blob: 004970f9ca79d54fa0a45987e0b8750c58d93429 [file] [log] [blame]
From Sun Feb 17 18:06:16 2013
From: Do Quang Thang <>
Date: Mon, 18 Feb 2013 11:05:35 +0900
Subject: usb: gadget: mass_storage: add documentation
To: Greg KH <>
Message-ID: <>
From: Michal Nazarewicz <>
This commit adds Documentation/usb/mass-storage.txt file. It contains
description of how to use the mass storage gadget from user space. It
elaborates on madule parameters and sysfs interface more then it was
written in the comments in the source code.
Signed-off-by: Michal Nazarewicz <>
Acked-by: Alan Stern <>
Signed-off-by: Felipe Balbi <>
(cherry picked from commit a8287a4ed543494c121050dc453972902637e6de)
Signed-off-by: Do Quang Thang <>
Documentation/usb/mass-storage.txt | 226 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
drivers/usb/gadget/f_mass_storage.c | 69 +---------
2 files changed, 233 insertions(+), 62 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/usb/mass-storage.txt
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/usb/mass-storage.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,226 @@
+* Overview
+ Mass Storage Gadget (or MSG) acts as a USB Mass Storage device,
+ appearing to the host as a disk or a CD-ROM drive. It supports
+ multiple logical units (LUNs). Backing storage for each LUN is
+ provided by a regular file or a block device, access can be limited
+ to read-only, and gadget can indicate that it is removable and/or
+ CD-ROM (the latter implies read-only access).
+ Its requirements are modest; only a bulk-in and a bulk-out endpoint
+ are needed. The memory requirement amounts to two 16K buffers.
+ Support is included for full-speed, high-speed and SuperSpeed
+ operation.
+ Note that the driver is slightly non-portable in that it assumes
+ a single memory/DMA buffer will be useable for bulk-in and bulk-out
+ endpoints. With most device controllers this is not an issue, but
+ there may be some with hardware restrictions that prevent a buffer
+ from being used by more than one endpoint.
+ This document describes how to use the gadget from user space, its
+ relation to mass storage function (or MSF) and different gadgets
+ using it, and how it differs from File Storage Gadget (or FSG). It
+ will talk only briefly about how to use MSF within composite
+ gadgets.
+* Module parameters
+ The mass storage gadget accepts the following mass storage specific
+ module parameters:
+ - file=filename[,filename...]
+ This parameter lists paths to files or block devices used for
+ backing storage for each logical unit. There may be at most
+ FSG_MAX_LUNS (8) LUNs set. If more files are specified, they will
+ be silently ignored. See also luns parameter.
+ *BEWARE* that if a file is used as a backing storage, it may not
+ be modified by any other process. This is because the host
+ assumes the data does not change without its knowledge. It may be
+ read, but (if the logical unit is writable) due to buffering on
+ the host side, the contents are not well defined.
+ The size of the logical unit will be rounded down to a full
+ logical block. The logical block size is 2048 bytes for LUNs
+ simulating CD-ROM, block size of the device if the backing file is
+ a block device, or 512 bytes otherwise.
+ - removable=b[,b...]
+ This parameter specifies whether each logical unit should be
+ removable. b here is either y”, Y or 1 for true or n”,
+ N or 0 for false.
+ If this option is set for a logical unit, gadget will accept an
+ eject SCSI request (Start/Stop Unit). When it is sent, the
+ backing file will be closed to simulate ejection and the logical
+ unit will not be mountable by the host until a new backing file is
+ specified by userspace on the device (see sysfs entries
+ section).
+ If a logical unit is not removable (the default), a backing file
+ must be specified for it with the file parameter as the module
+ is loaded. The same applies if the module is built in, no
+ exceptions.
+ The default value of the flag is false, *HOWEVER* it used to be
+ true. This has been changed to better match File Storage Gadget
+ and because it seems like a saner default after all. Thus to
+ maintain compatibility with older kernels, it's best to specify
+ the default values. Also, if one relied on old default, explicit
+ “n” needs to be specified now.
+ Note that “removable” means the logical unit's media can be
+ ejected or removed (as is true for a CD-ROM drive or a card
+ reader). It does *not* mean that the entire gadget can be
+ unplugged from the host; the proper term for that is
+ hot-unpluggable”.
+ - cdrom=b[,b...]
+ This parameter specifies whether each logical unit should simulate
+ CD-ROM. The default is false.
+ - ro=b[,b...]
