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* include/asm-i386/processor.h
* Copyright (C) 1994 Linus Torvalds
#ifndef __ASM_I386_PROCESSOR_H
#define __ASM_I386_PROCESSOR_H
#include <asm/vm86.h>
#include <asm/math_emu.h>
#include <asm/segment.h>
#include <asm/page.h>
#include <asm/types.h>
#include <asm/sigcontext.h>
#include <asm/cpufeature.h>
#include <asm/msr.h>
#include <asm/system.h>
#include <linux/cache.h>
#include <linux/threads.h>
#include <asm/percpu.h>
#include <linux/cpumask.h>
/* flag for disabling the tsc */
extern int tsc_disable;
struct desc_struct {
unsigned long a,b;
#define desc_empty(desc) \
(!((desc)->a | (desc)->b))
#define desc_equal(desc1, desc2) \
(((desc1)->a == (desc2)->a) && ((desc1)->b == (desc2)->b))
* Default implementation of macro that returns current
* instruction pointer ("program counter").
#define current_text_addr() ({ void *pc; __asm__("movl $1f,%0\n1:":"=g" (pc)); pc; })
* CPU type and hardware bug flags. Kept separately for each CPU.
* Members of this structure are referenced in head.S, so think twice
* before touching them. [mj]
struct cpuinfo_x86 {
__u8 x86; /* CPU family */
__u8 x86_vendor; /* CPU vendor */
__u8 x86_model;
__u8 x86_mask;
char wp_works_ok; /* It doesn't on 386's */
char hlt_works_ok; /* Problems on some 486Dx4's and old 386's */
char hard_math;
char rfu;
int cpuid_level; /* Maximum supported CPUID level, -1=no CPUID */
unsigned long x86_capability[NCAPINTS];
char x86_vendor_id[16];
char x86_model_id[64];
int x86_cache_size; /* in KB - valid for CPUS which support this
call */
int x86_cache_alignment; /* In bytes */
char fdiv_bug;
char f00f_bug;
char coma_bug;
char pad0;
int x86_power;
unsigned long loops_per_jiffy;
cpumask_t llc_shared_map; /* cpus sharing the last level cache */
unsigned char x86_max_cores; /* cpuid returned max cores value */
unsigned char apicid;
unsigned char booted_cores; /* number of cores as seen by OS */
__u8 phys_proc_id; /* Physical processor id. */
__u8 cpu_core_id; /* Core id */
} __attribute__((__aligned__(SMP_CACHE_BYTES)));
#define X86_VENDOR_INTEL 0
#define X86_VENDOR_CYRIX 1
#define X86_VENDOR_AMD 2
#define X86_VENDOR_UMC 3
#define X86_VENDOR_NEXGEN 4
#define X86_VENDOR_CENTAUR 5
#define X86_VENDOR_RISE 6
#define X86_VENDOR_NSC 8
#define X86_VENDOR_NUM 9
#define X86_VENDOR_UNKNOWN 0xff
* capabilities of CPUs
extern struct cpuinfo_x86 boot_cpu_data;
extern struct cpuinfo_x86 new_cpu_data;
extern struct tss_struct doublefault_tss;
DECLARE_PER_CPU(struct tss_struct, init_tss);
extern struct cpuinfo_x86 cpu_data[];
#define current_cpu_data cpu_data[smp_processor_id()]
#define cpu_data (&boot_cpu_data)
#define current_cpu_data boot_cpu_data
extern int cpu_llc_id[NR_CPUS];
extern char ignore_fpu_irq;
extern void identify_cpu(struct cpuinfo_x86 *);
extern void print_cpu_info(struct cpuinfo_x86 *);
extern unsigned int init_intel_cacheinfo(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c);
extern unsigned short num_cache_leaves;
#ifdef CONFIG_X86_HT
extern void detect_ht(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c);
static inline void detect_ht(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c) {}
* EFLAGS bits
#define X86_EFLAGS_CF 0x00000001 /* Carry Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_PF 0x00000004 /* Parity Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_AF 0x00000010 /* Auxillary carry Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_ZF 0x00000040 /* Zero Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_SF 0x00000080 /* Sign Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_TF 0x00000100 /* Trap Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_IF 0x00000200 /* Interrupt Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_DF 0x00000400 /* Direction Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_OF 0x00000800 /* Overflow Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_IOPL 0x00003000 /* IOPL mask */
#define X86_EFLAGS_NT 0x00004000 /* Nested Task */
#define X86_EFLAGS_RF 0x00010000 /* Resume Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_VM 0x00020000 /* Virtual Mode */
#define X86_EFLAGS_AC 0x00040000 /* Alignment Check */
#define X86_EFLAGS_VIF 0x00080000 /* Virtual Interrupt Flag */
#define X86_EFLAGS_VIP 0x00100000 /* Virtual Interrupt Pending */
#define X86_EFLAGS_ID 0x00200000 /* CPUID detection flag */
* Generic CPUID function
* clear %ecx since some cpus (Cyrix MII) do not set or clear %ecx
* resulting in stale register contents being returned.
