blob: e979705bbf325531b0cf2d90d26660fe308ea310 [file] [log] [blame]
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
/*
* linux/mm/vmscan.c
*
* Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 Linus Torvalds
*
* Swap reorganised 29.12.95, Stephen Tweedie.
* kswapd added: 7.1.96 sct
* Removed kswapd_ctl limits, and swap out as many pages as needed
* to bring the system back to freepages.high: 2.4.97, Rik van Riel.
* Zone aware kswapd started 02/00, Kanoj Sarcar (kanoj@sgi.com).
* Multiqueue VM started 5.8.00, Rik van Riel.
*/
#define pr_fmt(fmt) KBUILD_MODNAME ": " fmt
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/sched/mm.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/gfp.h>
#include <linux/kernel_stat.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/highmem.h>
#include <linux/vmpressure.h>
#include <linux/vmstat.h>
#include <linux/file.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include <linux/buffer_head.h> /* for try_to_release_page(),
buffer_heads_over_limit */
#include <linux/mm_inline.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
#include <linux/rmap.h>
#include <linux/topology.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/cpuset.h>
#include <linux/compaction.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/rwsem.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/kthread.h>
#include <linux/freezer.h>
#include <linux/memcontrol.h>
#include <linux/delayacct.h>
#include <linux/sysctl.h>
#include <linux/oom.h>
#include <linux/pagevec.h>
#include <linux/prefetch.h>
#include <linux/printk.h>
#include <linux/dax.h>
#include <linux/psi.h>
#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
#include <asm/div64.h>
#include <linux/swapops.h>
#include <linux/balloon_compaction.h>
#include "internal.h"
#define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
#include <trace/events/vmscan.h>
struct scan_control {
/* How many pages shrink_list() should reclaim */
unsigned long nr_to_reclaim;
/*
* Nodemask of nodes allowed by the caller. If NULL, all nodes
* are scanned.
*/
nodemask_t *nodemask;
/*
* The memory cgroup that hit its limit and as a result is the
* primary target of this reclaim invocation.
*/
struct mem_cgroup *target_mem_cgroup;
/* Writepage batching in laptop mode; RECLAIM_WRITE */
unsigned int may_writepage:1;
/* Can mapped pages be reclaimed? */
unsigned int may_unmap:1;
/* Can pages be swapped as part of reclaim? */
unsigned int may_swap:1;
/* e.g. boosted watermark reclaim leaves slabs alone */
unsigned int may_shrinkslab:1;
/*
* Cgroups are not reclaimed below their configured memory.low,
* unless we threaten to OOM. If any cgroups are skipped due to
* memory.low and nothing was reclaimed, go back for memory.low.
*/
unsigned int memcg_low_reclaim:1;
unsigned int memcg_low_skipped:1;
unsigned int hibernation_mode:1;
/* One of the zones is ready for compaction */
unsigned int compaction_ready:1;
/* Allocation order */
s8 order;
/* Scan (total_size >> priority) pages at once */
s8 priority;
/* The highest zone to isolate pages for reclaim from */
s8 reclaim_idx;
/* This context's GFP mask */
gfp_t gfp_mask;
/* Incremented by the number of inactive pages that were scanned */
unsigned long nr_scanned;
/* Number of pages freed so far during a call to shrink_zones() */
unsigned long nr_reclaimed;
struct {
unsigned int dirty;
unsigned int unqueued_dirty;
unsigned int congested;
unsigned int writeback;
unsigned int immediate;
unsigned int file_taken;
unsigned int taken;
} nr;
};
#ifdef ARCH_HAS_PREFETCH
#define prefetch_prev_lru_page(_page, _base, _field) \
do { \
if ((_page)->lru.prev != _base) { \
struct page *prev; \
\
prev = lru_to_page(&(_page->lru)); \
prefetch(&prev->_field); \
} \
} while (0)
#else
#define prefetch_prev_lru_page(_page, _base, _field) do { } while (0)
#endif
#ifdef ARCH_HAS_PREFETCHW
#define prefetchw_prev_lru_page(_page, _base, _field) \
do { \
if ((_page)->lru.prev != _base) { \
struct page *prev; \
\
prev = lru_to_page(&(_page->lru)); \
prefetchw(&prev->_field); \
} \
} while (0)
#else
#define prefetchw_prev_lru_page(_page, _base, _field) do { } while (0)
#endif
/*
* From 0 .. 100. Higher means more swappy.
*/
int vm_swappiness = 60;
/*
* The total number of pages which are beyond the high watermark within all
* zones.
*/
unsigned long vm_total_pages;
static LIST_HEAD(shrinker_list);
static DECLARE_RWSEM(shrinker_rwsem);
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG_KMEM
/*
* We allow subsystems to populate their shrinker-related
* LRU lists before register_shrinker_prepared() is called
* for the shrinker, since we don't want to impose
* restrictions on their internal registration order.
* In this case shrink_slab_memcg() may find corresponding
* bit is set in the shrinkers map.
*
* This value is used by the function to detect registering
* shrinkers and to skip do_shrink_slab() calls for them.
*/
#define SHRINKER_REGISTERING ((struct shrinker *)~0UL)
static DEFINE_IDR(shrinker_idr);
static int shrinker_nr_max;
static int prealloc_memcg_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
int id, ret = -ENOMEM;
down_write(&shrinker_rwsem);
/* This may call shrinker, so it must use down_read_trylock() */
id = idr_alloc(&shrinker_idr, SHRINKER_REGISTERING, 0, 0, GFP_KERNEL);
if (id < 0)
goto unlock;
if (id >= shrinker_nr_max) {
if (memcg_expand_shrinker_maps(id)) {
idr_remove(&shrinker_idr, id);
goto unlock;
}
shrinker_nr_max = id + 1;
}
shrinker->id = id;
ret = 0;
unlock:
up_write(&shrinker_rwsem);
return ret;
}
static void unregister_memcg_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
int id = shrinker->id;
BUG_ON(id < 0);
down_write(&shrinker_rwsem);
idr_remove(&shrinker_idr, id);
up_write(&shrinker_rwsem);
}
#else /* CONFIG_MEMCG_KMEM */
static int prealloc_memcg_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
return 0;
}
static void unregister_memcg_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
}
#endif /* CONFIG_MEMCG_KMEM */
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
static bool global_reclaim(struct scan_control *sc)
{
return !sc->target_mem_cgroup;
}
/**
* sane_reclaim - is the usual dirty throttling mechanism operational?
* @sc: scan_control in question
*
* The normal page dirty throttling mechanism in balance_dirty_pages() is
* completely broken with the legacy memcg and direct stalling in
* shrink_page_list() is used for throttling instead, which lacks all the
* niceties such as fairness, adaptive pausing, bandwidth proportional
* allocation and configurability.
*
* This function tests whether the vmscan currently in progress can assume
* that the normal dirty throttling mechanism is operational.
*/
static bool sane_reclaim(struct scan_control *sc)
{
struct mem_cgroup *memcg = sc->target_mem_cgroup;
if (!memcg)
return true;
#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK
if (cgroup_subsys_on_dfl(memory_cgrp_subsys))
return true;
#endif
return false;
}
static void set_memcg_congestion(pg_data_t *pgdat,
struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
bool congested)
{
struct mem_cgroup_per_node *mn;
if (!memcg)
return;
mn = mem_cgroup_nodeinfo(memcg, pgdat->node_id);
WRITE_ONCE(mn->congested, congested);
}
static bool memcg_congested(pg_data_t *pgdat,
struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
{
struct mem_cgroup_per_node *mn;
mn = mem_cgroup_nodeinfo(memcg, pgdat->node_id);
return READ_ONCE(mn->congested);
}
#else
static bool global_reclaim(struct scan_control *sc)
{
return true;
}
static bool sane_reclaim(struct scan_control *sc)
{
return true;
}
static inline void set_memcg_congestion(struct pglist_data *pgdat,
struct mem_cgroup *memcg, bool congested)
{
}
static inline bool memcg_congested(struct pglist_data *pgdat,
struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
{
return false;
}
#endif
/*
* This misses isolated pages which are not accounted for to save counters.
* As the data only determines if reclaim or compaction continues, it is
* not expected that isolated pages will be a dominating factor.
*/
unsigned long zone_reclaimable_pages(struct zone *zone)
{
unsigned long nr;
nr = zone_page_state_snapshot(zone, NR_ZONE_INACTIVE_FILE) +
zone_page_state_snapshot(zone, NR_ZONE_ACTIVE_FILE);
if (get_nr_swap_pages() > 0)
nr += zone_page_state_snapshot(zone, NR_ZONE_INACTIVE_ANON) +
zone_page_state_snapshot(zone, NR_ZONE_ACTIVE_ANON);
return nr;
}
/**
* lruvec_lru_size - Returns the number of pages on the given LRU list.
* @lruvec: lru vector
* @lru: lru to use
* @zone_idx: zones to consider (use MAX_NR_ZONES for the whole LRU list)
*/
unsigned long lruvec_lru_size(struct lruvec *lruvec, enum lru_list lru, int zone_idx)
{
unsigned long lru_size;
int zid;
if (!mem_cgroup_disabled())
lru_size = mem_cgroup_get_lru_size(lruvec, lru);
else
lru_size = node_page_state(lruvec_pgdat(lruvec), NR_LRU_BASE + lru);
for (zid = zone_idx + 1; zid < MAX_NR_ZONES; zid++) {
struct zone *zone = &lruvec_pgdat(lruvec)->node_zones[zid];
unsigned long size;
if (!managed_zone(zone))
continue;
if (!mem_cgroup_disabled())
size = mem_cgroup_get_zone_lru_size(lruvec, lru, zid);
else
size = zone_page_state(&lruvec_pgdat(lruvec)->node_zones[zid],
NR_ZONE_LRU_BASE + lru);
lru_size -= min(size, lru_size);
}
return lru_size;
}
/*
* Add a shrinker callback to be called from the vm.
