
+check:
+			if (!jp)
+				goto err;
+			goto gotit;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (is_number(p)) {
+		num = atoi(p);
+		if (num < njobs) {
+			jp = jobtab + num - 1;
+			if (jp->used)
+				goto gotit;
+			goto err;
+		}
+	}
+
+	match = prefix;
+	if (*p == '?') {
+		match = strstr;
+		p++;
+	}
+
+	found = 0;
+	while (1) {
+		if (!jp)
+			goto err;
+		if (match(jp->ps[0].cmd, p)) {
+			if (found)
+				goto err;
+			found = jp;
+			err_msg = "%s: ambiguous";
+		}
+		jp = jp->prev_job;
+	}
+
+gotit:
+#if JOBS
+	err_msg = "job %s not created under job control";
+	if (getctl && jp->jobctl == 0)
+		goto err;
+#endif
+	return jp;
+err:
+	sh_error(err_msg, name);
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Return a new job structure.
+ * Called with interrupts off.
+ */
+
+struct job *
+makejob(union node *node, int nprocs)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct job *jp;
+
+	for (i = njobs, jp = jobtab ; ; jp++) {
+		if (--i < 0) {
+			jp = growjobtab();
+			break;
+		}
+		if (jp->used == 0)
+			break;
+		if (jp->state != JOBDONE || !jp->waited)
+			continue;
+		if (jobctl)
+			continue;
+		freejob(jp);
+		break;
+	}
+	memset(jp, 0, sizeof(*jp));
+#if JOBS
+	if (jobctl)
+		jp->jobctl = 1;
+#endif
+	jp->prev_job = curjob;
+	curjob = jp;
+	jp->used = 1;
+	jp->ps = &jp->ps0;
+	if (nprocs > 1) {
+		jp->ps = ckmalloc(nprocs * sizeof (struct procstat));
+	}
+	TRACE(("makejob(0x%lx, %d) returns %%%d\n", (long)node, nprocs,
+	    jobno(jp)));
+	return jp;
+}
+
+STATIC struct job *
+growjobtab(void)
+{
+	size_t len;
+	ptrdiff_t offset;
+	struct job *jp, *jq;
+
+	len = njobs * sizeof(*jp);
+	jq = jobtab;
+	jp = ckrealloc(jq, len + 4 * sizeof(*jp));
+
+	offset = (char *)jp - (char *)jq;
+	if (offset) {
+		/* Relocate pointers */
+		size_t l = len;
+
+		jq = (struct job *)((char *)jq + l);
+		while (l) {
+			l -= sizeof(*jp);
+			jq--;
+#define joff(p) ((struct job *)((char *)(p) + l))
+#define jmove(p) (p) = (void *)((char *)(p) + offset)
+			if (likely(joff(jp)->ps == &jq->ps0))
+				jmove(joff(jp)->ps);
+			if (joff(jp)->prev_job)
+				jmove(joff(jp)->prev_job);
+		}
+		if (curjob)
+			jmove(curjob);
+#undef joff
+#undef jmove
+	}
+
+	njobs += 4;
+	jobtab = jp;
+	jp = (struct job *)((char *)jp + len);
+	jq = jp + 3;
+	do {
+		jq->used = 0;
+	} while (--jq >= jp);
+	return jp;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Fork off a subshell.  If we are doing job control, give the subshell its
+ * own process group.  Jp is a job structure that the job is to be added to.
+ * N is the command that will be evaluated by the child.  Both jp and n may
+ * be NULL.  The mode parameter can be one of the following:
+ *	FORK_FG - Fork off a foreground process.
+ *	FORK_BG - Fork off a background process.
+ *	FORK_NOJOB - Like FORK_FG, but don't give the process its own
+ *		     process group even if job control is on.
+ *
+ * When job control is turned off, background processes have their standard
+ * input redirected to /dev/null (except for the second and later processes
+ * in a pipeline).
+ *
+ * Called with interrupts off.