static inline void cpuid(unsigned int op, unsigned int *eax, unsigned int *ebx, unsigned int *ecx, unsigned int *edx)
: "=a" (*eax),
"=b" (*ebx),
"=c" (*ecx),
"=d" (*edx)
: "0" (op), "c"(0));
/* Some CPUID calls want 'count' to be placed in ecx */
static inline void cpuid_count(int op, int count, int *eax, int *ebx, int *ecx,
int *edx)
: "=a" (*eax),
"=b" (*ebx),
"=c" (*ecx),
"=d" (*edx)
: "0" (op), "c" (count));
* CPUID functions returning a single datum
static inline unsigned int cpuid_eax(unsigned int op)
unsigned int eax;
: "=a" (eax)
: "0" (op)
: "bx", "cx", "dx");
return eax;
static inline unsigned int cpuid_ebx(unsigned int op)
unsigned int eax, ebx;
: "=a" (eax), "=b" (ebx)
: "0" (op)
: "cx", "dx" );
return ebx;
static inline unsigned int cpuid_ecx(unsigned int op)
unsigned int eax, ecx;
: "=a" (eax), "=c" (ecx)
: "0" (op)
: "bx", "dx" );
return ecx;
static inline unsigned int cpuid_edx(unsigned int op)
unsigned int eax, edx;
: "=a" (eax), "=d" (edx)
: "0" (op)
: "bx", "cx");
return edx;
#define load_cr3(pgdir) write_cr3(__pa(pgdir))
* Intel CPU features in CR4
#define X86_CR4_VME 0x0001 /* enable vm86 extensions */
#define X86_CR4_PVI 0x0002 /* virtual interrupts flag enable */
#define X86_CR4_TSD 0x0004 /* disable time stamp at ipl 3 */
#define X86_CR4_DE 0x0008 /* enable debugging extensions */
#define X86_CR4_PSE 0x0010 /* enable page size extensions */
#define X86_CR4_PAE 0x0020 /* enable physical address extensions */
#define X86_CR4_MCE 0x0040 /* Machine check enable */
#define X86_CR4_PGE 0x0080 /* enable global pages */
#define X86_CR4_PCE 0x0100 /* enable performance counters at ipl 3 */
#define X86_CR4_OSFXSR 0x0200 /* enable fast FPU save and restore */
#define X86_CR4_OSXMMEXCPT 0x0400 /* enable unmasked SSE exceptions */
* Save the cr4 feature set we're using (ie
* Pentium 4MB enable and PPro Global page
* enable), so that any CPU's that boot up
* after us can get the correct flags.
extern unsigned long mmu_cr4_features;
static inline void set_in_cr4 (unsigned long mask)
unsigned cr4;
mmu_cr4_features |= mask;
cr4 = read_cr4();
cr4 |= mask;
static inline void clear_in_cr4 (unsigned long mask)
unsigned cr4;
mmu_cr4_features &= ~mask;
cr4 = read_cr4();
cr4 &= ~mask;
* NSC/Cyrix CPU configuration register indexes
#define CX86_PCR0 0x20
#define CX86_GCR 0xb8
#define CX86_CCR0 0xc0
#define CX86_CCR1 0xc1
#define CX86_CCR2 0xc2
#define CX86_CCR3 0xc3
#define CX86_CCR4 0xe8
#define CX86_CCR5 0xe9
#define CX86_CCR6 0xea
#define CX86_CCR7 0xeb
#define CX86_PCR1 0xf0
#define CX86_DIR0 0xfe
#define CX86_DIR1 0xff
#define CX86_ARR_BASE 0xc4
#define CX86_RCR_BASE 0xdc
* NSC/Cyrix CPU indexed register access macros
#define getCx86(reg) ({ outb((reg), 0x22); inb(0x23); })
#define setCx86(reg, data) do { \
outb((reg), 0x22); \
outb((data), 0x23); \
} while (0)
/* Stop speculative execution */
static inline void sync_core(void)
int tmp;
asm volatile("cpuid" : "=a" (tmp) : "0" (1) : "ebx","ecx","edx","memory");
static inline void __monitor(const void *eax, unsigned long ecx,
unsigned long edx)
/* "monitor %eax,%ecx,%edx;" */
asm volatile(
".byte 0x0f,0x01,0xc8;"
: :"a" (eax), "c" (ecx), "d"(edx));
static inline void __mwait(unsigned long eax, unsigned long ecx)
/* "mwait %eax,%ecx;" */
asm volatile(
".byte 0x0f,0x01,0xc9;"
: :"a" (eax), "c" (ecx));
/* from system description table in BIOS. Mostly for MCA use, but
others may find it useful. */
extern unsigned int machine_id;
extern unsigned int machine_submodel_id;
extern unsigned int BIOS_revision;
extern unsigned int mca_pentium_flag;
/* Boot loader type from the setup header */
extern int bootloader_type;
* User space process size: 3GB (default).