*/
int prealloc_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
size_t size = sizeof(*shrinker->nr_deferred);
if (shrinker->flags & SHRINKER_NUMA_AWARE)
size *= nr_node_ids;
shrinker->nr_deferred = kzalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
if (!shrinker->nr_deferred)
return -ENOMEM;
if (shrinker->flags & SHRINKER_MEMCG_AWARE) {
if (prealloc_memcg_shrinker(shrinker))
goto free_deferred;
}
return 0;
free_deferred:
kfree(shrinker->nr_deferred);
shrinker->nr_deferred = NULL;
return -ENOMEM;
}
void free_prealloced_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
if (!shrinker->nr_deferred)
return;
if (shrinker->flags & SHRINKER_MEMCG_AWARE)
unregister_memcg_shrinker(shrinker);
kfree(shrinker->nr_deferred);
shrinker->nr_deferred = NULL;
}
void register_shrinker_prepared(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
down_write(&shrinker_rwsem);
list_add_tail(&shrinker->list, &shrinker_list);
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG_KMEM
if (shrinker->flags & SHRINKER_MEMCG_AWARE)
idr_replace(&shrinker_idr, shrinker, shrinker->id);
#endif
up_write(&shrinker_rwsem);
}
int register_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
int err = prealloc_shrinker(shrinker);
if (err)
return err;
register_shrinker_prepared(shrinker);
return 0;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(register_shrinker);
/*
* Remove one
*/
void unregister_shrinker(struct shrinker *shrinker)
{
if (!shrinker->nr_deferred)
return;
if (shrinker->flags & SHRINKER_MEMCG_AWARE)
unregister_memcg_shrinker(shrinker);
down_write(&shrinker_rwsem);
list_del(&shrinker->list);
up_write(&shrinker_rwsem);
kfree(shrinker->nr_deferred);
shrinker->nr_deferred = NULL;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(unregister_shrinker);
#define SHRINK_BATCH 128
static unsigned long do_shrink_slab(struct shrink_control *shrinkctl,
struct shrinker *shrinker, int priority)
{
unsigned long freed = 0;
unsigned long long delta;
long total_scan;
long freeable;
long nr;
long new_nr;
int nid = shrinkctl->nid;
long batch_size = shrinker->batch ? shrinker->batch
: SHRINK_BATCH;
long scanned = 0, next_deferred;
if (!(shrinker->flags & SHRINKER_NUMA_AWARE))
nid = 0;
freeable = shrinker->count_objects(shrinker, shrinkctl);
if (freeable == 0 || freeable == SHRINK_EMPTY)
return freeable;
/*
* copy the current shrinker scan count into a local variable
* and zero it so that other concurrent shrinker invocations
* don't also do this scanning work.
*/
nr = atomic_long_xchg(&shrinker->nr_deferred[nid], 0);
total_scan = nr;
if (shrinker->seeks) {
delta = freeable >> priority;
delta *= 4;
do_div(delta, shrinker->seeks);
} else {
/*
* These objects don't require any IO to create. Trim
* them aggressively under memory pressure to keep
* them from causing refetches in the IO caches.
*/
delta = freeable / 2;
}
total_scan += delta;
if (total_scan < 0) {
pr_err("shrink_slab: %pF negative objects to delete nr=%ld\n",
shrinker->scan_objects, total_scan);
total_scan = freeable;
next_deferred = nr;
} else
next_deferred = total_scan;
/*
* We need to avoid excessive windup on filesystem shrinkers
* due to large numbers of GFP_NOFS allocations causing the
* shrinkers to return -1 all the time. This results in a large
* nr being built up so when a shrink that can do some work
* comes along it empties the entire cache due to nr >>>
* freeable. This is bad for sustaining a working set in
* memory.
*
* Hence only allow the shrinker to scan the entire cache when
* a large delta change is calculated directly.
*/
if (delta < freeable / 4)
total_scan = min(total_scan, freeable / 2);
/*
* Avoid risking looping forever due to too large nr value:
* never try to free more than twice the estimate number of
* freeable entries.
*/
if (total_scan > freeable * 2)
total_scan = freeable * 2;
trace_mm_shrink_slab_start(shrinker, shrinkctl, nr,
freeable, delta, total_scan, priority);
/*
* Normally, we should not scan less than batch_size objects in one
* pass to avoid too frequent shrinker calls, but if the slab has less
* than batch_size objects in total and we are really tight on memory,
* we will try to reclaim all available objects, otherwise we can end
* up failing allocations although there are plenty of reclaimable
* objects spread over several slabs with usage less than the
* batch_size.
*
* We detect the "tight on memory" situations by looking at the total
* number of objects we want to scan (total_scan). If it is greater
* than the total number of objects on slab (freeable), we must be
* scanning at high prio and therefore should try to reclaim as much as
* possible.
*/
while (total_scan >= batch_size ||
total_scan >= freeable) {
unsigned long ret;
unsigned long nr_to_scan = min(batch_size, total_scan);
shrinkctl->nr_to_scan = nr_to_scan;
shrinkctl->nr_scanned = nr_to_scan;
ret = shrinker->scan_objects(shrinker, shrinkctl);
if (ret == SHRINK_STOP)
break;
freed += ret;
count_vm_events(SLABS_SCANNED, shrinkctl->nr_scanned);
total_scan -= shrinkctl->nr_scanned;
scanned += shrinkctl->nr_scanned;
cond_resched();
}
if (next_deferred >= scanned)
next_deferred -= scanned;
else
next_deferred = 0;
/*
* move the unused scan count back into the shrinker in a
* manner that handles concurrent updates. If we exhausted the
* scan, there is no need to do an update.
*/
if (next_deferred > 0)
new_nr = atomic_long_add_return(next_deferred,
&shrinker->nr_deferred[nid]);
else
new_nr = atomic_long_read(&shrinker->nr_deferred[nid]);
trace_mm_shrink_slab_end(shrinker, nid, freed, nr, new_nr, total_scan);
return freed;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG_KMEM
static unsigned long shrink_slab_memcg(gfp_t gfp_mask, int nid,
struct mem_cgroup *memcg, int priority)
{
struct memcg_shrinker_map *map;
unsigned long ret, freed = 0;
int i;
if (!memcg_kmem_enabled() || !mem_cgroup_online(memcg))
return 0;
if (!down_read_trylock(&shrinker_rwsem))
return 0;
map = rcu_dereference_protected(memcg->nodeinfo[nid]->shrinker_map,
true);
if (unlikely(!map))
goto unlock;
for_each_set_bit(i, map->map, shrinker_nr_max) {
struct shrink_control sc = {
.gfp_mask = gfp_mask,
.nid = nid,
.memcg = memcg,
};
struct shrinker *shrinker;
shrinker = idr_find(&shrinker_idr, i);
if (unlikely(!shrinker || shrinker == SHRINKER_REGISTERING)) {
if (!shrinker)
clear_bit(i, map->map);
continue;
}
ret = do_shrink_slab(&sc, shrinker, priority);
if (ret == SHRINK_EMPTY) {
clear_bit(i, map->map);
/*
* After the shrinker reported that it had no objects to
* free, but before we cleared the corresponding bit in
* the memcg shrinker map, a new object might have been
* added. To make sure, we have the bit set in this
* case, we invoke the shrinker one more time and reset
* the bit if it reports that it is not empty anymore.
* The memory barrier here pairs with the barrier in
* memcg_set_shrinker_bit():
*
* list_lru_add() shrink_slab_memcg()
* list_add_tail() clear_bit()
* <MB> <MB>
* set_bit() do_shrink_slab()
*/
smp_mb__after_atomic();
ret = do_shrink_slab(&sc, shrinker, priority);
if (ret == SHRINK_EMPTY)
ret = 0;
else
memcg_set_shrinker_bit(memcg, nid, i);
}
freed += ret;
if (rwsem_is_contended(&shrinker_rwsem)) {
freed = freed ? : 1;
break;
}
}
unlock:
up_read(&shrinker_rwsem);
return freed;
}
#else /* CONFIG_MEMCG_KMEM */
static unsigned long shrink_slab_memcg(gfp_t gfp_mask, int nid,
struct mem_cgroup *memcg, int priority)
{
return 0;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_MEMCG_KMEM */
/**
* shrink_slab - shrink slab caches
* @gfp_mask: allocation context
* @nid: node whose slab caches to target
* @memcg: memory cgroup whose slab caches to target
* @priority: the reclaim priority
*
* Call the shrink functions to age shrinkable caches.
*
* @nid is passed along to shrinkers with SHRINKER_NUMA_AWARE set,
* unaware shrinkers will receive a node id of 0 instead.
*
* @memcg specifies the memory cgroup to target. Unaware shrinkers
* are called only if it is the root cgroup.
*
* @priority is sc->priority, we take the number of objects and >> by priority
* in order to get the scan target.
*
* Returns the number of reclaimed slab objects.
*/
static unsigned long shrink_slab(gfp_t gfp_mask, int nid,
struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
int priority)
{
unsigned long ret, freed = 0;
struct shrinker *shrinker;
if (!mem_cgroup_is_root(memcg))
return shrink_slab_memcg(gfp_mask, nid, memcg, priority);
if (!down_read_trylock(&shrinker_rwsem))
goto out;
list_for_each_entry(shrinker, &shrinker_list, list) {
struct shrink_control sc = {
.gfp_mask = gfp_mask,
.nid = nid,
.memcg = memcg,
};
ret = do_shrink_slab(&sc, shrinker, priority);
if (ret == SHRINK_EMPTY)
ret = 0;
freed += ret;
/*
* Bail out if someone want to register a new shrinker to
* prevent the regsitration from being stalled for long periods
* by parallel ongoing shrinking.
*/
if (rwsem_is_contended(&shrinker_rwsem)) {
freed = freed ? : 1;
break;
}
}
up_read(&shrinker_rwsem);
out:
cond_resched();
return freed;
}
void drop_slab_node(int nid)
{
unsigned long freed;
do {
struct mem_cgroup *memcg = NULL;
freed = 0;
memcg = mem_cgroup_iter(NULL, NULL, NULL);
do {
freed += shrink_slab(GFP_KERNEL, nid, memcg, 0);
} while ((memcg = mem_cgroup_iter(NULL, memcg, NULL)) != NULL);
} while (freed > 10);
}
void drop_slab(void)
{
int nid;
for_each_online_node(nid)
drop_slab_node(nid);
}
static inline int is_page_cache_freeable(struct page *page)
{
/*
* A freeable page cache page is referenced only by the caller
* that isolated the page, the page cache and optional buffer
* heads at page->private.
*/
int page_cache_pins = PageTransHuge(page) && PageSwapCache(page) ?
HPAGE_PMD_NR : 1;
return page_count(page) - page_has_private(page) == 1 + page_cache_pins;
}
static int may_write_to_inode(struct inode *inode, struct scan_control *sc)
{
if (current->flags & PF_SWAPWRITE)
return 1;
if (!inode_write_congested(inode))
return 1;
if (inode_to_bdi(inode) == current->backing_dev_info)
return 1;
return 0;
}
/*
* We detected a synchronous write error writing a page out. Probably
* -ENOSPC. We need to propagate that into the address_space for a subsequent
* fsync(), msync() or close().
*
* The tricky part is that after writepage we cannot touch the mapping: nothing
* prevents it from being freed up. But we have a ref on the page and once
* that page is locked, the mapping is pinned.
*
* We're allowed to run sleeping lock_page() here because we know the caller has
* __GFP_FS.
*/
static void handle_write_error(struct address_space *mapping,
struct page *page, int error)
{
lock_page(page);
if (page_mapping(page) == mapping)
mapping_set_error(mapping, error);
unlock_page(page);
}
/* possible outcome of pageout() */
typedef enum {
/* failed to write page out, page is locked */
PAGE_KEEP,
/* move page to the active list, page is locked */
PAGE_ACTIVATE,
/* page has been sent to the disk successfully, page is unlocked */
PAGE_SUCCESS,
/* page is clean and locked */
PAGE_CLEAN,
} pageout_t;
/*
* pageout is called by shrink_page_list() for each dirty page.
* Calls ->writepage().
