blob: cb4758263f6b8a573251ae9323aad2160280ff34 [file] [log] [blame]
/*
* linux/mm/page_alloc.c
*
* Manages the free list, the system allocates free pages here.
* Note that kmalloc() lives in slab.c
*
* Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 Linus Torvalds
* Swap reorganised 29.12.95, Stephen Tweedie
* Support of BIGMEM added by Gerhard Wichert, Siemens AG, July 1999
* Reshaped it to be a zoned allocator, Ingo Molnar, Red Hat, 1999
* Discontiguous memory support, Kanoj Sarcar, SGI, Nov 1999
* Zone balancing, Kanoj Sarcar, SGI, Jan 2000
* Per cpu hot/cold page lists, bulk allocation, Martin J. Bligh, Sept 2002
* (lots of bits borrowed from Ingo Molnar & Andrew Morton)
*/
#include <linux/stddef.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/jiffies.h>
#include <linux/bootmem.h>
#include <linux/memblock.h>
#include <linux/compiler.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/kmemcheck.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/suspend.h>
#include <linux/pagevec.h>
#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/ratelimit.h>
#include <linux/oom.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/topology.h>
#include <linux/sysctl.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/cpuset.h>
#include <linux/memory_hotplug.h>
#include <linux/nodemask.h>
#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
#include <linux/vmstat.h>
#include <linux/mempolicy.h>
#include <linux/stop_machine.h>
#include <linux/sort.h>
#include <linux/pfn.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
#include <linux/fault-inject.h>
#include <linux/page-isolation.h>
#include <linux/page_ext.h>
#include <linux/debugobjects.h>
#include <linux/kmemleak.h>
#include <linux/compaction.h>
#include <trace/events/kmem.h>
#include <linux/prefetch.h>
#include <linux/mm_inline.h>
#include <linux/migrate.h>
#include <linux/page_ext.h>
#include <linux/hugetlb.h>
#include <linux/sched/rt.h>
#include <linux/page_owner.h>
#include <asm/sections.h>
#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
#include <asm/div64.h>
#include "internal.h"
/* prevent >1 _updater_ of zone percpu pageset ->high and ->batch fields */
static DEFINE_MUTEX(pcp_batch_high_lock);
#define MIN_PERCPU_PAGELIST_FRACTION (8)
#ifdef CONFIG_USE_PERCPU_NUMA_NODE_ID
DEFINE_PER_CPU(int, numa_node);
EXPORT_PER_CPU_SYMBOL(numa_node);
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_MEMORYLESS_NODES
/*
* N.B., Do NOT reference the '_numa_mem_' per cpu variable directly.
* It will not be defined when CONFIG_HAVE_MEMORYLESS_NODES is not defined.
* Use the accessor functions set_numa_mem(), numa_mem_id() and cpu_to_mem()
* defined in <linux/topology.h>.
*/
DEFINE_PER_CPU(int, _numa_mem_); /* Kernel "local memory" node */
EXPORT_PER_CPU_SYMBOL(_numa_mem_);
int _node_numa_mem_[MAX_NUMNODES];
#endif
/*
* Array of node states.
*/
nodemask_t node_states[NR_NODE_STATES] __read_mostly = {
[N_POSSIBLE] = NODE_MASK_ALL,
[N_ONLINE] = { { [0] = 1UL } },
#ifndef CONFIG_NUMA
[N_NORMAL_MEMORY] = { { [0] = 1UL } },
#ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
[N_HIGH_MEMORY] = { { [0] = 1UL } },
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_MOVABLE_NODE
[N_MEMORY] = { { [0] = 1UL } },
#endif
[N_CPU] = { { [0] = 1UL } },
#endif /* NUMA */
};
EXPORT_SYMBOL(node_states);
/* Protect totalram_pages and zone->managed_pages */
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(managed_page_count_lock);
unsigned long totalram_pages __read_mostly;
unsigned long totalreserve_pages __read_mostly;
unsigned long totalcma_pages __read_mostly;
/*
* When calculating the number of globally allowed dirty pages, there
* is a certain number of per-zone reserves that should not be
* considered dirtyable memory. This is the sum of those reserves
* over all existing zones that contribute dirtyable memory.