/* This decides where the kernel will search for a free chunk of vm
* space during mmap's.
* Size of io_bitmap.
#define IO_BITMAP_BITS 65536
#define IO_BITMAP_LONGS (IO_BITMAP_BYTES/sizeof(long))
#define IO_BITMAP_OFFSET offsetof(struct tss_struct,io_bitmap)
struct i387_fsave_struct {
long cwd;
long swd;
long twd;
long fip;
long fcs;
long foo;
long fos;
long st_space[20]; /* 8*10 bytes for each FP-reg = 80 bytes */
long status; /* software status information */
struct i387_fxsave_struct {
unsigned short cwd;
unsigned short swd;
unsigned short twd;
unsigned short fop;
long fip;
long fcs;
long foo;
long fos;
long mxcsr;
long mxcsr_mask;
long st_space[32]; /* 8*16 bytes for each FP-reg = 128 bytes */
long xmm_space[32]; /* 8*16 bytes for each XMM-reg = 128 bytes */
long padding[56];
} __attribute__ ((aligned (16)));
struct i387_soft_struct {
long cwd;
long swd;
long twd;
long fip;
long fcs;
long foo;
long fos;
long st_space[20]; /* 8*10 bytes for each FP-reg = 80 bytes */
unsigned char ftop, changed, lookahead, no_update, rm, alimit;
struct info *info;
unsigned long entry_eip;
union i387_union {
struct i387_fsave_struct fsave;
struct i387_fxsave_struct fxsave;
struct i387_soft_struct soft;
typedef struct {
unsigned long seg;
} mm_segment_t;
struct thread_struct;
struct tss_struct {
unsigned short back_link,__blh;
unsigned long esp0;
unsigned short ss0,__ss0h;
unsigned long esp1;
unsigned short ss1,__ss1h; /* ss1 is used to cache MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_CS */
unsigned long esp2;
unsigned short ss2,__ss2h;
unsigned long __cr3;
unsigned long eip;
unsigned long eflags;
unsigned long eax,ecx,edx,ebx;
unsigned long esp;
unsigned long ebp;
unsigned long esi;
unsigned long edi;
unsigned short es, __esh;
unsigned short cs, __csh;
unsigned short ss, __ssh;
unsigned short ds, __dsh;
unsigned short fs, __fsh;
unsigned short gs, __gsh;
unsigned short ldt, __ldth;
unsigned short trace, io_bitmap_base;
* The extra 1 is there because the CPU will access an
* additional byte beyond the end of the IO permission
* bitmap. The extra byte must be all 1 bits, and must
* be within the limit.