*/
static pageout_t pageout(struct page *page, struct address_space *mapping,
struct scan_control *sc)
{
/*
* If the page is dirty, only perform writeback if that write
* will be non-blocking. To prevent this allocation from being
* stalled by pagecache activity. But note that there may be
* stalls if we need to run get_block(). We could test
* PagePrivate for that.
*
* If this process is currently in __generic_file_write_iter() against
* this page's queue, we can perform writeback even if that
* will block.
*
* If the page is swapcache, write it back even if that would
* block, for some throttling. This happens by accident, because
* swap_backing_dev_info is bust: it doesn't reflect the
* congestion state of the swapdevs. Easy to fix, if needed.
*/
if (!is_page_cache_freeable(page))
return PAGE_KEEP;
if (!mapping) {
/*
* Some data journaling orphaned pages can have
* page->mapping == NULL while being dirty with clean buffers.
*/
if (page_has_private(page)) {
if (try_to_free_buffers(page)) {
ClearPageDirty(page);
pr_info("%s: orphaned page\n", __func__);
return PAGE_CLEAN;
}
}
return PAGE_KEEP;
}
if (mapping->a_ops->writepage == NULL)
return PAGE_ACTIVATE;
if (!may_write_to_inode(mapping->host, sc))
return PAGE_KEEP;
if (clear_page_dirty_for_io(page)) {
int res;
struct writeback_control wbc = {
.sync_mode = WB_SYNC_NONE,
.nr_to_write = SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX,
.range_start = 0,
.range_end = LLONG_MAX,
.for_reclaim = 1,
};
SetPageReclaim(page);
res = mapping->a_ops->writepage(page, &wbc);
if (res < 0)
handle_write_error(mapping, page, res);
if (res == AOP_WRITEPAGE_ACTIVATE) {
ClearPageReclaim(page);
return PAGE_ACTIVATE;
}
if (!PageWriteback(page)) {
/* synchronous write or broken a_ops? */
ClearPageReclaim(page);
}
trace_mm_vmscan_writepage(page);
inc_node_page_state(page, NR_VMSCAN_WRITE);
return PAGE_SUCCESS;
}
return PAGE_CLEAN;
}
/*
* Same as remove_mapping, but if the page is removed from the mapping, it
* gets returned with a refcount of 0.
*/
static int __remove_mapping(struct address_space *mapping, struct page *page,
bool reclaimed)
{
unsigned long flags;
int refcount;
BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));
BUG_ON(mapping != page_mapping(page));
xa_lock_irqsave(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
/*
* The non racy check for a busy page.
*
* Must be careful with the order of the tests. When someone has
* a ref to the page, it may be possible that they dirty it then
* drop the reference. So if PageDirty is tested before page_count
* here, then the following race may occur:
*
* get_user_pages(&page);
* [user mapping goes away]
* write_to(page);
* !PageDirty(page) [good]
* SetPageDirty(page);
* put_page(page);
* !page_count(page) [good, discard it]
*
* [oops, our write_to data is lost]
*
* Reversing the order of the tests ensures such a situation cannot
* escape unnoticed. The smp_rmb is needed to ensure the page->flags
* load is not satisfied before that of page->_refcount.
*
* Note that if SetPageDirty is always performed via set_page_dirty,
* and thus under the i_pages lock, then this ordering is not required.
*/
if (unlikely(PageTransHuge(page)) && PageSwapCache(page))
refcount = 1 + HPAGE_PMD_NR;
else
refcount = 2;
if (!page_ref_freeze(page, refcount))
goto cannot_free;
/* note: atomic_cmpxchg in page_ref_freeze provides the smp_rmb */
if (unlikely(PageDirty(page))) {
page_ref_unfreeze(page, refcount);
goto cannot_free;
}
if (PageSwapCache(page)) {
swp_entry_t swap = { .val = page_private(page) };
mem_cgroup_swapout(page, swap);
__delete_from_swap_cache(page, swap);
xa_unlock_irqrestore(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
put_swap_page(page, swap);
} else {
void (*freepage)(struct page *);
void *shadow = NULL;
freepage = mapping->a_ops->freepage;
/*
* Remember a shadow entry for reclaimed file cache in
* order to detect refaults, thus thrashing, later on.
*
* But don't store shadows in an address space that is
* already exiting. This is not just an optizimation,
* inode reclaim needs to empty out the radix tree or
* the nodes are lost. Don't plant shadows behind its
* back.
*
* We also don't store shadows for DAX mappings because the
* only page cache pages found in these are zero pages
* covering holes, and because we don't want to mix DAX
* exceptional entries and shadow exceptional entries in the
* same address_space.
*/
if (reclaimed && page_is_file_cache(page) &&
!mapping_exiting(mapping) && !dax_mapping(mapping))
shadow = workingset_eviction(mapping, page);
__delete_from_page_cache(page, shadow);
xa_unlock_irqrestore(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
if (freepage != NULL)
freepage(page);
}
return 1;
cannot_free:
xa_unlock_irqrestore(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
return 0;
}
/*
* Attempt to detach a locked page from its ->mapping. If it is dirty or if
* someone else has a ref on the page, abort and return 0. If it was
* successfully detached, return 1. Assumes the caller has a single ref on
* this page.
*/
int remove_mapping(struct address_space *mapping, struct page *page)
{
if (__remove_mapping(mapping, page, false)) {
/*
* Unfreezing the refcount with 1 rather than 2 effectively
* drops the pagecache ref for us without requiring another
* atomic operation.
*/
page_ref_unfreeze(page, 1);
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
/**
* putback_lru_page - put previously isolated page onto appropriate LRU list
* @page: page to be put back to appropriate lru list
*
* Add previously isolated @page to appropriate LRU list.
* Page may still be unevictable for other reasons.
*
* lru_lock must not be held, interrupts must be enabled.
*/
void putback_lru_page(struct page *page)
{
lru_cache_add(page);
put_page(page); /* drop ref from isolate */
}
enum page_references {
PAGEREF_RECLAIM,
PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN,
PAGEREF_KEEP,
PAGEREF_ACTIVATE,
};
static enum page_references page_check_references(struct page *page,
struct scan_control *sc)
{
int referenced_ptes, referenced_page;
unsigned long vm_flags;
referenced_ptes = page_referenced(page, 1, sc->target_mem_cgroup,
&vm_flags);
referenced_page = TestClearPageReferenced(page);
/*
* Mlock lost the isolation race with us. Let try_to_unmap()
* move the page to the unevictable list.
*/
if (vm_flags & VM_LOCKED)
return PAGEREF_RECLAIM;
if (referenced_ptes) {
if (PageSwapBacked(page))
return PAGEREF_ACTIVATE;
/*
* All mapped pages start out with page table
* references from the instantiating fault, so we need
* to look twice if a mapped file page is used more
* than once.
*
* Mark it and spare it for another trip around the
* inactive list. Another page table reference will
* lead to its activation.
*
* Note: the mark is set for activated pages as well
* so that recently deactivated but used pages are
* quickly recovered.
*/
SetPageReferenced(page);
if (referenced_page || referenced_ptes > 1)
return PAGEREF_ACTIVATE;
/*
* Activate file-backed executable pages after first usage.
*/
if (vm_flags & VM_EXEC)
return PAGEREF_ACTIVATE;
return PAGEREF_KEEP;
}
/* Reclaim if clean, defer dirty pages to writeback */
if (referenced_page && !PageSwapBacked(page))
return PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN;
return PAGEREF_RECLAIM;
}
/* Check if a page is dirty or under writeback */
static void page_check_dirty_writeback(struct page *page,
bool *dirty, bool *writeback)
{
struct address_space *mapping;
/*
* Anonymous pages are not handled by flushers and must be written
* from reclaim context. Do not stall reclaim based on them
*/
if (!page_is_file_cache(page) ||
(PageAnon(page) && !PageSwapBacked(page))) {
*dirty = false;
*writeback = false;
return;
}
/* By default assume that the page flags are accurate */
*dirty = PageDirty(page);
*writeback = PageWriteback(page);
/* Verify dirty/writeback state if the filesystem supports it */
if (!page_has_private(page))
return;
mapping = page_mapping(page);
if (mapping && mapping->a_ops->is_dirty_writeback)
mapping->a_ops->is_dirty_writeback(page, dirty, writeback);
}
/*
* shrink_page_list() returns the number of reclaimed pages
*/
static unsigned long shrink_page_list(struct list_head *page_list,
struct pglist_data *pgdat,
struct scan_control *sc,
enum ttu_flags ttu_flags,
struct reclaim_stat *stat,
bool force_reclaim)
{
LIST_HEAD(ret_pages);
LIST_HEAD(free_pages);
int pgactivate = 0;
unsigned nr_unqueued_dirty = 0;
unsigned nr_dirty = 0;
unsigned nr_congested = 0;
unsigned nr_reclaimed = 0;
unsigned nr_writeback = 0;
unsigned nr_immediate = 0;
unsigned nr_ref_keep = 0;
unsigned nr_unmap_fail = 0;
cond_resched();
while (!list_empty(page_list)) {
struct address_space *mapping;
struct page *page;
int may_enter_fs;
enum page_references references = PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN;
bool dirty, writeback;
cond_resched();
page = lru_to_page(page_list);
list_del(&page->lru);
if (!trylock_page(page))
goto keep;
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageActive(page), page);
sc->nr_scanned++;
if (unlikely(!page_evictable(page)))
goto activate_locked;
if (!sc->may_unmap && page_mapped(page))
goto keep_locked;
/* Double the slab pressure for mapped and swapcache pages */
if ((page_mapped(page) || PageSwapCache(page)) &&
!(PageAnon(page) && !PageSwapBacked(page)))
sc->nr_scanned++;
may_enter_fs = (sc->gfp_mask & __GFP_FS) ||
(PageSwapCache(page) && (sc->gfp_mask & __GFP_IO));
/*
* The number of dirty pages determines if a node is marked
* reclaim_congested which affects wait_iff_congested. kswapd
* will stall and start writing pages if the tail of the LRU
* is all dirty unqueued pages.
*/
page_check_dirty_writeback(page, &dirty, &writeback);
if (dirty || writeback)
nr_dirty++;
if (dirty && !writeback)
nr_unqueued_dirty++;
/*
* Treat this page as congested if the underlying BDI is or if
* pages are cycling through the LRU so quickly that the
* pages marked for immediate reclaim are making it to the
* end of the LRU a second time.
*/
mapping = page_mapping(page);
if (((dirty || writeback) && mapping &&
inode_write_congested(mapping->host)) ||
(writeback && PageReclaim(page)))
nr_congested++;
/*
* If a page at the tail of the LRU is under writeback, there
* are three cases to consider.
*
* 1) If reclaim is encountering an excessive number of pages
* under writeback and this page is both under writeback and
* PageReclaim then it indicates that pages are being queued
* for IO but are being recycled through the LRU before the
* IO can complete. Waiting on the page itself risks an
* indefinite stall if it is impossible to writeback the
* page due to IO error or disconnected storage so instead
* note that the LRU is being scanned too quickly and the
* caller can stall after page list has been processed.