*/
unsigned long dirty_balance_reserve __read_mostly;
int percpu_pagelist_fraction;
gfp_t gfp_allowed_mask __read_mostly = GFP_BOOT_MASK;
#ifdef CONFIG_PM_SLEEP
/*
* The following functions are used by the suspend/hibernate code to temporarily
* change gfp_allowed_mask in order to avoid using I/O during memory allocations
* while devices are suspended. To avoid races with the suspend/hibernate code,
* they should always be called with pm_mutex held (gfp_allowed_mask also should
* only be modified with pm_mutex held, unless the suspend/hibernate code is
* guaranteed not to run in parallel with that modification).
*/
static gfp_t saved_gfp_mask;
void pm_restore_gfp_mask(void)
{
WARN_ON(!mutex_is_locked(&pm_mutex));
if (saved_gfp_mask) {
gfp_allowed_mask = saved_gfp_mask;
saved_gfp_mask = 0;
}
}
void pm_restrict_gfp_mask(void)
{
WARN_ON(!mutex_is_locked(&pm_mutex));
WARN_ON(saved_gfp_mask);
saved_gfp_mask = gfp_allowed_mask;
gfp_allowed_mask &= ~GFP_IOFS;
}
bool pm_suspended_storage(void)
{
if ((gfp_allowed_mask & GFP_IOFS) == GFP_IOFS)
return false;
return true;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_PM_SLEEP */
#ifdef CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE_SIZE_VARIABLE
int pageblock_order __read_mostly;
#endif
static void __free_pages_ok(struct page *page, unsigned int order);
/*
* results with 256, 32 in the lowmem_reserve sysctl:
* 1G machine -> (16M dma, 800M-16M normal, 1G-800M high)
* 1G machine -> (16M dma, 784M normal, 224M high)
* NORMAL allocation will leave 784M/256 of ram reserved in the ZONE_DMA
* HIGHMEM allocation will leave 224M/32 of ram reserved in ZONE_NORMAL
* HIGHMEM allocation will leave (224M+784M)/256 of ram reserved in ZONE_DMA
*
* TBD: should special case ZONE_DMA32 machines here - in those we normally
* don't need any ZONE_NORMAL reservation
*/
int sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio[MAX_NR_ZONES-1] = {
#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA
256,
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA32
256,
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
32,
#endif
32,
};
EXPORT_SYMBOL(totalram_pages);
static char * const zone_names[MAX_NR_ZONES] = {
#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA
"DMA",
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_ZONE_DMA32
"DMA32",
#endif
"Normal",
#ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
"HighMem",
#endif
"Movable",
};
int min_free_kbytes = 1024;
int user_min_free_kbytes = -1;
static unsigned long __meminitdata nr_kernel_pages;
static unsigned long __meminitdata nr_all_pages;
static unsigned long __meminitdata dma_reserve;
#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_MEMBLOCK_NODE_MAP
static unsigned long __meminitdata arch_zone_lowest_possible_pfn[MAX_NR_ZONES];
static unsigned long __meminitdata arch_zone_highest_possible_pfn[MAX_NR_ZONES];
static unsigned long __initdata required_kernelcore;
static unsigned long __initdata required_movablecore;
static unsigned long __meminitdata zone_movable_pfn[MAX_NUMNODES];
/* movable_zone is the "real" zone pages in ZONE_MOVABLE are taken from */
int movable_zone;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(movable_zone);
#endif /* CONFIG_HAVE_MEMBLOCK_NODE_MAP */
#if MAX_NUMNODES > 1
int nr_node_ids __read_mostly = MAX_NUMNODES;
int nr_online_nodes __read_mostly = 1;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nr_node_ids);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nr_online_nodes);
#endif
int page_group_by_mobility_disabled __read_mostly;
void set_pageblock_migratetype(struct page *page, int migratetype)
{
if (unlikely(page_group_by_mobility_disabled &&
migratetype < MIGRATE_PCPTYPES))
migratetype = MIGRATE_UNMOVABLE;
set_pageblock_flags_group(page, (unsigned long)migratetype,
PB_migrate, PB_migrate_end);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
static int page_outside_zone_boundaries(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
{
int ret = 0;
unsigned seq;
unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
unsigned long sp, start_pfn;
do {
seq = zone_span_seqbegin(zone);
start_pfn = zone->zone_start_pfn;
sp = zone->spanned_pages;
if (!zone_spans_pfn(zone, pfn))
ret = 1;
} while (zone_span_seqretry(zone, seq));
if (ret)
pr_err("page 0x%lx outside node %d zone %s [ 0x%lx - 0x%lx ]\n",
pfn, zone_to_nid(zone), zone->name,
start_pfn, start_pfn + sp);
return ret;
}
static int page_is_consistent(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
{
if (!pfn_valid_within(page_to_pfn(page)))
return 0;
if (zone != page_zone(page))
return 0;
return 1;
}
/*
* Temporary debugging check for pages not lying within a given zone.