+ */
+
+STATIC inline void
+forkchild(struct job *jp, union node *n, int mode)
+{
+	int oldlvl;
+
+	TRACE(("Child shell %d\n", getpid()));
+	oldlvl = shlvl;
+	shlvl++;
+
+	closescript();
+	clear_traps();
+#if JOBS
+	/* do job control only in root shell */
+	jobctl = 0;
+	if (mode != FORK_NOJOB && jp->jobctl && !oldlvl) {
+		pid_t pgrp;
+
+		if (jp->nprocs == 0)
+			pgrp = getpid();
+		else
+			pgrp = jp->ps[0].pid;
+		/* This can fail because we are doing it in the parent also */
+		(void)setpgid(0, pgrp);
+		if (mode == FORK_FG)
+			xtcsetpgrp(ttyfd, pgrp);
+		setsignal(SIGTSTP);
+		setsignal(SIGTTOU);
+	} else
+#endif
+	if (mode == FORK_BG) {
+		ignoresig(SIGINT);
+		ignoresig(SIGQUIT);
+		if (jp->nprocs == 0) {
+			close(0);
+			if (open(_PATH_DEVNULL, O_RDONLY) != 0)
+				sh_error("Can't open %s", _PATH_DEVNULL);
+		}
+	}
+	if (!oldlvl && iflag) {
+		setsignal(SIGINT);
+		setsignal(SIGQUIT);
+		setsignal(SIGTERM);
+	}
+	for (jp = curjob; jp; jp = jp->prev_job)
+		freejob(jp);
+	jobless = 0;
+}
+
+STATIC inline void
+forkparent(struct job *jp, union node *n, int mode, pid_t pid)
+{
+	TRACE(("In parent shell:  child = %d\n", pid));
+	if (!jp) {
+		while (jobless && dowait(DOWAIT_NORMAL, 0) > 0);
+		jobless++;
+		return;
+	}
+#if JOBS
+	if (mode != FORK_NOJOB && jp->jobctl) {
+		int pgrp;
+
+		if (jp->nprocs == 0)
+			pgrp = pid;
+		else
+			pgrp = jp->ps[0].pid;
+		/* This can fail because we are doing it in the child also */
+		(void)setpgid(pid, pgrp);
+	}
+#endif
+	if (mode == FORK_BG) {
+		backgndpid = pid;		/* set $! */
+		set_curjob(jp, CUR_RUNNING);
+	}
+	if (jp) {
+		struct procstat *ps = &jp->ps[jp->nprocs++];
+		ps->pid = pid;
+		ps->status = -1;
+		ps->cmd = nullstr;
+		if (jobctl && n)
+			ps->cmd = commandtext(n);
+	}
+}
+
+int
+forkshell(struct job *jp, union node *n, int mode)
+{
+	int pid;
+
+	TRACE(("forkshell(%%%d, %p, %d) called\n", jobno(jp), n, mode));
+	pid = fork();
+	if (pid < 0) {
+		TRACE(("Fork failed, errno=%d", errno));
+		if (jp)
+			freejob(jp);
+		sh_error("Cannot fork");
+	}
+	if (pid == 0)
+		forkchild(jp, n, mode);
+	else
+		forkparent(jp, n, mode, pid);
+	return pid;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Wait for job to finish.
+ *
+ * Under job control we have the problem that while a child process is
+ * running interrupts generated by the user are sent to the child but not
+ * to the shell.  This means that an infinite loop started by an inter-
+ * active user may be hard to kill.  With job control turned off, an
+ * interactive user may place an interactive program inside a loop.  If
+ * the interactive program catches interrupts, the user doesn't want
+ * these interrupts to also abort the loop.  The approach we take here
+ * is to have the shell ignore interrupt signals while waiting for a
+ * forground process to terminate, and then send itself an interrupt
+ * signal if the child process was terminated by an interrupt signal.
+ * Unfortunately, some programs want to do a bit of cleanup and then
+ * exit on interrupt; unless these processes terminate themselves by
+ * sending a signal to themselves (instead of calling exit) they will
+ * confuse this approach.
+ *
+ * Called with interrupts off.
+ */
+
+int
+waitforjob(struct job *jp)
+{
+	int st;
+
+	TRACE(("waitforjob(%%%d) called\n", jobno(jp)));
+	while (jp->state == JOBRUNNING) {
+		dowait(DOWAIT_BLOCK, jp);
+	}
+	st = getstatus(jp);
+#if JOBS
+	if (jp->jobctl) {
+		xtcsetpgrp(ttyfd, rootpid);
+		/*
+		 * This is truly gross.
+		 * If we're doing job control, then we did a TIOCSPGRP which
+		 * caused us (the shell) to no longer be in the controlling
+		 * session -- so we wouldn't have seen any ^C/SIGINT.  So, we
+		 * intuit from the subprocess exit status whether a SIGINT
+		 * occurred, and if so interrupt ourselves.  Yuck.  - mycroft
+		 */
+		if (jp->sigint)
+			raise(SIGINT);
+	}
+#endif
+	if (! JOBS || jp->state == JOBDONE)
+		freejob(jp);
+	return st;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Wait for a process to terminate.