*
* 2) Global or new memcg reclaim encounters a page that is
* not marked for immediate reclaim, or the caller does not
* have __GFP_FS (or __GFP_IO if it's simply going to swap,
* not to fs). In this case mark the page for immediate
* reclaim and continue scanning.
*
* Require may_enter_fs because we would wait on fs, which
* may not have submitted IO yet. And the loop driver might
* enter reclaim, and deadlock if it waits on a page for
* which it is needed to do the write (loop masks off
* __GFP_IO|__GFP_FS for this reason); but more thought
* would probably show more reasons.
*
* 3) Legacy memcg encounters a page that is already marked
* PageReclaim. memcg does not have any dirty pages
* throttling so we could easily OOM just because too many
* pages are in writeback and there is nothing else to
* reclaim. Wait for the writeback to complete.
*
* In cases 1) and 2) we activate the pages to get them out of
* the way while we continue scanning for clean pages on the
* inactive list and refilling from the active list. The
* observation here is that waiting for disk writes is more
* expensive than potentially causing reloads down the line.
* Since they're marked for immediate reclaim, they won't put
* memory pressure on the cache working set any longer than it
* takes to write them to disk.
*/
if (PageWriteback(page)) {
/* Case 1 above */
if (current_is_kswapd() &&
PageReclaim(page) &&
test_bit(PGDAT_WRITEBACK, &pgdat->flags)) {
nr_immediate++;
goto activate_locked;
/* Case 2 above */
} else if (sane_reclaim(sc) ||
!PageReclaim(page) || !may_enter_fs) {
/*
* This is slightly racy - end_page_writeback()
* might have just cleared PageReclaim, then
* setting PageReclaim here end up interpreted
* as PageReadahead - but that does not matter
* enough to care. What we do want is for this
* page to have PageReclaim set next time memcg
* reclaim reaches the tests above, so it will
* then wait_on_page_writeback() to avoid OOM;
* and it's also appropriate in global reclaim.
*/
SetPageReclaim(page);
nr_writeback++;
goto activate_locked;
/* Case 3 above */
} else {
unlock_page(page);
wait_on_page_writeback(page);
/* then go back and try same page again */
list_add_tail(&page->lru, page_list);
continue;
}
}
if (!force_reclaim)
references = page_check_references(page, sc);
switch (references) {
case PAGEREF_ACTIVATE:
goto activate_locked;
case PAGEREF_KEEP:
nr_ref_keep++;
goto keep_locked;
case PAGEREF_RECLAIM:
case PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN:
; /* try to reclaim the page below */
}
/*
* Anonymous process memory has backing store?
* Try to allocate it some swap space here.
* Lazyfree page could be freed directly
*/
if (PageAnon(page) && PageSwapBacked(page)) {
if (!PageSwapCache(page)) {
if (!(sc->gfp_mask & __GFP_IO))
goto keep_locked;
if (PageTransHuge(page)) {
/* cannot split THP, skip it */
if (!can_split_huge_page(page, NULL))
goto activate_locked;
/*
* Split pages without a PMD map right
* away. Chances are some or all of the
* tail pages can be freed without IO.
*/
if (!compound_mapcount(page) &&
split_huge_page_to_list(page,
page_list))
goto activate_locked;
}
if (!add_to_swap(page)) {
if (!PageTransHuge(page))
goto activate_locked;
/* Fallback to swap normal pages */
if (split_huge_page_to_list(page,
page_list))
goto activate_locked;
#ifdef CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE
count_vm_event(THP_SWPOUT_FALLBACK);
#endif
if (!add_to_swap(page))
goto activate_locked;
}
may_enter_fs = 1;
/* Adding to swap updated mapping */
mapping = page_mapping(page);
}
} else if (unlikely(PageTransHuge(page))) {
/* Split file THP */
if (split_huge_page_to_list(page, page_list))
goto keep_locked;
}
/*
* The page is mapped into the page tables of one or more
* processes. Try to unmap it here.
*/
if (page_mapped(page)) {
enum ttu_flags flags = ttu_flags | TTU_BATCH_FLUSH;
if (unlikely(PageTransHuge(page)))
flags |= TTU_SPLIT_HUGE_PMD;
if (!try_to_unmap(page, flags)) {
nr_unmap_fail++;
goto activate_locked;
}
}
if (PageDirty(page)) {
/*
* Only kswapd can writeback filesystem pages
* to avoid risk of stack overflow. But avoid
* injecting inefficient single-page IO into
* flusher writeback as much as possible: only
* write pages when we've encountered many
* dirty pages, and when we've already scanned
* the rest of the LRU for clean pages and see
* the same dirty pages again (PageReclaim).
*/
if (page_is_file_cache(page) &&
(!current_is_kswapd() || !PageReclaim(page) ||
!test_bit(PGDAT_DIRTY, &pgdat->flags))) {
/*
* Immediately reclaim when written back.
* Similar in principal to deactivate_page()
* except we already have the page isolated
* and know it's dirty
*/
inc_node_page_state(page, NR_VMSCAN_IMMEDIATE);
SetPageReclaim(page);
goto activate_locked;
}
if (references == PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN)
goto keep_locked;
if (!may_enter_fs)
goto keep_locked;
if (!sc->may_writepage)
goto keep_locked;
/*
* Page is dirty. Flush the TLB if a writable entry
* potentially exists to avoid CPU writes after IO
* starts and then write it out here.
*/
try_to_unmap_flush_dirty();
switch (pageout(page, mapping, sc)) {
case PAGE_KEEP:
goto keep_locked;
case PAGE_ACTIVATE:
goto activate_locked;
case PAGE_SUCCESS:
if (PageWriteback(page))
goto keep;
if (PageDirty(page))
goto keep;
/*
* A synchronous write - probably a ramdisk. Go
* ahead and try to reclaim the page.
*/
if (!trylock_page(page))
goto keep;
if (PageDirty(page) || PageWriteback(page))
goto keep_locked;
mapping = page_mapping(page);
case PAGE_CLEAN:
; /* try to free the page below */
}
}
/*
* If the page has buffers, try to free the buffer mappings
* associated with this page. If we succeed we try to free
* the page as well.
*
* We do this even if the page is PageDirty().
* try_to_release_page() does not perform I/O, but it is
* possible for a page to have PageDirty set, but it is actually
* clean (all its buffers are clean). This happens if the
* buffers were written out directly, with submit_bh(). ext3
* will do this, as well as the blockdev mapping.
* try_to_release_page() will discover that cleanness and will
* drop the buffers and mark the page clean - it can be freed.
*
* Rarely, pages can have buffers and no ->mapping. These are
* the pages which were not successfully invalidated in
* truncate_complete_page(). We try to drop those buffers here
* and if that worked, and the page is no longer mapped into
* process address space (page_count == 1) it can be freed.
* Otherwise, leave the page on the LRU so it is swappable.
*/
if (page_has_private(page)) {
if (!try_to_release_page(page, sc->gfp_mask))
goto activate_locked;
if (!mapping && page_count(page) == 1) {
unlock_page(page);
if (put_page_testzero(page))
goto free_it;
else {
/*
* rare race with speculative reference.
* the speculative reference will free
* this page shortly, so we may
* increment nr_reclaimed here (and
* leave it off the LRU).
*/
nr_reclaimed++;
continue;
}
}
}
if (PageAnon(page) && !PageSwapBacked(page)) {
/* follow __remove_mapping for reference */
if (!page_ref_freeze(page, 1))
goto keep_locked;
if (PageDirty(page)) {
page_ref_unfreeze(page, 1);
goto keep_locked;
}
count_vm_event(PGLAZYFREED);
count_memcg_page_event(page, PGLAZYFREED);
} else if (!mapping || !__remove_mapping(mapping, page, true))
goto keep_locked;
unlock_page(page);
free_it:
nr_reclaimed++;
/*
* Is there need to periodically free_page_list? It would
* appear not as the counts should be low
*/
if (unlikely(PageTransHuge(page))) {
mem_cgroup_uncharge(page);
(*get_compound_page_dtor(page))(page);
} else
list_add(&page->lru, &free_pages);
continue;
activate_locked:
/* Not a candidate for swapping, so reclaim swap space. */
if (PageSwapCache(page) && (mem_cgroup_swap_full(page) ||
PageMlocked(page)))
try_to_free_swap(page);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageActive(page), page);
if (!PageMlocked(page)) {
SetPageActive(page);
pgactivate++;
count_memcg_page_event(page, PGACTIVATE);
}
keep_locked:
unlock_page(page);
keep:
list_add(&page->lru, &ret_pages);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageLRU(page) || PageUnevictable(page), page);
}
mem_cgroup_uncharge_list(&free_pages);
try_to_unmap_flush();
free_unref_page_list(&free_pages);
list_splice(&ret_pages, page_list);
count_vm_events(PGACTIVATE, pgactivate);
if (stat) {
stat->nr_dirty = nr_dirty;
stat->nr_congested = nr_congested;
stat->nr_unqueued_dirty = nr_unqueued_dirty;
stat->nr_writeback = nr_writeback;
stat->nr_immediate = nr_immediate;
stat->nr_activate = pgactivate;
stat->nr_ref_keep = nr_ref_keep;
stat->nr_unmap_fail = nr_unmap_fail;
}
return nr_reclaimed;
}
unsigned long reclaim_clean_pages_from_list(struct zone *zone,
struct list_head *page_list)
{
struct scan_control sc = {
.gfp_mask = GFP_KERNEL,
.priority = DEF_PRIORITY,
.may_unmap = 1,
};
unsigned long ret;
struct page *page, *next;
LIST_HEAD(clean_pages);
list_for_each_entry_safe(page, next, page_list, lru) {
if (page_is_file_cache(page) && !PageDirty(page) &&
!__PageMovable(page)) {
ClearPageActive(page);
list_move(&page->lru, &clean_pages);
}
}
ret = shrink_page_list(&clean_pages, zone->zone_pgdat, &sc,
TTU_IGNORE_ACCESS, NULL, true);
list_splice(&clean_pages, page_list);
mod_node_page_state(zone->zone_pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_FILE, -ret);
return ret;
}
/*
* Attempt to remove the specified page from its LRU. Only take this page
* if it is of the appropriate PageActive status. Pages which are being
* freed elsewhere are also ignored.
*
* page: page to consider
* mode: one of the LRU isolation modes defined above
*
* returns 0 on success, -ve errno on failure.
*/
int __isolate_lru_page(struct page *page, isolate_mode_t mode)
{
int ret = -EINVAL;
/* Only take pages on the LRU. */
if (!PageLRU(page))
return ret;
/* Compaction should not handle unevictable pages but CMA can do so */
if (PageUnevictable(page) && !(mode & ISOLATE_UNEVICTABLE))
return ret;
ret = -EBUSY;
/*
* To minimise LRU disruption, the caller can indicate that it only
* wants to isolate pages it will be able to operate on without
* blocking - clean pages for the most part.