*/
static int bad_range(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
{
if (page_outside_zone_boundaries(zone, page))
return 1;
if (!page_is_consistent(zone, page))
return 1;
return 0;
}
#else
static inline int bad_range(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
{
return 0;
}
#endif
static void bad_page(struct page *page, const char *reason,
unsigned long bad_flags)
{
static unsigned long resume;
static unsigned long nr_shown;
static unsigned long nr_unshown;
/* Don't complain about poisoned pages */
if (PageHWPoison(page)) {
page_mapcount_reset(page); /* remove PageBuddy */
return;
}
/*
* Allow a burst of 60 reports, then keep quiet for that minute;
* or allow a steady drip of one report per second.
*/
if (nr_shown == 60) {
if (time_before(jiffies, resume)) {
nr_unshown++;
goto out;
}
if (nr_unshown) {
printk(KERN_ALERT
"BUG: Bad page state: %lu messages suppressed\n",
nr_unshown);
nr_unshown = 0;
}
nr_shown = 0;
}
if (nr_shown++ == 0)
resume = jiffies + 60 * HZ;
printk(KERN_ALERT "BUG: Bad page state in process %s pfn:%05lx\n",
current->comm, page_to_pfn(page));
dump_page_badflags(page, reason, bad_flags);
print_modules();
dump_stack();
out:
/* Leave bad fields for debug, except PageBuddy could make trouble */
page_mapcount_reset(page); /* remove PageBuddy */
add_taint(TAINT_BAD_PAGE, LOCKDEP_NOW_UNRELIABLE);
}
/*
* Higher-order pages are called "compound pages". They are structured thusly:
*
* The first PAGE_SIZE page is called the "head page".
*
* The remaining PAGE_SIZE pages are called "tail pages".
*
* All pages have PG_compound set. All tail pages have their ->first_page
* pointing at the head page.
*
* The first tail page's ->lru.next holds the address of the compound page's
* put_page() function. Its ->lru.prev holds the order of allocation.
* This usage means that zero-order pages may not be compound.
*/
static void free_compound_page(struct page *page)
{
__free_pages_ok(page, compound_order(page));
}
void prep_compound_page(struct page *page, unsigned long order)
{
int i;
int nr_pages = 1 << order;
set_compound_page_dtor(page, free_compound_page);
set_compound_order(page, order);
__SetPageHead(page);
for (i = 1; i < nr_pages; i++) {
struct page *p = page + i;
set_page_count(p, 0);
p->first_page = page;
/* Make sure p->first_page is always valid for PageTail() */
smp_wmb();
__SetPageTail(p);
}
}
static inline void prep_zero_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order,
gfp_t gfp_flags)
{
int i;
/*
* clear_highpage() will use KM_USER0, so it's a bug to use __GFP_ZERO
* and __GFP_HIGHMEM from hard or soft interrupt context.
