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Intro
=====
This document is designed to provide a list of the minimum levels of
software necessary to run the 2.6 kernels, as well as provide brief
instructions regarding any other "Gotchas" users may encounter when
trying life on the Bleeding Edge. If upgrading from a pre-2.4.x
kernel, please consult the Changes file included with 2.4.x kernels for
additional information; most of that information will not be repeated
here. Basically, this document assumes that your system is already
functional and running at least 2.4.x kernels.
This document is originally based on my "Changes" file for 2.0.x kernels
and therefore owes credit to the same people as that file (Jared Mauch,
Axel Boldt, Alessandro Sigala, and countless other users all over the
'net).
The latest revision of this document, in various formats, can always
be found at <http://cyberbuzz.gatech.edu/kaboom/linux/Changes-2.4/>.
Feel free to translate this document. If you do so, please send me a
URL to your translation for inclusion in future revisions of this
document.
Smotrite file <http://oblom.rnc.ru/linux/kernel/Changes.ru>, yavlyaushisya
russkim perevodom dannogo documenta.
Visite <http://www2.adi.uam.es/~ender/tecnico/> para obtener la traducción
al español de este documento en varios formatos.
Eine deutsche Version dieser Datei finden Sie unter
<http://www.stefan-winter.de/Changes-2.4.0.txt>.
Last updated: October 29th, 2002
Chris Ricker (kaboom@gatech.edu or chris.ricker@genetics.utah.edu).
Current Minimal Requirements
============================
Upgrade to at *least* these software revisions before thinking you've
encountered a bug! If you're unsure what version you're currently
running, the suggested command should tell you.
Again, keep in mind that this list assumes you are already
functionally running a Linux 2.4 kernel. Also, not all tools are
necessary on all systems; obviously, if you don't have any PCMCIA (PC
Card) hardware, for example, you probably needn't concern yourself
with pcmcia-cs.
o Gnu C 2.95.3 # gcc --version
o Gnu make 3.78 # make --version
o binutils 2.12 # ld -v
o util-linux 2.10o # fdformat --version
o module-init-tools 0.9.10 # depmod -V
o e2fsprogs 1.29 # tune2fs
o jfsutils 1.1.3 # fsck.jfs -V
o reiserfsprogs 3.6.3 # reiserfsck -V 2>&1|grep reiserfsprogs
o xfsprogs 2.6.0 # xfs_db -V
o pcmcia-cs 3.1.21 # cardmgr -V
o quota-tools 3.09 # quota -V
o PPP 2.4.0 # pppd --version
o isdn4k-utils 3.1pre1 # isdnctrl 2>&1|grep version
o nfs-utils 1.0.5 # showmount --version
o procps 3.1.13 # ps --version
o oprofile 0.5.3 # oprofiled --version
Kernel compilation
==================
GCC
---
The gcc version requirements may vary depending on the type of CPU in your
computer. The next paragraph applies to users of x86 CPUs, but not
necessarily to users of other CPUs. Users of other CPUs should obtain
information about their gcc version requirements from another source.
The recommended compiler for the kernel is gcc 2.95.x (x >= 3), and it
should be used when you need absolute stability. You may use gcc 3.0.x
instead if you wish, although it may cause problems. Later versions of gcc
have not received much testing for Linux kernel compilation, and there are
almost certainly bugs (mainly, but not exclusively, in the kernel) that
will need to be fixed in order to use these compilers. In any case, using
pgcc instead of plain gcc is just asking for trouble.
The Red Hat gcc 2.96 compiler subtree can also be used to build this tree.
You should ensure you use gcc-2.96-74 or later. gcc-2.96-54 will not build
the kernel correctly.
In addition, please pay attention to compiler optimization. Anything
greater than -O2 may not be wise. Similarly, if you choose to use gcc-2.95.x
or derivatives, be sure not to use -fstrict-aliasing (which, depending on
your version of gcc 2.95.x, may necessitate using -fno-strict-aliasing).
Make
----
You will need Gnu make 3.78 or later to build the kernel.