*
* ISOLATE_ASYNC_MIGRATE is used to indicate that it only wants to pages
* that it is possible to migrate without blocking
*/
if (mode & ISOLATE_ASYNC_MIGRATE) {
/* All the caller can do on PageWriteback is block */
if (PageWriteback(page))
return ret;
if (PageDirty(page)) {
struct address_space *mapping;
bool migrate_dirty;
/*
* Only pages without mappings or that have a
* ->migratepage callback are possible to migrate
* without blocking. However, we can be racing with
* truncation so it's necessary to lock the page
* to stabilise the mapping as truncation holds
* the page lock until after the page is removed
* from the page cache.
*/
if (!trylock_page(page))
return ret;
mapping = page_mapping(page);
migrate_dirty = !mapping || mapping->a_ops->migratepage;
unlock_page(page);
if (!migrate_dirty)
return ret;
}
}
if ((mode & ISOLATE_UNMAPPED) && page_mapped(page))
return ret;
if (likely(get_page_unless_zero(page))) {
/*
* Be careful not to clear PageLRU until after we're
* sure the page is not being freed elsewhere -- the
* page release code relies on it.
*/
ClearPageLRU(page);
ret = 0;
}
return ret;
}
/*
* Update LRU sizes after isolating pages. The LRU size updates must
* be complete before mem_cgroup_update_lru_size due to a santity check.
*/
static __always_inline void update_lru_sizes(struct lruvec *lruvec,
enum lru_list lru, unsigned long *nr_zone_taken)
{
int zid;
for (zid = 0; zid < MAX_NR_ZONES; zid++) {
if (!nr_zone_taken[zid])
continue;
__update_lru_size(lruvec, lru, zid, -nr_zone_taken[zid]);
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
mem_cgroup_update_lru_size(lruvec, lru, zid, -nr_zone_taken[zid]);
#endif
}
}
/*
* zone_lru_lock is heavily contended. Some of the functions that
* shrink the lists perform better by taking out a batch of pages
* and working on them outside the LRU lock.
*
* For pagecache intensive workloads, this function is the hottest
* spot in the kernel (apart from copy_*_user functions).
*
* Appropriate locks must be held before calling this function.
*
* @nr_to_scan: The number of eligible pages to look through on the list.
* @lruvec: The LRU vector to pull pages from.
* @dst: The temp list to put pages on to.
* @nr_scanned: The number of pages that were scanned.
* @sc: The scan_control struct for this reclaim session
* @mode: One of the LRU isolation modes
* @lru: LRU list id for isolating
*
* returns how many pages were moved onto *@dst.
*/
static unsigned long isolate_lru_pages(unsigned long nr_to_scan,
struct lruvec *lruvec, struct list_head *dst,
unsigned long *nr_scanned, struct scan_control *sc,
isolate_mode_t mode, enum lru_list lru)
{
struct list_head *src = &lruvec->lists[lru];
unsigned long nr_taken = 0;
unsigned long nr_zone_taken[MAX_NR_ZONES] = { 0 };
unsigned long nr_skipped[MAX_NR_ZONES] = { 0, };
unsigned long skipped = 0;
unsigned long scan, total_scan, nr_pages;
LIST_HEAD(pages_skipped);
scan = 0;
for (total_scan = 0;
scan < nr_to_scan && nr_taken < nr_to_scan && !list_empty(src);
total_scan++) {
struct page *page;
page = lru_to_page(src);
prefetchw_prev_lru_page(page, src, flags);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLRU(page), page);
if (page_zonenum(page) > sc->reclaim_idx) {
list_move(&page->lru, &pages_skipped);
nr_skipped[page_zonenum(page)]++;
continue;
}
/*
* Do not count skipped pages because that makes the function
* return with no isolated pages if the LRU mostly contains
* ineligible pages. This causes the VM to not reclaim any
* pages, triggering a premature OOM.
*/
scan++;
switch (__isolate_lru_page(page, mode)) {
case 0:
nr_pages = hpage_nr_pages(page);
nr_taken += nr_pages;
nr_zone_taken[page_zonenum(page)] += nr_pages;
list_move(&page->lru, dst);
break;
case -EBUSY:
/* else it is being freed elsewhere */
list_move(&page->lru, src);
continue;
default:
BUG();
}
}
/*
* Splice any skipped pages to the start of the LRU list. Note that
* this disrupts the LRU order when reclaiming for lower zones but
* we cannot splice to the tail. If we did then the SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX
* scanning would soon rescan the same pages to skip and put the
* system at risk of premature OOM.
*/
if (!list_empty(&pages_skipped)) {
int zid;
list_splice(&pages_skipped, src);
for (zid = 0; zid < MAX_NR_ZONES; zid++) {
if (!nr_skipped[zid])
continue;
__count_zid_vm_events(PGSCAN_SKIP, zid, nr_skipped[zid]);
skipped += nr_skipped[zid];
}
}
*nr_scanned = total_scan;
trace_mm_vmscan_lru_isolate(sc->reclaim_idx, sc->order, nr_to_scan,
total_scan, skipped, nr_taken, mode, lru);
update_lru_sizes(lruvec, lru, nr_zone_taken);
return nr_taken;
}
/**
* isolate_lru_page - tries to isolate a page from its LRU list
* @page: page to isolate from its LRU list
*
* Isolates a @page from an LRU list, clears PageLRU and adjusts the
* vmstat statistic corresponding to whatever LRU list the page was on.
*
* Returns 0 if the page was removed from an LRU list.
* Returns -EBUSY if the page was not on an LRU list.
*
* The returned page will have PageLRU() cleared. If it was found on
* the active list, it will have PageActive set. If it was found on
* the unevictable list, it will have the PageUnevictable bit set. That flag
* may need to be cleared by the caller before letting the page go.
*
* The vmstat statistic corresponding to the list on which the page was
* found will be decremented.
*
* Restrictions:
*
* (1) Must be called with an elevated refcount on the page. This is a
* fundamentnal difference from isolate_lru_pages (which is called
* without a stable reference).
* (2) the lru_lock must not be held.
* (3) interrupts must be enabled.
*/
int isolate_lru_page(struct page *page)
{
int ret = -EBUSY;
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!page_count(page), page);
WARN_RATELIMIT(PageTail(page), "trying to isolate tail page");
if (PageLRU(page)) {
struct zone *zone = page_zone(page);
struct lruvec *lruvec;
spin_lock_irq(zone_lru_lock(zone));
lruvec = mem_cgroup_page_lruvec(page, zone->zone_pgdat);
if (PageLRU(page)) {
int lru = page_lru(page);
get_page(page);
ClearPageLRU(page);
del_page_from_lru_list(page, lruvec, lru);
ret = 0;
}
spin_unlock_irq(zone_lru_lock(zone));
}
return ret;
}
/*
* A direct reclaimer may isolate SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX pages from the LRU list and
* then get resheduled. When there are massive number of tasks doing page
* allocation, such sleeping direct reclaimers may keep piling up on each CPU,
* the LRU list will go small and be scanned faster than necessary, leading to
* unnecessary swapping, thrashing and OOM.
*/
static int too_many_isolated(struct pglist_data *pgdat, int file,
struct scan_control *sc)
{
unsigned long inactive, isolated;
if (current_is_kswapd())
return 0;
if (!sane_reclaim(sc))
return 0;
if (file) {
inactive = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_FILE);
isolated = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_FILE);
} else {
inactive = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_ANON);
isolated = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_ANON);
}
/*
* GFP_NOIO/GFP_NOFS callers are allowed to isolate more pages, so they
* won't get blocked by normal direct-reclaimers, forming a circular
* deadlock.
*/
if ((sc->gfp_mask & (__GFP_IO | __GFP_FS)) == (__GFP_IO | __GFP_FS))
inactive >>= 3;
return isolated > inactive;
}
static noinline_for_stack void
putback_inactive_pages(struct lruvec *lruvec, struct list_head *page_list)
{
struct zone_reclaim_stat *reclaim_stat = &lruvec->reclaim_stat;
struct pglist_data *pgdat = lruvec_pgdat(lruvec);
LIST_HEAD(pages_to_free);
/*
* Put back any unfreeable pages.
*/
while (!list_empty(page_list)) {
struct page *page = lru_to_page(page_list);
int lru;
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageLRU(page), page);
list_del(&page->lru);
if (unlikely(!page_evictable(page))) {
spin_unlock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
putback_lru_page(page);
spin_lock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
continue;
}
lruvec = mem_cgroup_page_lruvec(page, pgdat);
SetPageLRU(page);
lru = page_lru(page);
add_page_to_lru_list(page, lruvec, lru);
if (is_active_lru(lru)) {
int file = is_file_lru(lru);
int numpages = hpage_nr_pages(page);
reclaim_stat->recent_rotated[file] += numpages;
}
if (put_page_testzero(page)) {
__ClearPageLRU(page);
__ClearPageActive(page);
del_page_from_lru_list(page, lruvec, lru);
if (unlikely(PageCompound(page))) {
spin_unlock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
mem_cgroup_uncharge(page);
(*get_compound_page_dtor(page))(page);
spin_lock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
} else
list_add(&page->lru, &pages_to_free);
}
}
/*
* To save our caller's stack, now use input list for pages to free.
*/
list_splice(&pages_to_free, page_list);
}
/*
* If a kernel thread (such as nfsd for loop-back mounts) services
* a backing device by writing to the page cache it sets PF_LESS_THROTTLE.
* In that case we should only throttle if the backing device it is
* writing to is congested. In other cases it is safe to throttle.