unsigned long io_bitmap[IO_BITMAP_LONGS + 1];
* Cache the current maximum and the last task that used the bitmap:
unsigned long io_bitmap_max;
struct thread_struct *io_bitmap_owner;
* pads the TSS to be cacheline-aligned (size is 0x100)
unsigned long __cacheline_filler[35];
* .. and then another 0x100 bytes for emergency kernel stack
unsigned long stack[64];
} __attribute__((packed));
struct thread_struct {
/* cached TLS descriptors. */
struct desc_struct tls_array[GDT_ENTRY_TLS_ENTRIES];
unsigned long esp0;
unsigned long sysenter_cs;
unsigned long eip;
unsigned long esp;
unsigned long fs;
unsigned long gs;
/* Hardware debugging registers */
unsigned long debugreg[8]; /* %%db0-7 debug registers */
/* fault info */
unsigned long cr2, trap_no, error_code;
/* floating point info */
union i387_union i387;
/* virtual 86 mode info */
struct vm86_struct __user * vm86_info;
unsigned long screen_bitmap;
unsigned long v86flags, v86mask, saved_esp0;
unsigned int saved_fs, saved_gs;
/* IO permissions */
unsigned long *io_bitmap_ptr;
unsigned long iopl;
/* max allowed port in the bitmap, in bytes: */
unsigned long io_bitmap_max;
#define INIT_THREAD { \
.vm86_info = NULL, \
.sysenter_cs = __KERNEL_CS, \
.io_bitmap_ptr = NULL, \
* Note that the .io_bitmap member must be extra-big. This is because
* the CPU will access an additional byte beyond the end of the IO
* permission bitmap. The extra byte must be all 1 bits, and must
* be within the limit.
#define INIT_TSS { \
.esp0 = sizeof(init_stack) + (long)&init_stack, \
.ss0 = __KERNEL_DS, \
.ss1 = __KERNEL_CS, \
.io_bitmap_base = INVALID_IO_BITMAP_OFFSET, \
.io_bitmap = { [ 0 ... IO_BITMAP_LONGS] = ~0 }, \
static inline void load_esp0(struct tss_struct *tss, struct thread_struct *thread)
tss->esp0 = thread->esp0;
/* This can only happen when SEP is enabled, no need to test "SEP"arately */
if (unlikely(tss->ss1 != thread->sysenter_cs)) {
tss->ss1 = thread->sysenter_cs;
wrmsr(MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_CS, thread->sysenter_cs, 0);
#define start_thread(regs, new_eip, new_esp) do { \
__asm__("movl %0,%%fs ; movl %0,%%gs": :"r" (0)); \
set_fs(USER_DS); \
regs->xds = __USER_DS; \
regs->xes = __USER_DS; \
regs->xss = __USER_DS; \
regs->xcs = __USER_CS; \
regs->eip = new_eip; \
regs->esp = new_esp; \
} while (0)
* These special macros can be used to get or set a debugging register
#define get_debugreg(var, register) \
__asm__("movl %%db" #register ", %0" \
:"=r" (var))
#define set_debugreg(value, register) \
__asm__("movl %0,%%db" #register \
: /* no output */ \
:"r" (value))
* Set IOPL bits in EFLAGS from given mask
static inline void set_iopl_mask(unsigned mask)
unsigned int reg;
__asm__ __volatile__ ("pushfl;"
"popl %0;"
"andl %1, %0;"
"orl %2, %0;"
"pushl %0;"
: "=&r" (reg)
: "i" (~X86_EFLAGS_IOPL), "r" (mask));
/* Forward declaration, a strange C thing */
struct task_struct;
struct mm_struct;
/* Free all resources held by a thread. */
extern void release_thread(struct task_struct *);
/* Prepare to copy thread state - unlazy all lazy status */
extern void prepare_to_copy(struct task_struct *tsk);
* create a kernel thread without removing it from tasklists
extern int kernel_thread(int (*fn)(void *), void * arg, unsigned long flags);
extern unsigned long thread_saved_pc(struct task_struct *tsk);
void show_trace(struct task_struct *task, struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long *stack);
unsigned long get_wchan(struct task_struct *p);
#define THREAD_SIZE_LONGS (THREAD_SIZE/sizeof(unsigned long))
#define KSTK_TOP(info) \
({ \
unsigned long *__ptr = (unsigned long *)(info); \
(unsigned long)(&__ptr[THREAD_SIZE_LONGS]); \
* The below -8 is to reserve 8 bytes on top of the ring0 stack.
* This is necessary to guarantee that the entire "struct pt_regs"
* is accessable even if the CPU haven't stored the SS/ESP registers
* on the stack (interrupt gate does not save these registers
* when switching to the same priv ring).
* Therefore beware: accessing the xss/esp fields of the
* "struct pt_regs" is possible, but they may contain the
* completely wrong values.