Binutils
--------
Linux on IA-32 has recently switched from using as86 to using gas for
assembling the 16-bit boot code, removing the need for as86 to compile
your kernel. This change does, however, mean that you need a recent
release of binutils.
System utilities
================
Architectural changes
---------------------
DevFS is now in the kernel. See Documentation/filesystems/devfs/* in
the kernel source tree for all the gory details.
32-bit UID support is now in place. Have fun!
Linux documentation for functions is transitioning to inline
documentation via specially-formatted comments near their
definitions in the source. These comments can be combined with the
SGML templates in the Documentation/DocBook directory to make DocBook
files, which can then be converted by DocBook stylesheets to PostScript,
HTML, PDF files, and several other formats. In order to convert from
DocBook format to a format of your choice, you'll need to install Jade as
well as the desired DocBook stylesheets.
Util-linux
----------
New versions of util-linux provide *fdisk support for larger disks,
support new options to mount, recognize more supported partition
types, have a fdformat which works with 2.4 kernels, and similar goodies.
You'll probably want to upgrade.
Ksymoops
--------
If the unthinkable happens and your kernel oopses, you'll need a 2.4
version of ksymoops to decode the report; see REPORTING-BUGS in the
root of the Linux source for more information.
Module-Init-Tools
-----------------
A new module loader is now in the kernel that requires module-init-tools
to use. It is backward compatible with the 2.4.x series kernels.
Mkinitrd
--------
These changes to the /lib/modules file tree layout also require that
mkinitrd be upgraded.
E2fsprogs
---------
The latest version of e2fsprogs fixes several bugs in fsck and
debugfs. Obviously, it's a good idea to upgrade.
JFSutils
--------
The jfsutils package contains the utilities for the file system.
The following utilities are available:
o fsck.jfs - initiate replay of the transaction log, and check
and repair a JFS formatted partition.
o mkfs.jfs - create a JFS formatted partition.
o other file system utilities are also available in this package.
Reiserfsprogs
-------------
The reiserfsprogs package should be used for reiserfs-3.6.x
(Linux kernels 2.4.x). It is a combined package and contains working
versions of mkreiserfs, resize_reiserfs, debugreiserfs and
reiserfsck. These utils work on both i386 and alpha platforms.
Xfsprogs
--------
The latest version of xfsprogs contains mkfs.xfs, xfs_db, and the
xfs_repair utilities, among others, for the XFS filesystem. It is
architecture independent and any version from 2.0.0 onward should
work correctly with this version of the XFS kernel code (2.6.0 or
later is recommended, due to some significant improvements).
Pcmcia-cs
---------
PCMCIA (PC Card) support is now partially implemented in the main
kernel source. Pay attention when you recompile your kernel ;-).
Also, be sure to upgrade to the latest pcmcia-cs release.
Quota-tools
-----------
Support for 32 bit uid's and gid's is required if you want to use
the newer version 2 quota format. Quota-tools version 3.07 and
newer has this support. Use the recommended version or newer
from the table above.
Intel IA32 microcode
--------------------
A driver has been added to allow updating of Intel IA32 microcode,
accessible as both a devfs regular file and as a normal (misc)
character device. If you are not using devfs you may need to:
mkdir /dev/cpu
mknod /dev/cpu/microcode c 10 184
chmod 0644 /dev/cpu/microcode
as root before you can use this. You'll probably also want to
get the user-space microcode_ctl utility to use with this.
If you have compiled the driver as a module you may need to add
the following line:
alias char-major-10-184 microcode
to your /etc/modules.conf file.
Powertweak
----------
If you are running v0.1.17 or earlier, you should upgrade to
version v0.99.0 or higher. Running old versions may cause problems
with programs using shared memory.
Networking
==========
General changes
---------------
If you have advanced network configuration needs, you should probably
consider using the network tools from ip-route2.
Packet Filter / NAT
-------------------
The packet filtering and NAT code uses the same tools like the previous 2.4.x
kernel series (iptables). It still includes backwards-compatibility modules
for 2.2.x-style ipchains and 2.0.x-style ipfwadm.
PPP
---
The PPP driver has been restructured to support multilink and to
enable it to operate over diverse media layers. If you use PPP,
upgrade pppd to at least 2.4.0.