*/
VM_BUG_ON((gfp_flags & __GFP_HIGHMEM) && in_interrupt());
for (i = 0; i < (1 << order); i++)
clear_highpage(page + i);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC
unsigned int _debug_guardpage_minorder;
bool _debug_pagealloc_enabled __read_mostly;
bool _debug_guardpage_enabled __read_mostly;
static int __init early_debug_pagealloc(char *buf)
{
if (!buf)
return -EINVAL;
if (strcmp(buf, "on") == 0)
_debug_pagealloc_enabled = true;
return 0;
}
early_param("debug_pagealloc", early_debug_pagealloc);
static bool need_debug_guardpage(void)
{
/* If we don't use debug_pagealloc, we don't need guard page */
if (!debug_pagealloc_enabled())
return false;
return true;
}
static void init_debug_guardpage(void)
{
if (!debug_pagealloc_enabled())
return;
_debug_guardpage_enabled = true;
}
struct page_ext_operations debug_guardpage_ops = {
.need = need_debug_guardpage,
.init = init_debug_guardpage,
};
static int __init debug_guardpage_minorder_setup(char *buf)
{
unsigned long res;
if (kstrtoul(buf, 10, &res) < 0 || res > MAX_ORDER / 2) {
printk(KERN_ERR "Bad debug_guardpage_minorder value\n");
return 0;
}
_debug_guardpage_minorder = res;
printk(KERN_INFO "Setting debug_guardpage_minorder to %lu\n", res);
return 0;
}
__setup("debug_guardpage_minorder=", debug_guardpage_minorder_setup);
static inline void set_page_guard(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
unsigned int order, int migratetype)
{
struct page_ext *page_ext;
if (!debug_guardpage_enabled())
return;
page_ext = lookup_page_ext(page);
__set_bit(PAGE_EXT_DEBUG_GUARD, &page_ext->flags);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&page->lru);
set_page_private(page, order);
/* Guard pages are not available for any usage */
__mod_zone_freepage_state(zone, -(1 << order), migratetype);
}
static inline void clear_page_guard(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
unsigned int order, int migratetype)
{
struct page_ext *page_ext;
if (!debug_guardpage_enabled())
return;
page_ext = lookup_page_ext(page);
__clear_bit(PAGE_EXT_DEBUG_GUARD, &page_ext->flags);
set_page_private(page, 0);
if (!is_migrate_isolate(migratetype))
__mod_zone_freepage_state(zone, (1 << order), migratetype);
}
#else
struct page_ext_operations debug_guardpage_ops = { NULL, };
static inline void set_page_guard(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
unsigned int order, int migratetype) {}
static inline void clear_page_guard(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
unsigned int order, int migratetype) {}
#endif
static inline void set_page_order(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
set_page_private(page, order);
__SetPageBuddy(page);
}
static inline void rmv_page_order(struct page *page)
{
__ClearPageBuddy(page);
set_page_private(page, 0);
}
/*
* This function checks whether a page is free && is the buddy
* we can do coalesce a page and its buddy if
* (a) the buddy is not in a hole &&
* (b) the buddy is in the buddy system &&
* (c) a page and its buddy have the same order &&
* (d) a page and its buddy are in the same zone.
*
* For recording whether a page is in the buddy system, we set ->_mapcount
* PAGE_BUDDY_MAPCOUNT_VALUE.
* Setting, clearing, and testing _mapcount PAGE_BUDDY_MAPCOUNT_VALUE is
* serialized by zone->lock.
*
* For recording page's order, we use page_private(page).
*/
static inline int page_is_buddy(struct page *page, struct page *buddy,
unsigned int order)
{
if (!pfn_valid_within(page_to_pfn(buddy)))
return 0;
if (page_is_guard(buddy) && page_order(buddy) == order) {
if (page_zone_id(page) != page_zone_id(buddy))
return 0;
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_count(buddy) != 0, buddy);
return 1;
}
if (PageBuddy(buddy) && page_order(buddy) == order) {
/*
* zone check is done late to avoid uselessly
* calculating zone/node ids for pages that could
* never merge.
*/
if (page_zone_id(page) != page_zone_id(buddy))
return 0;
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_count(buddy) != 0, buddy);
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
/*
* Freeing function for a buddy system allocator.