*/
static int current_may_throttle(void)
{
return !(current->flags & PF_LESS_THROTTLE) ||
current->backing_dev_info == NULL ||
bdi_write_congested(current->backing_dev_info);
}
/*
* shrink_inactive_list() is a helper for shrink_node(). It returns the number
* of reclaimed pages
*/
static noinline_for_stack unsigned long
shrink_inactive_list(unsigned long nr_to_scan, struct lruvec *lruvec,
struct scan_control *sc, enum lru_list lru)
{
LIST_HEAD(page_list);
unsigned long nr_scanned;
unsigned long nr_reclaimed = 0;
unsigned long nr_taken;
struct reclaim_stat stat = {};
isolate_mode_t isolate_mode = 0;
int file = is_file_lru(lru);
struct pglist_data *pgdat = lruvec_pgdat(lruvec);
struct zone_reclaim_stat *reclaim_stat = &lruvec->reclaim_stat;
bool stalled = false;
while (unlikely(too_many_isolated(pgdat, file, sc))) {
if (stalled)
return 0;
/* wait a bit for the reclaimer. */
msleep(100);
stalled = true;
/* We are about to die and free our memory. Return now. */
if (fatal_signal_pending(current))
return SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX;
}
lru_add_drain();
if (!sc->may_unmap)
isolate_mode |= ISOLATE_UNMAPPED;
spin_lock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
nr_taken = isolate_lru_pages(nr_to_scan, lruvec, &page_list,
&nr_scanned, sc, isolate_mode, lru);
__mod_node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_ANON + file, nr_taken);
reclaim_stat->recent_scanned[file] += nr_taken;
if (current_is_kswapd()) {
if (global_reclaim(sc))
__count_vm_events(PGSCAN_KSWAPD, nr_scanned);
count_memcg_events(lruvec_memcg(lruvec), PGSCAN_KSWAPD,
nr_scanned);
} else {
if (global_reclaim(sc))
__count_vm_events(PGSCAN_DIRECT, nr_scanned);
count_memcg_events(lruvec_memcg(lruvec), PGSCAN_DIRECT,
nr_scanned);
}
spin_unlock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
if (nr_taken == 0)
return 0;
nr_reclaimed = shrink_page_list(&page_list, pgdat, sc, 0,
&stat, false);
spin_lock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
if (current_is_kswapd()) {
if (global_reclaim(sc))
__count_vm_events(PGSTEAL_KSWAPD, nr_reclaimed);
count_memcg_events(lruvec_memcg(lruvec), PGSTEAL_KSWAPD,
nr_reclaimed);
} else {
if (global_reclaim(sc))
__count_vm_events(PGSTEAL_DIRECT, nr_reclaimed);
count_memcg_events(lruvec_memcg(lruvec), PGSTEAL_DIRECT,
nr_reclaimed);
}
putback_inactive_pages(lruvec, &page_list);
__mod_node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_ANON + file, -nr_taken);
spin_unlock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
mem_cgroup_uncharge_list(&page_list);
free_unref_page_list(&page_list);
/*
* If dirty pages are scanned that are not queued for IO, it
* implies that flushers are not doing their job. This can
* happen when memory pressure pushes dirty pages to the end of
* the LRU before the dirty limits are breached and the dirty
* data has expired. It can also happen when the proportion of
* dirty pages grows not through writes but through memory
* pressure reclaiming all the clean cache. And in some cases,
* the flushers simply cannot keep up with the allocation
* rate. Nudge the flusher threads in case they are asleep.
*/
if (stat.nr_unqueued_dirty == nr_taken)
wakeup_flusher_threads(WB_REASON_VMSCAN);
sc->nr.dirty += stat.nr_dirty;
sc->nr.congested += stat.nr_congested;
sc->nr.unqueued_dirty += stat.nr_unqueued_dirty;
sc->nr.writeback += stat.nr_writeback;
sc->nr.immediate += stat.nr_immediate;
sc->nr.taken += nr_taken;
if (file)
sc->nr.file_taken += nr_taken;
trace_mm_vmscan_lru_shrink_inactive(pgdat->node_id,
nr_scanned, nr_reclaimed, &stat, sc->priority, file);
return nr_reclaimed;
}
/*
* This moves pages from the active list to the inactive list.
*
* We move them the other way if the page is referenced by one or more
* processes, from rmap.
*
* If the pages are mostly unmapped, the processing is fast and it is
* appropriate to hold zone_lru_lock across the whole operation. But if
* the pages are mapped, the processing is slow (page_referenced()) so we
* should drop zone_lru_lock around each page. It's impossible to balance
* this, so instead we remove the pages from the LRU while processing them.
* It is safe to rely on PG_active against the non-LRU pages in here because
* nobody will play with that bit on a non-LRU page.
*
* The downside is that we have to touch page->_refcount against each page.
* But we had to alter page->flags anyway.
*
* Returns the number of pages moved to the given lru.
*/
static unsigned move_active_pages_to_lru(struct lruvec *lruvec,
struct list_head *list,
struct list_head *pages_to_free,
enum lru_list lru)
{
struct pglist_data *pgdat = lruvec_pgdat(lruvec);
struct page *page;
int nr_pages;
int nr_moved = 0;
while (!list_empty(list)) {
page = lru_to_page(list);
lruvec = mem_cgroup_page_lruvec(page, pgdat);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageLRU(page), page);
SetPageLRU(page);
nr_pages = hpage_nr_pages(page);
update_lru_size(lruvec, lru, page_zonenum(page), nr_pages);
list_move(&page->lru, &lruvec->lists[lru]);
if (put_page_testzero(page)) {
__ClearPageLRU(page);
__ClearPageActive(page);
del_page_from_lru_list(page, lruvec, lru);
if (unlikely(PageCompound(page))) {
spin_unlock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
mem_cgroup_uncharge(page);
(*get_compound_page_dtor(page))(page);
spin_lock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
} else
list_add(&page->lru, pages_to_free);
} else {
nr_moved += nr_pages;
}
}
if (!is_active_lru(lru)) {
__count_vm_events(PGDEACTIVATE, nr_moved);
count_memcg_events(lruvec_memcg(lruvec), PGDEACTIVATE,
nr_moved);
}
return nr_moved;
}
static void shrink_active_list(unsigned long nr_to_scan,
struct lruvec *lruvec,
struct scan_control *sc,
enum lru_list lru)
{
unsigned long nr_taken;
unsigned long nr_scanned;
unsigned long vm_flags;
LIST_HEAD(l_hold); /* The pages which were snipped off */
LIST_HEAD(l_active);
LIST_HEAD(l_inactive);
struct page *page;
struct zone_reclaim_stat *reclaim_stat = &lruvec->reclaim_stat;
unsigned nr_deactivate, nr_activate;
unsigned nr_rotated = 0;
isolate_mode_t isolate_mode = 0;
int file = is_file_lru(lru);
struct pglist_data *pgdat = lruvec_pgdat(lruvec);
lru_add_drain();
if (!sc->may_unmap)
isolate_mode |= ISOLATE_UNMAPPED;
spin_lock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
nr_taken = isolate_lru_pages(nr_to_scan, lruvec, &l_hold,
&nr_scanned, sc, isolate_mode, lru);
__mod_node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_ANON + file, nr_taken);
reclaim_stat->recent_scanned[file] += nr_taken;
__count_vm_events(PGREFILL, nr_scanned);
count_memcg_events(lruvec_memcg(lruvec), PGREFILL, nr_scanned);
spin_unlock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
while (!list_empty(&l_hold)) {
cond_resched();
page = lru_to_page(&l_hold);
list_del(&page->lru);
if (unlikely(!page_evictable(page))) {
putback_lru_page(page);
continue;
}
if (unlikely(buffer_heads_over_limit)) {
if (page_has_private(page) && trylock_page(page)) {
if (page_has_private(page))
try_to_release_page(page, 0);
unlock_page(page);
}
}
if (page_referenced(page, 0, sc->target_mem_cgroup,
&vm_flags)) {
nr_rotated += hpage_nr_pages(page);
/*
* Identify referenced, file-backed active pages and
* give them one more trip around the active list. So
* that executable code get better chances to stay in
* memory under moderate memory pressure. Anon pages
* are not likely to be evicted by use-once streaming
* IO, plus JVM can create lots of anon VM_EXEC pages,
* so we ignore them here.
*/
if ((vm_flags & VM_EXEC) && page_is_file_cache(page)) {
list_add(&page->lru, &l_active);
continue;
}
}
ClearPageActive(page); /* we are de-activating */
SetPageWorkingset(page);
list_add(&page->lru, &l_inactive);
}
/*
* Move pages back to the lru list.
*/
spin_lock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
/*
* Count referenced pages from currently used mappings as rotated,
* even though only some of them are actually re-activated. This
* helps balance scan pressure between file and anonymous pages in
* get_scan_count.
*/
reclaim_stat->recent_rotated[file] += nr_rotated;
nr_activate = move_active_pages_to_lru(lruvec, &l_active, &l_hold, lru);
nr_deactivate = move_active_pages_to_lru(lruvec, &l_inactive, &l_hold, lru - LRU_ACTIVE);
__mod_node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_ANON + file, -nr_taken);
spin_unlock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
mem_cgroup_uncharge_list(&l_hold);
free_unref_page_list(&l_hold);
trace_mm_vmscan_lru_shrink_active(pgdat->node_id, nr_taken, nr_activate,
nr_deactivate, nr_rotated, sc->priority, file);
}
/*
* The inactive anon list should be small enough that the VM never has
* to do too much work.
*
* The inactive file list should be small enough to leave most memory
* to the established workingset on the scan-resistant active list,
* but large enough to avoid thrashing the aggregate readahead window.
*
* Both inactive lists should also be large enough that each inactive
* page has a chance to be referenced again before it is reclaimed.
*
* If that fails and refaulting is observed, the inactive list grows.
*
* The inactive_ratio is the target ratio of ACTIVE to INACTIVE pages
* on this LRU, maintained by the pageout code. An inactive_ratio
* of 3 means 3:1 or 25% of the pages are kept on the inactive list.
*
* total target max
* memory ratio inactive
* -------------------------------------
* 10MB 1 5MB
* 100MB 1 50MB
* 1GB 3 250MB
* 10GB 10 0.9GB
* 100GB 31 3GB
* 1TB 101 10GB
* 10TB 320 32GB
*/
static bool inactive_list_is_low(struct lruvec *lruvec, bool file,
struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
struct scan_control *sc, bool actual_reclaim)
{
enum lru_list active_lru = file * LRU_FILE + LRU_ACTIVE;
struct pglist_data *pgdat = lruvec_pgdat(lruvec);
enum lru_list inactive_lru = file * LRU_FILE;
unsigned long inactive, active;
unsigned long inactive_ratio;
unsigned long refaults;
unsigned long gb;
/*
* If we don't have swap space, anonymous page deactivation
* is pointless.
*/
if (!file && !total_swap_pages)
return false;
inactive = lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, inactive_lru, sc->reclaim_idx);
active = lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, active_lru, sc->reclaim_idx);
if (memcg)
refaults = memcg_page_state(memcg, WORKINGSET_ACTIVATE);
else
refaults = node_page_state(pgdat, WORKINGSET_ACTIVATE);
/*
* When refaults are being observed, it means a new workingset
* is being established. Disable active list protection to get
* rid of the stale workingset quickly.
*/
if (file && actual_reclaim && lruvec->refaults != refaults) {
inactive_ratio = 0;
} else {
gb = (inactive + active) >> (30 - PAGE_SHIFT);
if (gb)
inactive_ratio = int_sqrt(10 * gb);
else
inactive_ratio = 1;
}
if (actual_reclaim)
trace_mm_vmscan_inactive_list_is_low(pgdat->node_id, sc->reclaim_idx,
lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, inactive_lru, MAX_NR_ZONES), inactive,
lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, active_lru, MAX_NR_ZONES), active,
inactive_ratio, file);
return inactive * inactive_ratio < active;
}
static unsigned long shrink_list(enum lru_list lru, unsigned long nr_to_scan,
struct lruvec *lruvec, struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
struct scan_control *sc)
{
if (is_active_lru(lru)) {
if (inactive_list_is_low(lruvec, is_file_lru(lru),
memcg, sc, true))
shrink_active_list(nr_to_scan, lruvec, sc, lru);
return 0;
}
return shrink_inactive_list(nr_to_scan, lruvec, sc, lru);
}
enum scan_balance {
SCAN_EQUAL,
SCAN_FRACT,
SCAN_ANON,
SCAN_FILE,
};
/*
* Determine how aggressively the anon and file LRU lists should be
* scanned. The relative value of each set of LRU lists is determined
* by looking at the fraction of the pages scanned we did rotate back
* onto the active list instead of evict.
