netfilter: Introduce egress hook

Support classifying packets with netfilter on egress to satisfy user
requirements such as:
* outbound security policies for containers (Laura)
* filtering and mangling intra-node Direct Server Return (DSR) traffic
  on a load balancer (Laura)
* filtering locally generated traffic coming in through AF_PACKET,
  such as local ARP traffic generated for clustering purposes or DHCP
  (Laura; the AF_PACKET plumbing is contained in a follow-up commit)
* L2 filtering from ingress and egress for AVB (Audio Video Bridging)
  and gPTP with nftables (Pablo)
* in the future: in-kernel NAT64/NAT46 (Pablo)

The egress hook introduced herein complements the ingress hook added by
commit e687ad60af09 ("netfilter: add netfilter ingress hook after
handle_ing() under unique static key").  A patch for nftables to hook up
egress rules from user space has been submitted separately, so users may
immediately take advantage of the feature.

Alternatively or in addition to netfilter, packets can be classified
with traffic control (tc).  On ingress, packets are classified first by
tc, then by netfilter.  On egress, the order is reversed for symmetry.
Conceptually, tc and netfilter can be thought of as layers, with
netfilter layered above tc.

Traffic control is capable of redirecting packets to another interface
(man 8 tc-mirred).  E.g., an ingress packet may be redirected from the
host namespace to a container via a veth connection:
tc ingress (host) -> tc egress (veth host) -> tc ingress (veth container)

In this case, netfilter egress classifying is not performed when leaving
the host namespace!  That's because the packet is still on the tc layer.
If tc redirects the packet to a physical interface in the host namespace
such that it leaves the system, the packet is never subjected to
netfilter egress classifying.  That is only logical since it hasn't
passed through netfilter ingress classifying either.

Packets can alternatively be redirected at the netfilter layer using
nft fwd.  Such a packet *is* subjected to netfilter egress classifying
since it has reached the netfilter layer.

Internally, the skb->nf_skip_egress flag controls whether netfilter is
invoked on egress by __dev_queue_xmit().  Because __dev_queue_xmit() may
be called recursively by tunnel drivers such as vxlan, the flag is
reverted to false after sch_handle_egress().  This ensures that
netfilter is applied both on the overlay and underlying network.

Interaction between tc and netfilter is possible by setting and querying

If netfilter egress classifying is not enabled on any interface, it is
patched out of the data path by way of a static_key and doesn't make a
performance difference that is discernible from noise:

Before:             1537 1538 1538 1537 1538 1537 Mb/sec
After:              1536 1534 1539 1539 1539 1540 Mb/sec
Before + tc accept: 1418 1418 1418 1419 1419 1418 Mb/sec
After  + tc accept: 1419 1424 1418 1419 1422 1420 Mb/sec
Before + tc drop:   1620 1619 1619 1619 1620 1620 Mb/sec
After  + tc drop:   1616 1624 1625 1624 1622 1619 Mb/sec

When netfilter egress classifying is enabled on at least one interface,
a minimal performance penalty is incurred for every egress packet, even
if the interface it's transmitted over doesn't have any netfilter egress
rules configured.  That is caused by checking dev->nf_hooks_egress
against NULL.

Measurements were performed on a Core i7-3615QM.  Commands to reproduce:
ip link add dev foo type dummy
ip link set dev foo up
modprobe pktgen
echo "add_device foo" > /proc/net/pktgen/kpktgend_3
samples/pktgen/ -i foo -n 400000000 -m "11:11:11:11:11:11" -d

Accept all traffic with tc:
tc qdisc add dev foo clsact
tc filter add dev foo egress bpf da bytecode '1,6 0 0 0,'

Drop all traffic with tc:
tc qdisc add dev foo clsact
tc filter add dev foo egress bpf da bytecode '1,6 0 0 2,'

Apply this patch when measuring packet drops to avoid errors in dmesg:

Signed-off-by: Lukas Wunner <>
Cc: Laura García Liébana <>
Cc: John Fastabend <>
Cc: Daniel Borkmann <>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <>
Cc: Eric Dumazet <>
Cc: Thomas Graf <>
Signed-off-by: Pablo Neira Ayuso <>
10 files changed