*
* The concept of a buddy system is to maintain direct-mapped table
* (containing bit values) for memory blocks of various "orders".
* The bottom level table contains the map for the smallest allocatable
* units of memory (here, pages), and each level above it describes
* pairs of units from the levels below, hence, "buddies".
* At a high level, all that happens here is marking the table entry
* at the bottom level available, and propagating the changes upward
* as necessary, plus some accounting needed to play nicely with other
* parts of the VM system.
* At each level, we keep a list of pages, which are heads of continuous
* free pages of length of (1 << order) and marked with _mapcount
* PAGE_BUDDY_MAPCOUNT_VALUE. Page's order is recorded in page_private(page)
* field.
* So when we are allocating or freeing one, we can derive the state of the
* other. That is, if we allocate a small block, and both were
* free, the remainder of the region must be split into blocks.
* If a block is freed, and its buddy is also free, then this
* triggers coalescing into a block of larger size.
*
* -- nyc
*/
static inline void __free_one_page(struct page *page,
unsigned long pfn,
struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
int migratetype)
{
unsigned long page_idx;
unsigned long combined_idx;
unsigned long uninitialized_var(buddy_idx);
struct page *buddy;
int max_order = MAX_ORDER;
VM_BUG_ON(!zone_is_initialized(zone));
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page->flags & PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_PREP, page);
VM_BUG_ON(migratetype == -1);
if (is_migrate_isolate(migratetype)) {
/*
* We restrict max order of merging to prevent merge
* between freepages on isolate pageblock and normal
* pageblock. Without this, pageblock isolation
* could cause incorrect freepage accounting.
*/
max_order = min(MAX_ORDER, pageblock_order + 1);
} else {
__mod_zone_freepage_state(zone, 1 << order, migratetype);
}
page_idx = pfn & ((1 << max_order) - 1);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_idx & ((1 << order) - 1), page);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(bad_range(zone, page), page);
while (order < max_order - 1) {
buddy_idx = __find_buddy_index(page_idx, order);
buddy = page + (buddy_idx - page_idx);
if (!page_is_buddy(page, buddy, order))
break;
/*
* Our buddy is free or it is CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC guard page,
* merge with it and move up one order.
*/
if (page_is_guard(buddy)) {
clear_page_guard(zone, buddy, order, migratetype);
} else {
list_del(&buddy->lru);
zone->free_area[order].nr_free--;
rmv_page_order(buddy);
}
combined_idx = buddy_idx & page_idx;
page = page + (combined_idx - page_idx);
page_idx = combined_idx;
order++;
}
set_page_order(page, order);
/*
* If this is not the largest possible page, check if the buddy
* of the next-highest order is free. If it is, it's possible
* that pages are being freed that will coalesce soon. In case,
* that is happening, add the free page to the tail of the list
* so it's less likely to be used soon and more likely to be merged
* as a higher order page
*/
if ((order < MAX_ORDER-2) && pfn_valid_within(page_to_pfn(buddy))) {
struct page *higher_page, *higher_buddy;
combined_idx = buddy_idx & page_idx;
higher_page = page + (combined_idx - page_idx);
buddy_idx = __find_buddy_index(combined_idx, order + 1);
higher_buddy = higher_page + (buddy_idx - combined_idx);
if (page_is_buddy(higher_page, higher_buddy, order + 1)) {
list_add_tail(&page->lru,
&zone->free_area[order].free_list[migratetype]);
goto out;
}
}
list_add(&page->lru, &zone->free_area[order].free_list[migratetype]);
out:
zone->free_area[order].nr_free++;
}
static inline int free_pages_check(struct page *page)
{
const char *bad_reason = NULL;
unsigned long bad_flags = 0;
if (unlikely(page_mapcount(page)))
bad_reason = "nonzero mapcount";
if (unlikely(page->mapping != NULL))
bad_reason = "non-NULL mapping";
if (unlikely(atomic_read(&page->_count) != 0))
bad_reason = "nonzero _count";
if (unlikely(page->flags & PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_FREE)) {
bad_reason = "PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_FREE flag(s) set";
bad_flags = PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_FREE;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
if (unlikely(page->mem_cgroup))
bad_reason = "page still charged to cgroup";
#endif
if (unlikely(bad_reason)) {
bad_page(page, bad_reason, bad_flags);
return 1;
}
page_cpupid_reset_last(page);
if (page->flags & PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_PREP)
page->flags &= ~PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_PREP;
return 0;
}
/*
* Frees a number of pages from the PCP lists
* Assumes all pages on list are in same zone, and of same order.