*
* nr[0] = anon inactive pages to scan; nr[1] = anon active pages to scan
* nr[2] = file inactive pages to scan; nr[3] = file active pages to scan
*/
static void get_scan_count(struct lruvec *lruvec, struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
struct scan_control *sc, unsigned long *nr,
unsigned long *lru_pages)
{
int swappiness = mem_cgroup_swappiness(memcg);
struct zone_reclaim_stat *reclaim_stat = &lruvec->reclaim_stat;
u64 fraction[2];
u64 denominator = 0; /* gcc */
struct pglist_data *pgdat = lruvec_pgdat(lruvec);
unsigned long anon_prio, file_prio;
enum scan_balance scan_balance;
unsigned long anon, file;
unsigned long ap, fp;
enum lru_list lru;
/* If we have no swap space, do not bother scanning anon pages. */
if (!sc->may_swap || mem_cgroup_get_nr_swap_pages(memcg) <= 0) {
scan_balance = SCAN_FILE;
goto out;
}
/*
* Global reclaim will swap to prevent OOM even with no
* swappiness, but memcg users want to use this knob to
* disable swapping for individual groups completely when
* using the memory controller's swap limit feature would be
* too expensive.
*/
if (!global_reclaim(sc) && !swappiness) {
scan_balance = SCAN_FILE;
goto out;
}
/*
* Do not apply any pressure balancing cleverness when the
* system is close to OOM, scan both anon and file equally
* (unless the swappiness setting disagrees with swapping).
*/
if (!sc->priority && swappiness) {
scan_balance = SCAN_EQUAL;
goto out;
}
/*
* Prevent the reclaimer from falling into the cache trap: as
* cache pages start out inactive, every cache fault will tip
* the scan balance towards the file LRU. And as the file LRU
* shrinks, so does the window for rotation from references.
* This means we have a runaway feedback loop where a tiny
* thrashing file LRU becomes infinitely more attractive than
* anon pages. Try to detect this based on file LRU size.
*/
if (global_reclaim(sc)) {
unsigned long pgdatfile;
unsigned long pgdatfree;
int z;
unsigned long total_high_wmark = 0;
pgdatfree = sum_zone_node_page_state(pgdat->node_id, NR_FREE_PAGES);
pgdatfile = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ACTIVE_FILE) +
node_page_state(pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_FILE);
for (z = 0; z < MAX_NR_ZONES; z++) {
struct zone *zone = &pgdat->node_zones[z];
if (!managed_zone(zone))
continue;
total_high_wmark += high_wmark_pages(zone);
}
if (unlikely(pgdatfile + pgdatfree <= total_high_wmark)) {
/*
* Force SCAN_ANON if there are enough inactive
* anonymous pages on the LRU in eligible zones.
* Otherwise, the small LRU gets thrashed.
*/
if (!inactive_list_is_low(lruvec, false, memcg, sc, false) &&
lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, LRU_INACTIVE_ANON, sc->reclaim_idx)
>> sc->priority) {
scan_balance = SCAN_ANON;
goto out;
}
}
}
/*
* If there is enough inactive page cache, i.e. if the size of the
* inactive list is greater than that of the active list *and* the
* inactive list actually has some pages to scan on this priority, we
* do not reclaim anything from the anonymous working set right now.
* Without the second condition we could end up never scanning an
* lruvec even if it has plenty of old anonymous pages unless the
* system is under heavy pressure.
*/
if (!inactive_list_is_low(lruvec, true, memcg, sc, false) &&
lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, LRU_INACTIVE_FILE, sc->reclaim_idx) >> sc->priority) {
scan_balance = SCAN_FILE;
goto out;
}
scan_balance = SCAN_FRACT;
/*
* With swappiness at 100, anonymous and file have the same priority.
* This scanning priority is essentially the inverse of IO cost.
*/
anon_prio = swappiness;
file_prio = 200 - anon_prio;
/*
* OK, so we have swap space and a fair amount of page cache
* pages. We use the recently rotated / recently scanned
* ratios to determine how valuable each cache is.
*
* Because workloads change over time (and to avoid overflow)
* we keep these statistics as a floating average, which ends
* up weighing recent references more than old ones.
*
* anon in [0], file in [1]
*/
anon = lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, LRU_ACTIVE_ANON, MAX_NR_ZONES) +
lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, LRU_INACTIVE_ANON, MAX_NR_ZONES);
file = lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, LRU_ACTIVE_FILE, MAX_NR_ZONES) +
lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, LRU_INACTIVE_FILE, MAX_NR_ZONES);
spin_lock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
if (unlikely(reclaim_stat->recent_scanned[0] > anon / 4)) {
reclaim_stat->recent_scanned[0] /= 2;
reclaim_stat->recent_rotated[0] /= 2;
}
if (unlikely(reclaim_stat->recent_scanned[1] > file / 4)) {
reclaim_stat->recent_scanned[1] /= 2;
reclaim_stat->recent_rotated[1] /= 2;
}
/*
* The amount of pressure on anon vs file pages is inversely
* proportional to the fraction of recently scanned pages on
* each list that were recently referenced and in active use.
*/
ap = anon_prio * (reclaim_stat->recent_scanned[0] + 1);
ap /= reclaim_stat->recent_rotated[0] + 1;
fp = file_prio * (reclaim_stat->recent_scanned[1] + 1);
fp /= reclaim_stat->recent_rotated[1] + 1;
spin_unlock_irq(&pgdat->lru_lock);
fraction[0] = ap;
fraction[1] = fp;
denominator = ap + fp + 1;
out:
*lru_pages = 0;
for_each_evictable_lru(lru) {
int file = is_file_lru(lru);
unsigned long size;
unsigned long scan;
size = lruvec_lru_size(lruvec, lru, sc->reclaim_idx);
scan = size >> sc->priority;
/*
* If the cgroup's already been deleted, make sure to
* scrape out the remaining cache.
*/
if (!scan && !mem_cgroup_online(memcg))
scan = min(size, SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX);
switch (scan_balance) {
case SCAN_EQUAL:
/* Scan lists relative to size */
break;
case SCAN_FRACT:
/*
* Scan types proportional to swappiness and
* their relative recent reclaim efficiency.
* Make sure we don't miss the last page
* because of a round-off error.
*/
scan = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(scan * fraction[file],
denominator);
break;
case SCAN_FILE:
case SCAN_ANON:
/* Scan one type exclusively */
if ((scan_balance == SCAN_FILE) != file) {
size = 0;
scan = 0;
}
break;
default:
/* Look ma, no brain */
BUG();
}
*lru_pages += size;
nr[lru] = scan;
}
}
/*
* This is a basic per-node page freer. Used by both kswapd and direct reclaim.
*/
static void shrink_node_memcg(struct pglist_data *pgdat, struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
struct scan_control *sc, unsigned long *lru_pages)
{
struct lruvec *lruvec = mem_cgroup_lruvec(pgdat, memcg);
unsigned long nr[NR_LRU_LISTS];
unsigned long targets[NR_LRU_LISTS];
unsigned long nr_to_scan;
enum lru_list lru;
unsigned long nr_reclaimed = 0;
unsigned long nr_to_reclaim = sc->nr_to_reclaim;
struct blk_plug plug;
bool scan_adjusted;
get_scan_count(lruvec, memcg, sc, nr, lru_pages);
/* Record the original scan target for proportional adjustments later */
memcpy(targets, nr, sizeof(nr));
/*
* Global reclaiming within direct reclaim at DEF_PRIORITY is a normal
* event that can occur when there is little memory pressure e.g.
* multiple streaming readers/writers. Hence, we do not abort scanning
* when the requested number of pages are reclaimed when scanning at
* DEF_PRIORITY on the assumption that the fact we are direct
* reclaiming implies that kswapd is not keeping up and it is best to
* do a batch of work at once. For memcg reclaim one check is made to
* abort proportional reclaim if either the file or anon lru has already
* dropped to zero at the first pass.
*/
scan_adjusted = (global_reclaim(sc) && !current_is_kswapd() &&
sc->priority == DEF_PRIORITY);
blk_start_plug(&plug);
while (nr[LRU_INACTIVE_ANON] || nr[LRU_ACTIVE_FILE] ||
nr[LRU_INACTIVE_FILE]) {
unsigned long nr_anon, nr_file, percentage;
unsigned long nr_scanned;
for_each_evictable_lru(lru) {
if (nr[lru]) {
nr_to_scan = min(nr[lru], SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX);
nr[lru] -= nr_to_scan;
nr_reclaimed += shrink_list(lru, nr_to_scan,
lruvec, memcg, sc);
}
}
cond_resched();
if (nr_reclaimed < nr_to_reclaim || scan_adjusted)
continue;
/*
* For kswapd and memcg, reclaim at least the number of pages
* requested. Ensure that the anon and file LRUs are scanned
* proportionally what was requested by get_scan_count(). We
* stop reclaiming one LRU and reduce the amount scanning
* proportional to the original scan target.
*/
nr_file = nr[LRU_INACTIVE_FILE] + nr[LRU_ACTIVE_FILE];
nr_anon = nr[LRU_INACTIVE_ANON] + nr[LRU_ACTIVE_ANON];
/*
* It's just vindictive to attack the larger once the smaller
* has gone to zero. And given the way we stop scanning the
* smaller below, this makes sure that we only make one nudge
* towards proportionality once we've got nr_to_reclaim.
*/
if (!nr_file || !nr_anon)
break;
if (nr_file > nr_anon) {
unsigned long scan_target = targets[LRU_INACTIVE_ANON] +
targets[LRU_ACTIVE_ANON] + 1;
lru = LRU_BASE;
percentage = nr_anon * 100 / scan_target;
} else {
unsigned long scan_target = targets[LRU_INACTIVE_FILE] +
targets[LRU_ACTIVE_FILE] + 1;
lru = LRU_FILE;
percentage = nr_file * 100 / scan_target;
}
/* Stop scanning the smaller of the LRU */
nr[lru] = 0;
nr[lru + LRU_ACTIVE] = 0;
/*
* Recalculate the other LRU scan count based on its original
* scan target and the percentage scanning already complete
*/
lru = (lru == LRU_FILE) ? LRU_BASE : LRU_FILE;
nr_scanned = targets[lru] - nr[lru];
nr[lru] = targets[lru] * (100 - percentage) / 100;
nr[lru] -= min(nr[lru], nr_scanned);
lru += LRU_ACTIVE;
nr_scanned = targets[lru] - nr[lru];
nr[lru] = targets[lru] * (100 - percentage) / 100;
nr[lru] -= min(nr[lru], nr_scanned);
scan_adjusted = true;
}
blk_finish_plug(&plug);
sc->nr_reclaimed += nr_reclaimed;
/*
* Even if we did not try to evict anon pages at all, we want to
* rebalance the anon lru active/inactive ratio.