+ This parameter specifies whether each logical unit should be
+ reported as read only. This will prevent host from modifying the
+ backing files.
+ Note that if this flag for given logical unit is false but the
+ backing file could not be opened in read/write mode, the gadget
+ will fall back to read only mode anyway.
+ The default value for non-CD-ROM logical units is false; for
+ logical units simulating CD-ROM it is forced to true.
+ - nofua=b[,b...]
+ This parameter specifies whether FUA flag should be ignored in SCSI
+ Write10 and Write12 commands sent to given logical units.
+ MS Windows mounts removable storage in Removal optimised mode by
+ default. All the writes to the media are synchronous, which is
+ achieved by setting the FUA (Force Unit Access) bit in SCSI
+ Write(10,12) commands. This forces each write to wait until the
+ data has actually been written out and prevents I/O requests
+ aggregation in block layer dramatically decreasing performance.
+ Note that this may mean that if the device is powered from USB and
+ the user unplugs the device without unmounting it first (which at
+ least some Windows users do), the data may be lost.
+ The default value is false.
+ - luns=N
+ This parameter specifies number of logical units the gadget will
+ have. It is limited by FSG_MAX_LUNS (8) and higher value will be
+ capped.
+ If this parameter is provided, and the number of files specified
+ in file argument is greater then the value of luns”, all excess
+ files will be ignored.
+ If this parameter is not present, the number of logical units will
+ be deduced from the number of files specified in the file
+ parameter. If the file parameter is missing as well, one is
+ assumed.
+ - stall=b
+ Specifies whether the gadget is allowed to halt bulk endpoints.
+ The default is determined according to the type of USB device
+ controller, but usually true.
+ In addition to the above, the gadget also accepts the following
+ parameters defined by the composite framework (they are common to
+ all composite gadgets so just a quick listing):
+ - idVendor -- USB Vendor ID (16 bit integer)
+ - idProduct -- USB Product ID (16 bit integer)
+ - bcdDevice -- USB Device version (BCD) (16 bit integer)
+ - iManufacturer -- USB Manufacturer string (string)
+ - iProduct -- USB Product string (string)
+ - iSerialNumber -- SerialNumber string (sting)
+* sysfs entries
+ For each logical unit, the gadget creates a directory in the sysfs
+ hierarchy. Inside of it the following three files are created:
+ - file
+ When read it returns the path to the backing file for the given
+ logical unit. If there is no backing file (possible only if the
+ logical unit is removable), the content is empty.
+ When written into, it changes the backing file for given logical
+ unit. This change can be performed even if given logical unit is
+ not specified as removable (but that may look strange to the
+ host). It may fail, however, if host disallowed medium removal
+ with the Prevent-Allow Medium Removal SCSI command.
+ - ro
+ Reflects the state of ro flag for the given logical unit. It can
+ be read any time, and written to when there is no backing file
+ open for given logical unit.
+ - nofua
+ Reflects the state of nofua flag for given logical unit. It can
+ be read and written.
+ Other then those, as usual, the values of module parameters can be
+ read from /sys/module/g_mass_storage/parameters/* files.
+* Other gadgets using mass storage function
+ The Mass Storage Gadget uses the Mass Storage Function to handle
+ mass storage protocol. As a composite function, MSF may be used by
+ other gadgets as well (eg. g_multi and acm_ms).
+ All of the information in previous sections are valid for other
+ gadgets using MSF, except that support for mass storage related
+ module parameters may be missing, or the parameters may have
+ a prefix. To figure out whether any of this is true one needs to
+ consult the gadget's documentation or its source code.
+ For examples of how to include mass storage function in gadgets, one
+ may take a look at mass_storage.c, acm_ms.c and multi.c (sorted by
+ complexity).
+* Relation to file storage gadget
+ The Mass Storage Function and thus the Mass Storage Gadget has been
+ based on the File Storage Gadget. The difference between the two is
+ that MSG is a composite gadget (ie. uses the composite framework)
+ while file storage gadget is a traditional gadget. From userspace
+ point of view this distinction does not really matter, but from
+ kernel hacker's point of view, this means that (i) MSG does not
+ duplicate code needed for handling basic USB protocol commands and
+ (ii) MSF can be used in any other composite gadget.
+ Because of that, File Storage Gadget has been deprecated and
+ scheduled to be removed in Linux 3.8. All users need to transition
+ to the Mass Storage Gadget by that time. The two gadgets behave
+ mostly the same from the outside except:
+ 1. In FSG the “removable” and “cdrom” module parameters set the flag
+ for all logical units whereas in MSG they accept a list of y/n
+ values for each logical unit. If one uses only a single logical
+ unit this does not matter, but if there are more, the y/n value
+ needs to be repeated for each logical unit.