* count is the number of pages to free.
*
* If the zone was previously in an "all pages pinned" state then look to
* see if this freeing clears that state.
*
* And clear the zone's pages_scanned counter, to hold off the "all pages are
* pinned" detection logic.
*/
static void free_pcppages_bulk(struct zone *zone, int count,
struct per_cpu_pages *pcp)
{
int migratetype = 0;
int batch_free = 0;
int to_free = count;
unsigned long nr_scanned;
spin_lock(&zone->lock);
nr_scanned = zone_page_state(zone, NR_PAGES_SCANNED);
if (nr_scanned)
__mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_PAGES_SCANNED, -nr_scanned);
while (to_free) {
struct page *page;
struct list_head *list;
/*
* Remove pages from lists in a round-robin fashion. A
* batch_free count is maintained that is incremented when an
* empty list is encountered. This is so more pages are freed
* off fuller lists instead of spinning excessively around empty
* lists
*/
do {
batch_free++;
if (++migratetype == MIGRATE_PCPTYPES)
migratetype = 0;
list = &pcp->lists[migratetype];
} while (list_empty(list));
/* This is the only non-empty list. Free them all. */
if (batch_free == MIGRATE_PCPTYPES)
batch_free = to_free;
do {
int mt; /* migratetype of the to-be-freed page */
page = list_entry(list->prev, struct page, lru);
/* must delete as __free_one_page list manipulates */
list_del(&page->lru);
mt = get_freepage_migratetype(page);
if (unlikely(has_isolate_pageblock(zone)))
mt = get_pageblock_migratetype(page);
/* MIGRATE_MOVABLE list may include MIGRATE_RESERVEs */
__free_one_page(page, page_to_pfn(page), zone, 0, mt);
trace_mm_page_pcpu_drain(page, 0, mt);
} while (--to_free && --batch_free && !list_empty(list));
}
spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
}
static void free_one_page(struct zone *zone,
struct page *page, unsigned long pfn,
unsigned int order,
int migratetype)
{
unsigned long nr_scanned;
spin_lock(&zone->lock);
nr_scanned = zone_page_state(zone, NR_PAGES_SCANNED);
if (nr_scanned)
__mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_PAGES_SCANNED, -nr_scanned);
if (unlikely(has_isolate_pageblock(zone) ||
is_migrate_isolate(migratetype))) {
migratetype = get_pfnblock_migratetype(page, pfn);
}
__free_one_page(page, pfn, zone, order, migratetype);
spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
}
static int free_tail_pages_check(struct page *head_page, struct page *page)
{
if (!IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DEBUG_VM))
return 0;
if (unlikely(!PageTail(page))) {
bad_page(page, "PageTail not set", 0);
return 1;
}
if (unlikely(page->first_page != head_page)) {
bad_page(page, "first_page not consistent", 0);
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
static bool free_pages_prepare(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
bool compound = PageCompound(page);
int i, bad = 0;
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageTail(page), page);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound && compound_order(page) != order, page);
trace_mm_page_free(page, order);
kmemcheck_free_shadow(page, order);
if (PageAnon(page))
page->mapping = NULL;
bad += free_pages_check(page);
for (i = 1; i < (1 << order); i++) {
if (compound)
bad += free_tail_pages_check(page, page + i);
bad += free_pages_check(page + i);
}
if (bad)
return false;
reset_page_owner(page, order);
if (!PageHighMem(page)) {
debug_check_no_locks_freed(page_address(page),
PAGE_SIZE << order);
debug_check_no_obj_freed(page_address(page),
PAGE_SIZE << order);
}
arch_free_page(page, order);
kernel_map_pages(page, 1 << order, 0);
return true;
}
static void __free_pages_ok(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
unsigned long flags;
int migratetype;
unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
if (!free_pages_prepare(page, order))
return;
migratetype = get_pfnblock_migratetype(page, pfn);
local_irq_save(flags);
__count_vm_events(PGFREE, 1 << order);
set_freepage_migratetype(page, migratetype);
free_one_page(page_zone(page), page, pfn, order, migratetype);
local_irq_restore(flags);
}
void __init __free_pages_bootmem(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
unsigned int nr_pages = 1 << order;
struct page *p = page;
unsigned int loop;