#define task_pt_regs(task) \
({ \
struct pt_regs *__regs__; \
__regs__ = (struct pt_regs *)(KSTK_TOP(task_stack_page(task))-8); \
__regs__ - 1; \
#define KSTK_EIP(task) (task_pt_regs(task)->eip)
#define KSTK_ESP(task) (task_pt_regs(task)->esp)
struct microcode_header {
unsigned int hdrver;
unsigned int rev;
unsigned int date;
unsigned int sig;
unsigned int cksum;
unsigned int ldrver;
unsigned int pf;
unsigned int datasize;
unsigned int totalsize;
unsigned int reserved[3];
struct microcode {
struct microcode_header hdr;
unsigned int bits[0];
typedef struct microcode microcode_t;
typedef struct microcode_header microcode_header_t;
/* microcode format is extended from prescott processors */
struct extended_signature {
unsigned int sig;
unsigned int pf;
unsigned int cksum;
struct extended_sigtable {
unsigned int count;
unsigned int cksum;
unsigned int reserved[3];
struct extended_signature sigs[0];
/* REP NOP (PAUSE) is a good thing to insert into busy-wait loops. */
static inline void rep_nop(void)
__asm__ __volatile__("rep;nop": : :"memory");
#define cpu_relax() rep_nop()
/* generic versions from gas */
#define GENERIC_NOP1 ".byte 0x90\n"
#define GENERIC_NOP2 ".byte 0x89,0xf6\n"
#define GENERIC_NOP3 ".byte 0x8d,0x76,0x00\n"
#define GENERIC_NOP4 ".byte 0x8d,0x74,0x26,0x00\n"
#define GENERIC_NOP6 ".byte 0x8d,0xb6,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00\n"
#define GENERIC_NOP7 ".byte 0x8d,0xb4,0x26,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00\n"
/* Opteron nops */
#define K8_NOP1 GENERIC_NOP1
#define K8_NOP2 ".byte 0x66,0x90\n"
#define K8_NOP3 ".byte 0x66,0x66,0x90\n"
#define K8_NOP4 ".byte 0x66,0x66,0x66,0x90\n"
#define K8_NOP5 K8_NOP3 K8_NOP2
#define K8_NOP6 K8_NOP3 K8_NOP3
#define K8_NOP7 K8_NOP4 K8_NOP3
#define K8_NOP8 K8_NOP4 K8_NOP4
/* K7 nops */
/* uses eax dependencies (arbitary choice) */
#define K7_NOP1 GENERIC_NOP1
#define K7_NOP2 ".byte 0x8b,0xc0\n"
#define K7_NOP3 ".byte 0x8d,0x04,0x20\n"
#define K7_NOP4 ".byte 0x8d,0x44,0x20,0x00\n"
#define K7_NOP5 K7_NOP4 ASM_NOP1
#define K7_NOP6 ".byte 0x8d,0x80,0,0,0,0\n"
#define K7_NOP7 ".byte 0x8D,0x04,0x05,0,0,0,0\n"
#define K7_NOP8 K7_NOP7 ASM_NOP1
#ifdef CONFIG_MK8
#define ASM_NOP1 K8_NOP1
#define ASM_NOP2 K8_NOP2
#define ASM_NOP3 K8_NOP3
#define ASM_NOP4 K8_NOP4
#define ASM_NOP5 K8_NOP5
#define ASM_NOP6 K8_NOP6
#define ASM_NOP7 K8_NOP7
#define ASM_NOP8 K8_NOP8
#elif defined(CONFIG_MK7)
#define ASM_NOP1 K7_NOP1
#define ASM_NOP2 K7_NOP2
#define ASM_NOP3 K7_NOP3
#define ASM_NOP4 K7_NOP4
#define ASM_NOP5 K7_NOP5
#define ASM_NOP6 K7_NOP6
#define ASM_NOP7 K7_NOP7
#define ASM_NOP8 K7_NOP8
#define ASM_NOP_MAX 8
/* Prefetch instructions for Pentium III and AMD Athlon */
/* It's not worth to care about 3dnow! prefetches for the K6
because they are microcoded there and very slow.
However we don't do prefetches for pre XP Athlons currently
That should be fixed. */
static inline void prefetch(const void *x)
"prefetchnta (%1)",
"r" (x));
/* 3dnow! prefetch to get an exclusive cache line. Useful for
spinlocks to avoid one state transition in the cache coherency protocol. */
static inline void prefetchw(const void *x)
"prefetchw (%1)",
"r" (x));
#define spin_lock_prefetch(x) prefetchw(x)
extern void select_idle_routine(const struct cpuinfo_x86 *c);
#define cache_line_size() (boot_cpu_data.x86_cache_alignment)
extern unsigned long boot_option_idle_override;
extern void enable_sep_cpu(void);
extern int sysenter_setup(void);
#endif /* __ASM_I386_PROCESSOR_H */