+ */
+
+STATIC int
+dowait(int block, struct job *job)
+{
+	int pid;
+	int status;
+	struct job *jp;
+	struct job *thisjob;
+	int state;
+
+	TRACE(("dowait(%d) called\n", block));
+	pid = waitproc(block, &status);
+	TRACE(("wait returns pid %d, status=%d\n", pid, status));
+	if (pid <= 0)
+		return pid;
+	INTOFF;
+	thisjob = NULL;
+	for (jp = curjob; jp; jp = jp->prev_job) {
+		struct procstat *sp;
+		struct procstat *spend;
+		if (jp->state == JOBDONE)
+			continue;
+		state = JOBDONE;
+		spend = jp->ps + jp->nprocs;
+		sp = jp->ps;
+		do {
+			if (sp->pid == pid) {
+				TRACE(("Job %d: changing status of proc %d from 0x%x to 0x%x\n", jobno(jp), pid, sp->status, status));
+				sp->status = status;
+				thisjob = jp;
+			}
+			if (sp->status == -1)
+				state = JOBRUNNING;
+#if JOBS
+			if (state == JOBRUNNING)
+				continue;
+			if (WIFSTOPPED(sp->status)) {
+				jp->stopstatus = sp->status;
+				state = JOBSTOPPED;
+			}
+#endif
+		} while (++sp < spend);
+		if (thisjob)
+			goto gotjob;
+	}
+	if (!JOBS || !WIFSTOPPED(status))
+		jobless--;
+	goto out;
+
+gotjob:
+	if (state != JOBRUNNING) {
+		thisjob->changed = 1;
+
+		if (thisjob->state != state) {
+			TRACE(("Job %d: changing state from %d to %d\n", jobno(thisjob), thisjob->state, state));
+			thisjob->state = state;
+#if JOBS
+			if (state == JOBSTOPPED) {
+				set_curjob(thisjob, CUR_STOPPED);
+			}
+#endif
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	INTON;
+
+	if (thisjob && thisjob == job) {
+		char s[48 + 1];
+		int len;
+
+		len = sprint_status(s, status, 1);
+		if (len) {
+			s[len] = '\n';
+			s[len + 1] = 0;
+			outstr(s, out2);
+		}
+	}
+	return pid;
+}
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Do a wait system call.  If job control is compiled in, we accept
+ * stopped processes.  If block is zero, we return a value of zero
+ * rather than blocking.
+ *
+ * System V doesn't have a non-blocking wait system call.  It does
+ * have a SIGCLD signal that is sent to a process when one of it's
+ * children dies.  The obvious way to use SIGCLD would be to install
+ * a handler for SIGCLD which simply bumped a counter when a SIGCLD
+ * was received, and have waitproc bump another counter when it got
+ * the status of a process.  Waitproc would then know that a wait
+ * system call would not block if the two counters were different.
+ * This approach doesn't work because if a process has children that
+ * have not been waited for, System V will send it a SIGCLD when it
+ * installs a signal handler for SIGCLD.  What this means is that when
+ * a child exits, the shell will be sent SIGCLD signals continuously
+ * until is runs out of stack space, unless it does a wait call before
+ * restoring the signal handler.  The code below takes advantage of
+ * this (mis)feature by installing a signal handler for SIGCLD and
+ * then checking to see whether it was called.  If there are any
+ * children to be waited for, it will be.
+ *
+ * If neither SYSV nor BSD is defined, we don't implement nonblocking
+ * waits at all.  In this case, the user will not be informed when
+ * a background process until the next time she runs a real program
+ * (as opposed to running a builtin command or just typing return),
+ * and the jobs command may give out of date information.