prefetchw(p);
for (loop = 0; loop < (nr_pages - 1); loop++, p++) {
prefetchw(p + 1);
__ClearPageReserved(p);
set_page_count(p, 0);
}
__ClearPageReserved(p);
set_page_count(p, 0);
page_zone(page)->managed_pages += nr_pages;
set_page_refcounted(page);
__free_pages(page, order);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_CMA
/* Free whole pageblock and set its migration type to MIGRATE_CMA. */
void __init init_cma_reserved_pageblock(struct page *page)
{
unsigned i = pageblock_nr_pages;
struct page *p = page;
do {
__ClearPageReserved(p);
set_page_count(p, 0);
} while (++p, --i);
set_pageblock_migratetype(page, MIGRATE_CMA);
if (pageblock_order >= MAX_ORDER) {
i = pageblock_nr_pages;
p = page;
do {
set_page_refcounted(p);
__free_pages(p, MAX_ORDER - 1);
p += MAX_ORDER_NR_PAGES;
} while (i -= MAX_ORDER_NR_PAGES);
} else {
set_page_refcounted(page);
__free_pages(page, pageblock_order);
}
adjust_managed_page_count(page, pageblock_nr_pages);
}
#endif
/*
* The order of subdivision here is critical for the IO subsystem.
* Please do not alter this order without good reasons and regression
* testing. Specifically, as large blocks of memory are subdivided,
* the order in which smaller blocks are delivered depends on the order
* they're subdivided in this function. This is the primary factor
* influencing the order in which pages are delivered to the IO
* subsystem according to empirical testing, and this is also justified
* by considering the behavior of a buddy system containing a single
* large block of memory acted on by a series of small allocations.
* This behavior is a critical factor in sglist merging's success.
*
* -- nyc
*/
static inline void expand(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
int low, int high, struct free_area *area,
int migratetype)
{
unsigned long size = 1 << high;
while (high > low) {
area--;
high--;
size >>= 1;
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(bad_range(zone, &page[size]), &page[size]);
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC) &&
debug_guardpage_enabled() &&
high < debug_guardpage_minorder()) {
/*
* Mark as guard pages (or page), that will allow to
* merge back to allocator when buddy will be freed.
* Corresponding page table entries will not be touched,
* pages will stay not present in virtual address space
*/
set_page_guard(zone, &page[size], high, migratetype);
continue;
}
list_add(&page[size].lru, &area->free_list[migratetype]);
area->nr_free++;
set_page_order(&page[size], high);
}
}
/*
* This page is about to be returned from the page allocator
*/
static inline int check_new_page(struct page *page)
{
const char *bad_reason = NULL;
unsigned long bad_flags = 0;
if (unlikely(page_mapcount(page)))
bad_reason = "nonzero mapcount";
if (unlikely(page->mapping != NULL))
bad_reason = "non-NULL mapping";
if (unlikely(atomic_read(&page->_count) != 0))
bad_reason = "nonzero _count";
if (unlikely(page->flags & PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_PREP)) {
bad_reason = "PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_PREP flag set";
bad_flags = PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_PREP;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
if (unlikely(page->mem_cgroup))
bad_reason = "page still charged to cgroup";
#endif
if (unlikely(bad_reason)) {
bad_page(page, bad_reason, bad_flags);
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
static int prep_new_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order, gfp_t gfp_flags,
int alloc_flags)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < (1 << order); i++) {
struct page *p = page + i;
if (unlikely(check_new_page(p)))
return 1;
}
set_page_private(page, 0);
set_page_refcounted(page);
arch_alloc_page(page, order);
kernel_map_pages(page, 1 << order, 1);
if (gfp_flags & __GFP_ZERO)
prep_zero_page(page, order, gfp_flags);
if (order && (gfp_flags & __GFP_COMP))
prep_compound_page(page, order);
set_page_owner(page, order, gfp_flags);
/*
* page->pfmemalloc is set when ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS was necessary to
* allocate the page. The expectation is that the caller is taking
* steps that will free more memory. The caller should avoid the page
* being used for !PFMEMALLOC purposes.