*/
if (inactive_list_is_low(lruvec, false, memcg, sc, true))
shrink_active_list(SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX, lruvec,
sc, LRU_ACTIVE_ANON);
}
/* Use reclaim/compaction for costly allocs or under memory pressure */
static bool in_reclaim_compaction(struct scan_control *sc)
{
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_COMPACTION) && sc->order &&
(sc->order > PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER ||
sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2))
return true;
return false;
}
/*
* Reclaim/compaction is used for high-order allocation requests. It reclaims
* order-0 pages before compacting the zone. should_continue_reclaim() returns
* true if more pages should be reclaimed such that when the page allocator
* calls try_to_compact_zone() that it will have enough free pages to succeed.
* It will give up earlier than that if there is difficulty reclaiming pages.
*/
static inline bool should_continue_reclaim(struct pglist_data *pgdat,
unsigned long nr_reclaimed,
unsigned long nr_scanned,
struct scan_control *sc)
{
unsigned long pages_for_compaction;
unsigned long inactive_lru_pages;
int z;
/* If not in reclaim/compaction mode, stop */
if (!in_reclaim_compaction(sc))
return false;
/* Consider stopping depending on scan and reclaim activity */
if (sc->gfp_mask & __GFP_RETRY_MAYFAIL) {
/*
* For __GFP_RETRY_MAYFAIL allocations, stop reclaiming if the
* full LRU list has been scanned and we are still failing
* to reclaim pages. This full LRU scan is potentially
* expensive but a __GFP_RETRY_MAYFAIL caller really wants to succeed
*/
if (!nr_reclaimed && !nr_scanned)
return false;
} else {
/*
* For non-__GFP_RETRY_MAYFAIL allocations which can presumably
* fail without consequence, stop if we failed to reclaim
* any pages from the last SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX number of
* pages that were scanned. This will return to the
* caller faster at the risk reclaim/compaction and
* the resulting allocation attempt fails
*/
if (!nr_reclaimed)
return false;
}
/*
* If we have not reclaimed enough pages for compaction and the
* inactive lists are large enough, continue reclaiming
*/
pages_for_compaction = compact_gap(sc->order);
inactive_lru_pages = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_FILE);
if (get_nr_swap_pages() > 0)
inactive_lru_pages += node_page_state(pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_ANON);
if (sc->nr_reclaimed < pages_for_compaction &&
inactive_lru_pages > pages_for_compaction)
return true;
/* If compaction would go ahead or the allocation would succeed, stop */
for (z = 0; z <= sc->reclaim_idx; z++) {
struct zone *zone = &pgdat->node_zones[z];
if (!managed_zone(zone))
continue;
switch (compaction_suitable(zone, sc->order, 0, sc->reclaim_idx)) {
case COMPACT_SUCCESS:
case COMPACT_CONTINUE:
return false;
default:
/* check next zone */
;
}
}
return true;
}
static bool pgdat_memcg_congested(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
{
return test_bit(PGDAT_CONGESTED, &pgdat->flags) ||
(memcg && memcg_congested(pgdat, memcg));
}
static bool shrink_node(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
{
struct reclaim_state *reclaim_state = current->reclaim_state;
unsigned long nr_reclaimed, nr_scanned;
bool reclaimable = false;
do {
struct mem_cgroup *root = sc->target_mem_cgroup;
struct mem_cgroup_reclaim_cookie reclaim = {
.pgdat = pgdat,
.priority = sc->priority,
};
unsigned long node_lru_pages = 0;
struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
memset(&sc->nr, 0, sizeof(sc->nr));
nr_reclaimed = sc->nr_reclaimed;
nr_scanned = sc->nr_scanned;
memcg = mem_cgroup_iter(root, NULL, &reclaim);
do {
unsigned long lru_pages;
unsigned long reclaimed;
unsigned long scanned;
switch (mem_cgroup_protected(root, memcg)) {
case MEMCG_PROT_MIN:
/*
* Hard protection.
* If there is no reclaimable memory, OOM.
*/
continue;
case MEMCG_PROT_LOW:
/*
* Soft protection.
* Respect the protection only as long as
* there is an unprotected supply
* of reclaimable memory from other cgroups.
*/
if (!sc->memcg_low_reclaim) {
sc->memcg_low_skipped = 1;
continue;
}
memcg_memory_event(memcg, MEMCG_LOW);
break;
case MEMCG_PROT_NONE:
break;
}
reclaimed = sc->nr_reclaimed;
scanned = sc->nr_scanned;
shrink_node_memcg(pgdat, memcg, sc, &lru_pages);
node_lru_pages += lru_pages;
if (sc->may_shrinkslab) {
shrink_slab(sc->gfp_mask, pgdat->node_id,
memcg, sc->priority);
}
/* Record the group's reclaim efficiency */
vmpressure(sc->gfp_mask, memcg, false,
sc->nr_scanned - scanned,
sc->nr_reclaimed - reclaimed);
/*
* Direct reclaim and kswapd have to scan all memory
* cgroups to fulfill the overall scan target for the
* node.
*
* Limit reclaim, on the other hand, only cares about
* nr_to_reclaim pages to be reclaimed and it will
* retry with decreasing priority if one round over the
* whole hierarchy is not sufficient.
*/
if (!global_reclaim(sc) &&
sc->nr_reclaimed >= sc->nr_to_reclaim) {
mem_cgroup_iter_break(root, memcg);
break;
}
} while ((memcg = mem_cgroup_iter(root, memcg, &reclaim)));
if (reclaim_state) {
sc->nr_reclaimed += reclaim_state->reclaimed_slab;
reclaim_state->reclaimed_slab = 0;
}
/* Record the subtree's reclaim efficiency */
vmpressure(sc->gfp_mask, sc->target_mem_cgroup, true,
sc->nr_scanned - nr_scanned,
sc->nr_reclaimed - nr_reclaimed);
if (sc->nr_reclaimed - nr_reclaimed)
reclaimable = true;
if (current_is_kswapd()) {
/*
* If reclaim is isolating dirty pages under writeback,
* it implies that the long-lived page allocation rate
* is exceeding the page laundering rate. Either the
* global limits are not being effective at throttling
* processes due to the page distribution throughout
* zones or there is heavy usage of a slow backing
* device. The only option is to throttle from reclaim
* context which is not ideal as there is no guarantee
* the dirtying process is throttled in the same way
* balance_dirty_pages() manages.
*
* Once a node is flagged PGDAT_WRITEBACK, kswapd will
* count the number of pages under pages flagged for
* immediate reclaim and stall if any are encountered
* in the nr_immediate check below.
*/
if (sc->nr.writeback && sc->nr.writeback == sc->nr.taken)
set_bit(PGDAT_WRITEBACK, &pgdat->flags);
/*
* Tag a node as congested if all the dirty pages
* scanned were backed by a congested BDI and
* wait_iff_congested will stall.
*/
if (sc->nr.dirty && sc->nr.dirty == sc->nr.congested)
set_bit(PGDAT_CONGESTED, &pgdat->flags);
/* Allow kswapd to start writing pages during reclaim.*/
if (sc->nr.unqueued_dirty == sc->nr.file_taken)
set_bit(PGDAT_DIRTY, &pgdat->flags);
/*
* If kswapd scans pages marked marked for immediate
* reclaim and under writeback (nr_immediate), it
* implies that pages are cycling through the LRU
* faster than they are written so also forcibly stall.
*/
if (sc->nr.immediate)
congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
}
/*
* Legacy memcg will stall in page writeback so avoid forcibly
* stalling in wait_iff_congested().
*/
if (!global_reclaim(sc) && sane_reclaim(sc) &&
sc->nr.dirty && sc->nr.dirty == sc->nr.congested)
set_memcg_congestion(pgdat, root, true);
/*
* Stall direct reclaim for IO completions if underlying BDIs
* and node is congested. Allow kswapd to continue until it
* starts encountering unqueued dirty pages or cycling through
* the LRU too quickly.
*/
if (!sc->hibernation_mode && !current_is_kswapd() &&
current_may_throttle() && pgdat_memcg_congested(pgdat, root))
wait_iff_congested(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
} while (should_continue_reclaim(pgdat, sc->nr_reclaimed - nr_reclaimed,
sc->nr_scanned - nr_scanned, sc));
/*
* Kswapd gives up on balancing particular nodes after too
* many failures to reclaim anything from them and goes to
* sleep. On reclaim progress, reset the failure counter. A
* successful direct reclaim run will revive a dormant kswapd.
*/
if (reclaimable)
pgdat->kswapd_failures = 0;
return reclaimable;
}
/*
* Returns true if compaction should go ahead for a costly-order request, or
* the allocation would already succeed without compaction. Return false if we
* should reclaim first.
*/
static inline bool compaction_ready(struct zone *zone, struct scan_control *sc)
{
unsigned long watermark;
enum compact_result suitable;
suitable = compaction_suitable(zone, sc->order, 0, sc->reclaim_idx);
if (suitable == COMPACT_SUCCESS)
/* Allocation should succeed already. Don't reclaim. */
return true;
if (suitable == COMPACT_SKIPPED)
/* Compaction cannot yet proceed. Do reclaim. */
return false;
/*
* Compaction is already possible, but it takes time to run and there
* are potentially other callers using the pages just freed. So proceed
* with reclaim to make a buffer of free pages available to give
* compaction a reasonable chance of completing and allocating the page.
* Note that we won't actually reclaim the whole buffer in one attempt
* as the target watermark in should_continue_reclaim() is lower. But if
* we are already above the high+gap watermark, don't reclaim at all.
*/
watermark = high_wmark_pages(zone) + compact_gap(sc->order);
return zone_watermark_ok_safe(zone, 0, watermark, sc->reclaim_idx);
}
/*
* This is the direct reclaim path, for page-allocating processes. We only
* try to reclaim pages from zones which will satisfy the caller's allocation
* request.
*
* If a zone is deemed to be full of pinned pages then just give it a light
* scan then give up on it.
*/
static void shrink_zones(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct scan_control *sc)
{
struct zoneref *z;
struct zone *zone;
unsigned long nr_soft_reclaimed;
unsigned long nr_soft_scanned;
gfp_t orig_mask;
pg_data_t *last_pgdat = NULL;
/*
* If the number of buffer_heads in the machine exceeds the maximum
* allowed level, force direct reclaim to scan the highmem zone as
* highmem pages could be pinning lowmem pages storing buffer_heads
*/
orig_mask = sc->gfp_mask;
if (buffer_heads_over_limit) {
sc->gfp_mask |= __GFP_HIGHMEM;
sc->reclaim_idx = gfp_zone(sc->gfp_mask);
}
for_each_zone_zonelist_nodemask(zone, z, zonelist,
sc->reclaim_idx, sc->nodemask) {
/*
* Take care memory controller reclaiming has small influence
* to global LRU.
*/
if (global_reclaim(sc)) {
if (!cpuset_zone_allowed(zone,
GFP_KERNEL | __GFP_HARDWALL))
continue;
/*
* If we already have plenty of memory free for
* compaction in this zone, don't free any more.
* Even though compaction is invoked for any
* non-zero order, only frequent costly order
* reclamation is disruptive enough to become a