+ */
+
+#ifdef SYSV
+STATIC int gotsigchild;
+
+STATIC int onsigchild() {
+	gotsigchild = 1;
+}
+#endif
+
+
+STATIC int
+waitproc(int block, int *status)
+{
+#ifdef BSD
+	int flags = 0;
+
+#if JOBS
+	if (jobctl)
+		flags |= WUNTRACED;
+#endif
+	if (block == 0)
+		flags |= WNOHANG;
+	return wait3(status, flags, (struct rusage *)NULL);
+#else
+#ifdef SYSV
+	int (*save)();
+
+	if (block == 0) {
+		gotsigchild = 0;
+		save = signal(SIGCLD, onsigchild);
+		signal(SIGCLD, save);
+		if (gotsigchild == 0)
+			return 0;
+	}
+	return wait(status);
+#else
+	if (block == 0)
+		return 0;
+	return wait(status);
+#endif
+#endif
+}
+
+/*
+ * return 1 if there are stopped jobs, otherwise 0
+ */
+int job_warning;
+int
+stoppedjobs(void)
+{
+	struct job *jp;
+	int retval;
+
+	retval = 0;
+	if (job_warning)
+		goto out;
+	jp = curjob;
+	if (jp && jp->state == JOBSTOPPED) {
+		out2str("You have stopped jobs.\n");
+		job_warning = 2;
+		retval++;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return retval;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return a string identifying a command (to be printed by the
+ * jobs command).
+ */
+
+STATIC char *cmdnextc;
+
+STATIC char *
+commandtext(union node *n)
+{
+	char *name;
+
+	STARTSTACKSTR(cmdnextc);
+	cmdtxt(n);
+	name = stackblock();
+	TRACE(("commandtext: name %p, end %p\n\t\"%s\"\n",
+		name, cmdnextc, ps->cmd));
+	return savestr(name);
+}
+
+
+STATIC void
+cmdtxt(union node *n)
+{
+	union node *np;
+	struct nodelist *lp;
+	const char *p;
+	char s[2];
+
+	if (!n)
+		return;
+	switch (n->type) {
+	default:
+#if DEBUG
+		abort();
+#endif
+	case NPIPE:
+		lp = n->npipe.cmdlist;
+		for (;;) {
+			cmdtxt(lp->n);
+			lp = lp->next;
+			if (!lp)
+				break;
+			cmdputs(" | ");
+		}
+		break;
+	case NSEMI:
+		p = "; ";
+		goto binop;
+	case NAND:
+		p = " && ";
+		goto binop;
+	case NOR:
+		p = " || ";
+binop:
+		cmdtxt(n->nbinary.ch1);
+		cmdputs(p);
+		n = n->nbinary.ch2;
+		goto donode;
+	case NREDIR:
+	case NBACKGND:
+		n = n->nredir.n;
+		goto donode;
+	case NNOT:
+		cmdputs("!");
+		n = n->nnot.com;
+donode:
+		cmdtxt(n);
+		break;
+	case NIF:
+		cmdputs("if ");
+		cmdtxt(n->nif.test);
+		cmdputs("; then ");
+		n = n->nif.ifpart;
+		if (n->nif.elsepart) {
+			cmdtxt(n);
+			cmdputs("; else ");
+			n = n->nif.elsepart;
+		}
+		p = "; fi";
+		goto dotail;
+	case NSUBSHELL:
+		cmdputs("(");
+		n = n->nredir.n;
+		p = ")";
+		goto dotail;
+	case NWHILE:
+		p = "while ";
+		goto until;
+	case NUNTIL:
+		p = "until ";
+until:
+		cmdputs(p);
+		cmdtxt(n->nbinary.ch1);
+		n = n->nbinary.ch2;
+		p = "; done";
+dodo:
+		cmdputs("; do ");
+dotail:
+		cmdtxt(n);
+		goto dotail2;
+	case NFOR:
+		cmdputs("for ");
+		cmdputs(n->nfor.var);
+		cmdputs(" in ");
+		cmdlist(n->nfor.args, 1);
+		n = n->nfor.body;
+		p = "; done";
+		goto dodo;
+	case NDEFUN:
+		cmdputs(n->narg.text);
+		p = "() { ... }";
+		goto dotail2;
+	case NCMD:
+		cmdlist(n->ncmd.args, 1);
+		cmdlist(n->ncmd.redirect, 0);
+		break;
+	case NARG:
+		p = n->narg.text;
+dotail2:
+		cmdputs(p);
+		break;
+	case NHERE:
+	case NXHERE:
+		p = "<<...";
+		goto dotail2;
+	case NCASE:
+		cmdputs("case ");
+		cmdputs(n->ncase.expr->narg.text);
+		cmdputs(" in ");
+		for (np = n->ncase.cases; np; np = np->nclist.next) {
+			cmdtxt(np->nclist.pattern);
+			cmdputs(") ");
+			cmdtxt(np->nclist.body);
+			cmdputs(";; ");
+		}
+		p = "esac";
+		goto dotail2;
+	case NTO:
+		p = ">";
+		goto redir;
+	case NCLOBBER:
+		p = ">|";
+		goto redir;
+	case NAPPEND:
+		p = ">>";
+		goto redir;
+	case NTOFD:
+		p = ">&";
+		goto redir;
+	case NFROM:
+		p = "<";
+		goto redir;
+	case NFROMFD:
+		p = "<&";
+		goto redir;
+	case NFROMTO:
+		p = "<>";
+redir:
+		s[0] = n->nfile.fd + '0';
+		s[1] = '\0';
+		cmdputs(s);
+		cmdputs(p);
+		if (n->type == NTOFD || n->type == NFROMFD) {
+			s[0] = n->ndup.dupfd + '0';
+			p = s;
+			goto dotail2;
+		} else {
+			n = n->nfile.fname;
+			goto donode;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+STATIC void
+cmdlist(union node *np, int sep)
+{
+	for (; np; np = np->narg.next) {
+		if (!sep)
+			cmdputs(spcstr);
+		cmdtxt(np);
+		if (sep && np->narg.next)
+			cmdputs(spcstr);
+	}
+}
+
+
+STATIC void
+cmdputs(const char *s)
+{
+	const char *p, *str;
+	char cc[2] = " ";
+	char *nextc;
+	signed char c;
+	int subtype = 0;
+	int quoted = 0;
+	static const char vstype[VSTYPE + 1][4] = {
+		"", "}", "-", "+", "?", "=",
+		"%", "%%", "#", "##",
+	};
+
+	nextc = makestrspace((strlen(s) + 1) * 8, cmdnextc);
+	p = s;
+	while ((c = *p++) != 0) {
+		str = 0;
+		switch (c) {
+		case CTLESC:
+			c = *p++;
+			break;
+		case CTLVAR:
+			subtype = *p++;
+			if ((subtype & VSTYPE) == VSLENGTH)
+				str = "${#";
+			else
+				str = "${";
+			if (!(subtype & VSQUOTE) != !(quoted & 1)) {
+				quoted ^= 1;
+				c = '"';
+			} else
+				goto dostr;
+			break;
+		case CTLENDVAR:
+			str = "\"}" + !(quoted & 1);
+			quoted >>= 1;
+			subtype = 0;
+			goto dostr;
+		case CTLBACKQ:
+			str = "$(...)";
+			goto dostr;
+		case CTLBACKQ+CTLQUOTE:
+			str = "\"$(...)\"";
+			goto dostr;
+		case CTLARI:
+			str = "$((";
+			goto dostr;
+		case CTLENDARI:
+			str = "))";
+			goto dostr;
+		case CTLQUOTEMARK:
+			quoted ^= 1;
+			c = '"';
+			break;
+		case '=':
+			if (subtype == 0)
+				break;
+			if ((subtype & VSTYPE) != VSNORMAL)
+				quoted <<= 1;
+			str = vstype[subtype & VSTYPE];
+			if (subtype & VSNUL)
+				c = ':';
+			else
+				goto checkstr;
+			break;
+		case '\'':
+		case '\\':
+		case '"':
+		case '$':
+			/* These can only happen inside quotes */
+			cc[0] = c;
+			str = cc;
+			c = '\\';
+			break;
+		default:
+			break;
+		}
+		USTPUTC(c, nextc);
+checkstr:
+		if (!str)
+			continue;
+dostr:
+		while ((c = *str++)) {
+			USTPUTC(c, nextc);
+		}
+	}
+	if (quoted & 1) {
+		USTPUTC('"', nextc);
+	}
+	*nextc = 0;
+	cmdnextc = nextc;
+}
+
+
+STATIC void
+showpipe(struct job *jp, struct output *out)
+{
+	struct procstat *sp;
+	struct procstat *spend;
+
+	spend = jp->ps + jp->nprocs;
+	for (sp = jp->ps + 1; sp < spend; sp++)
+		outfmt(out, " | %s", sp->cmd);
+	outcslow('\n', out);
+	flushall();
+}
+
+
+#if JOBS
+STATIC void
+xtcsetpgrp(int fd, pid_t pgrp)
+{
+	if (tcsetpgrp(fd, pgrp))
+		sh_error("Cannot set tty process group (%s)", strerror(errno));
+}
+#endif
+
+
+STATIC int
+getstatus(struct job *job) {
+	int status;
+	int retval;
+
+	status = job->ps[job->nprocs - 1].status;
+	retval = WEXITSTATUS(status);
+	if (!WIFEXITED(status)) {
+#if JOBS
+		retval = WSTOPSIG(status);
+		if (!WIFSTOPPED(status))
+#endif
+		{
+			/* XXX: limits number of signals */
+			retval = WTERMSIG(status);
+#if JOBS
+			if (retval == SIGINT)
+				job->sigint = 1;
+#endif
+		}
+		retval += 128;
+	}
+	TRACE(("getstatus: job %d, nproc %d, status %x, retval %x\n",
+		jobno(job), job->nprocs, status, retval));
+	return retval;
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/jobs.h b/usr/dash/jobs.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..26e421d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/jobs.h