+ 2. FSG's “serial”, “vendor”, “product” and “release” module
+ parameters are handled in MSG by the composite layer's parameters
+ named respectively: “iSerialnumber”, “idVendor”, “idProduct” and
+ “bcdDevice”.
+ 3. MSG does not support FSG's test mode, thus “transport”,
+ “protocol” and “buflen” FSG's module parameters are not
+ supported. MSG always uses SCSI protocol with bulk only
+ transport mode and 16 KiB buffers.
--- a/drivers/usb/gadget/f_mass_storage.c
+++ b/drivers/usb/gadget/f_mass_storage.c
@@ -44,12 +44,12 @@
* function for a USB device, it also illustrates a technique of
* double-buffering for increased throughput.
- * Function supports multiple logical units (LUNs). Backing storage
- * for each LUN is provided by a regular file or a block device.
- * Access for each LUN can be limited to read-only. Moreover, the
- * function can indicate that LUN is removable and/or CD-ROM. (The
- * later implies read-only access.)
- *
+ * For more information about MSF and in particular its module
+ * parameters and sysfs interface read the
+ * <Documentation/usb/mass-storage.txt> file.
+ */
* MSF is configured by specifying a fsg_config structure. It has the
* following fields:
@@ -95,61 +95,6 @@
* data track and no audio tracks; hence there need be only one
* backing file per LUN.
- *
- * MSF includes support for module parameters. If gadget using it
- * decides to use it, the following module parameters will be
- * available:
- *
- * file=filename[,filename...]
- * Names of the files or block devices used for
- * backing storage.
- * ro=b[,b...] Default false, boolean for read-only access.
- * removable=b[,b...]
- * Default false, boolean for removable media.
- * cdrom=b[,b...] Default false, boolean for whether to emulate
- * a CD-ROM drive.
- * nofua=b[,b...] Default false, booleans for ignore FUA flag
- * in SCSI WRITE(10,12) commands
- * luns=N Default N = number of filenames, number of
- * LUNs to support.
- * stall Default determined according to the type of
- * USB device controller (usually true),
- * boolean to permit the driver to halt
- * bulk endpoints.
- *
- * The module parameters may be prefixed with some string. You need
- * to consult gadget's documentation or source to verify whether it is
- * using those module parameters and if it does what are the prefixes
- * (look for FSG_MODULE_PARAMETERS() macro usage, what's inside it is
- * the prefix).
- *
- *
- * Requirements are modest; only a bulk-in and a bulk-out endpoint are
- * needed. The memory requirement amounts to two 16K buffers, size
- * configurable by a parameter. Support is included for both
- * full-speed and high-speed operation.
- *
- * Note that the driver is slightly non-portable in that it assumes a
- * single memory/DMA buffer will be useable for bulk-in, bulk-out, and
- * interrupt-in endpoints. With most device controllers this isn't an
- * issue, but there may be some with hardware restrictions that prevent
- * a buffer from being used by more than one endpoint.
- *
- *
- * The pathnames of the backing files, the ro settings and nofua
- * settings are available in the attribute files "file", "ro" and
- * "nofua" in the lun<n> subdirectory of the gadget's sysfs directory.
- * If the "removable" option is set, writing to these files will
- * simulate ejecting/loading the medium (writing an empty line means
- * eject) and adjusting a write-enable tab. Changes to the ro setting
- * are not allowed when the medium is loaded or if CD-ROM emulation is
- * being used.
- *
- * When a LUN receive an "eject" SCSI request (Start/Stop Unit),
- * if the LUN is removable, the backing file is released to simulate
- * ejection.
- *
- *
* This function is heavily based on "File-backed Storage Gadget" by
* Alan Stern which in turn is heavily based on "Gadget Zero" by David
* Brownell. The driver's SCSI command interface was based on the
@@ -191,7 +136,7 @@
* In normal operation the main thread is started during the gadget's
* fsg_bind() callback and stopped during fsg_unbind(). But it can
* also exit when it receives a signal, and there's no point leaving
- * the gadget running when the thread is dead. At of this moment, MSF
+ * the gadget running when the thread is dead. As of this moment, MSF
* provides no way to deregister the gadget when thread dies -- maybe
* a callback functions is needed.