If you are not using devfs, you must have the device file /dev/ppp
which can be made by:
mknod /dev/ppp c 108 0
as root.
If you build ppp support as modules, you will need the following in
your /etc/modules.conf file:
alias char-major-108 ppp_generic
alias /dev/ppp ppp_generic
alias tty-ldisc-3 ppp_async
alias tty-ldisc-14 ppp_synctty
alias ppp-compress-21 bsd_comp
alias ppp-compress-24 ppp_deflate
alias ppp-compress-26 ppp_deflate
If you use devfsd and build ppp support as modules, you will need
the following in your /etc/devfsd.conf file:
LOOKUP PPP MODLOAD
Isdn4k-utils
------------
Due to changes in the length of the phone number field, isdn4k-utils
needs to be recompiled or (preferably) upgraded.
NFS-utils
---------
In 2.4 and earlier kernels, the nfs server needed to know about any
client that expected to be able to access files via NFS. This
information would be given to the kernel by "mountd" when the client
mounted the filesystem, or by "exportfs" at system startup. exportfs
would take information about active clients from /var/lib/nfs/rmtab.
This approach is quite fragile as it depends on rmtab being correct
which is not always easy, particularly when trying to implement
fail-over. Even when the system is working well, rmtab suffers from
getting lots of old entries that never get removed.
With 2.6 we have the option of having the kernel tell mountd when it
gets a request from an unknown host, and mountd can give appropriate
export information to the kernel. This removes the dependency on
rmtab and means that the kernel only needs to know about currently
active clients.
To enable this new functionality, you need to:
mount -t nfsd nfsd /proc/fs/nfs
before running exportfs or mountd. It is recommended that all NFS
services be protected from the internet-at-large by a firewall where
that is possible.
Getting updated software
========================
Kernel compilation
******************
gcc 2.95.3
----------
o <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/gcc-2.95.3.tar.gz>
Make 3.78
---------
o <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/make-3.78.1.tar.gz>
Binutils
--------
o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/devel/binutils/>
System utilities
****************
Util-linux
----------
o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/>
Ksymoops
--------
o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/v2.4/>
Module-Init-Tools
-----------------
o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/rusty/modules/>
Mkinitrd
--------
o <ftp://rawhide.redhat.com/pub/rawhide/SRPMS/SRPMS/>
E2fsprogs
---------
o <http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/e2fsprogs/e2fsprogs-1.29.tar.gz>
JFSutils
--------
o <http://oss.software.ibm.com/jfs>
Reiserfsprogs
-------------
o <http://www.namesys.com/pub/reiserfsprogs/reiserfsprogs-3.6.3.tar.gz>
Xfsprogs
--------
o <ftp://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/download/>
Pcmcia-cs
---------
o <ftp://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net/pub/pcmcia-cs/pcmcia-cs-3.1.21.tar.gz>
Quota-tools
----------
o <http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota/>
Jade
----
o <ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/jade/jade-1.2.1.tar.gz>
DocBook Stylesheets
-------------------
o <http://nwalsh.com/docbook/dsssl/>
Intel P6 microcode
------------------
o <http://www.urbanmyth.org/microcode/>
Powertweak
----------
o <http://powertweak.sourceforge.net/>
Networking
**********
PPP
---
o <ftp://ftp.samba.org/pub/ppp/ppp-2.4.0.tar.gz>
Isdn4k-utils
------------
o <ftp://ftp.isdn4linux.de/pub/isdn4linux/utils/isdn4k-utils.v3.1pre1.tar.gz>
NFS-utils
---------
o <http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=14>
Iptables
--------
o <http://www.iptables.org/downloads.html>
Ip-route2
---------
o <ftp://ftp.tux.org/pub/net/ip-routing/iproute2-2.2.4-now-ss991023.tar.gz>
OProfile
--------
o <http://oprofile.sf.net/download/>
NFS-Utils
---------
o <http://nfs.sourceforge.net/>
Suggestions and corrections
===========================
Please feel free to submit changes, corrections, gripes, flames,
money, etc. to me <chris.ricker@genetics.utah.edu>. Happy Linuxing!