@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)jobs.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+
+/* Mode argument to forkshell.  Don't change FORK_FG or FORK_BG. */
+#define FORK_FG 0
+#define FORK_BG 1
+#define FORK_NOJOB 2
+
+/* mode flags for showjob(s) */
+#define	SHOW_PGID	0x01	/* only show pgid - for jobs -p */
+#define	SHOW_PID	0x04	/* include process pid */
+#define	SHOW_CHANGED	0x08	/* only jobs whose state has changed */
+
+
+/*
+ * A job structure contains information about a job.  A job is either a
+ * single process or a set of processes contained in a pipeline.  In the
+ * latter case, pidlist will be non-NULL, and will point to a -1 terminated
+ * array of pids.
+ */
+
+struct procstat {
+	pid_t	pid;		/* process id */
+ 	int	status;		/* last process status from wait() */
+ 	char	*cmd;		/* text of command being run */
+};
+
+struct job {
+	struct procstat ps0;	/* status of process */
+	struct procstat *ps;	/* status or processes when more than one */
+#if JOBS
+	int stopstatus;		/* status of a stopped job */
+#endif
+	uint32_t
+		nprocs: 16,	/* number of processes */
+		state: 8,
+#define	JOBRUNNING	0	/* at least one proc running */
+#define	JOBSTOPPED	1	/* all procs are stopped */
+#define	JOBDONE		2	/* all procs are completed */
+#if JOBS
+		sigint: 1,	/* job was killed by SIGINT */
+		jobctl: 1,	/* job running under job control */
+#endif
+		waited: 1,	/* true if this entry has been waited for */
+		used: 1,	/* true if this entry is in used */
+		changed: 1;	/* true if status has changed */
+	struct job *prev_job;	/* previous job */
+};
+
+extern pid_t backgndpid;	/* pid of last background process */
+extern int job_warning;		/* user was warned about stopped jobs */
+#if JOBS
+extern int jobctl;		/* true if doing job control */
+#else
+#define jobctl 0
+#endif
+
+void setjobctl(int);
+int killcmd(int, char **);
+int fgcmd(int, char **);
+int bgcmd(int, char **);
+int jobscmd(int, char **);
+struct output;
+void showjobs(struct output *, int);
+int waitcmd(int, char **);
+struct job *makejob(union node *, int);
+int forkshell(struct job *, union node *, int);
+int waitforjob(struct job *);
+int stoppedjobs(void);
+
+#if ! JOBS
+#define setjobctl(on)	/* do nothing */
+#endif
diff --git a/usr/dash/machdep.h b/usr/dash/machdep.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b1ca07a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/machdep.h
@@ -0,0 +1,53 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)machdep.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+#include "config.h"
+
+/*
+ * Most machines require the value returned from malloc to be aligned
+ * in some way.  The following macro will get this right on many machines.
+ */
+#ifdef HAVE_STRTOD
+# define SHELL_SIZE (sizeof(union {int i; char *cp; double d; }) - 1)
+#else
+# define SHELL_SIZE (sizeof(union {int i; char *cp;}) - 1)
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * It appears that grabstackstr() will barf with such alignments
+ * because stalloc() will return a string allocated in a new stackblock.
+ */
+#define SHELL_ALIGN(nbytes) (((nbytes) + SHELL_SIZE) & ~SHELL_SIZE)
diff --git a/usr/dash/mail.c b/usr/dash/mail.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..02e07f7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/mail.c
@@ -0,0 +1,112 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * Routines to check for mail.  (Perhaps make part of main.c?)
+ */
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "nodes.h"
+#include "exec.h"	/* defines padvance() */
+#include "var.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "mail.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+
+
+#define MAXMBOXES 10
+
+/* times of mailboxes */
+static time_t mailtime[MAXMBOXES];
+/* Set if MAIL or MAILPATH is changed. */
+static int changed;
+
+
+
+/*
+ * Print appropriate message(s) if mail has arrived.  If changed is set,
+ * then the value of MAIL has changed, so we just update the values.
+ */
+
+void
+chkmail(void)
+{
+	const char *mpath;
+	char *p;
+	char *q;
+	time_t *mtp;
+	struct stackmark smark;
+	struct stat64 statb;
+
+	setstackmark(&smark);
+	mpath = mpathset() ? mpathval() : mailval();
+	for (mtp = mailtime; mtp < mailtime + MAXMBOXES; mtp++) {
+		p = padvance(&mpath, nullstr);
+		if (p == NULL)
+			break;
+		if (*p == '\0')
+			continue;
+		for (q = p ; *q ; q++);
+#ifdef DEBUG
+		if (q[-1] != '/')
+			abort();
+#endif
+		q[-1] = '\0';			/* delete trailing '/' */
+		if (stat64(p, &statb) < 0) {
+			*mtp = 0;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!changed && statb.st_mtime != *mtp) {
+			outfmt(
+				&errout, snlfmt,
+				pathopt ? pathopt : "you have mail"
+			);
+		}
+		*mtp = statb.st_mtime;
+	}
+	changed = 0;
+	popstackmark(&smark);
+}
+
+
+void
+changemail(const char *val)
+{
+	changed++;
+}
diff --git a/usr/dash/mail.h b/usr/dash/mail.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3c6b21d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/mail.h
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ *	@(#)mail.h	8.2 (Berkeley) 5/4/95
+ */
+
+void chkmail(void);
+void changemail(const char *);
diff --git a/usr/dash/main.c b/usr/dash/main.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b421e4f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/usr/dash/main.c
@@ -0,0 +1,349 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997-2005
+ *	Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>.  All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kenneth Almquist.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ *    without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+
+
+#include "shell.h"
+#include "main.h"
+#include "mail.h"
+#include "options.h"
+#include "output.h"
+#include "parser.h"
+#include "nodes.h"
+#include "expand.h"
+#include "eval.h"
+#include "jobs.h"
+#include "input.h"
+#include "trap.h"
+#include "var.h"
+#include "show.h"
+#include "memalloc.h"
+#include "error.h"
+#include "init.h"
+#include "mystring.h"
+#include "exec.h"
+#include "cd.h"
+
+#ifdef HETIO
+#include "hetio.h"
+#endif
+
+#define PROFILE 0
+
+int rootpid;
+int shlvl;
+#ifdef __GLIBC__
+int *dash_errno;
+#endif
+#if PROFILE
+short profile_buf[16384];
+extern int etext();
+#endif
+
+STATIC void read_profile(const char *);
+STATIC char *find_dot_file(char *);
+static int cmdloop(int);
+int main(int, char **);
+
+/*
+ * Main routine.  We initialize things, parse the arguments, execute
+ * profiles if we're a login shell, and then call cmdloop to execute
+ * commands.  The setjmp call sets up the location to jump to when an
+ * exception occurs.  When an exception occurs the variable "state"
+ * is used to figure out how far we had gotten.
+ */
+
+int
+main(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	char *shinit;
+	volatile int state;
+	struct jmploc jmploc;
+	struct stackmark smark;
+
+#ifdef __GLIBC__
+	dash_errno = __errno_location();
+#endif
+
+#if PROFILE
+	monitor(4, etext, profile_buf, sizeof profile_buf, 50);
+#endif
+	state = 0;
+	if (unlikely(setjmp(jmploc.loc))) {
+		int e;
+		int s;
+
+		reset();
+
+		e = exception;
+		if (e == EXERROR)
+			exitstatus = 2;
+
+		s = state;
+		if (e == EXEXIT || s == 0 || iflag == 0 || shlvl)
+			exitshell();
+
+		if (e == EXINT
+#if ATTY
+		 && (! attyset() || equal(termval(), "emacs"))
+#endif
+		 ) {
+			out2c('\n');
+#ifdef FLUSHERR
+			flushout(out2);
+#endif
+		}
+		popstackmark(&smark);
+		FORCEINTON;				/* enable interrupts */