*/
page->pfmemalloc = !!(alloc_flags & ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS);
return 0;
}
/*
* Go through the free lists for the given migratetype and remove
* the smallest available page from the freelists
*/
static inline
struct page *__rmqueue_smallest(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
int migratetype)
{
unsigned int current_order;
struct free_area *area;
struct page *page;
/* Find a page of the appropriate size in the preferred list */
for (current_order = order; current_order < MAX_ORDER; ++current_order) {
area = &(zone->free_area[current_order]);
if (list_empty(&area->free_list[migratetype]))
continue;
page = list_entry(area->free_list[migratetype].next,
struct page, lru);
list_del(&page->lru);
rmv_page_order(page);
area->nr_free--;
expand(zone, page, order, current_order, area, migratetype);
set_freepage_migratetype(page, migratetype);
return page;
}
return NULL;
}
/*
* This array describes the order lists are fallen back to when
* the free lists for the desirable migrate type are depleted
*/
static int fallbacks[MIGRATE_TYPES][4] = {
[MIGRATE_UNMOVABLE] = { MIGRATE_RECLAIMABLE, MIGRATE_MOVABLE, MIGRATE_RESERVE },
[MIGRATE_RECLAIMABLE] = { MIGRATE_UNMOVABLE, MIGRATE_MOVABLE, MIGRATE_RESERVE },
#ifdef CONFIG_CMA
[MIGRATE_MOVABLE] = { MIGRATE_CMA, MIGRATE_RECLAIMABLE, MIGRATE_UNMOVABLE, MIGRATE_RESERVE },
[MIGRATE_CMA] = { MIGRATE_RESERVE }, /* Never used */
#else
[MIGRATE_MOVABLE] = { MIGRATE_RECLAIMABLE, MIGRATE_UNMOVABLE, MIGRATE_RESERVE },
#endif
[MIGRATE_RESERVE] = { MIGRATE_RESERVE }, /* Never used */
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_ISOLATION
[MIGRATE_ISOLATE] = { MIGRATE_RESERVE }, /* Never used */
#endif
};
/*
* Move the free pages in a range to the free lists of the requested type.
* Note that start_page and end_pages are not aligned on a pageblock
* boundary. If alignment is required, use move_freepages_block()
*/
int move_freepages(struct zone *zone,
struct page *start_page, struct page *end_page,
int migratetype)
{
struct page *page;
unsigned long order;
int pages_moved = 0;
#ifndef CONFIG_HOLES_IN_ZONE
/*
* page_zone is not safe to call in this context when
* CONFIG_HOLES_IN_ZONE is set. This bug check is probably redundant
* anyway as we check zone boundaries in move_freepages_block().
* Remove at a later date when no bug reports exist related to
* grouping pages by mobility
*/
VM_BUG_ON(page_zone(start_page) != page_zone(end_page));
#endif
for (page = start_page; page <= end_page;) {
/* Make sure we are not inadvertently changing nodes */
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_to_nid(page) != zone_to_nid(zone), page);
if (!pfn_valid_within(page_to_pfn(page))) {
page++;
continue;
}
if (!PageBuddy(page)) {
page++;
continue;
}
order = page_order(page);
list_move(&page->lru,
&zone->free_area[order].free_list[migratetype]);
set_freepage_migratetype(page, migratetype);
page += 1 << order;
pages_moved += 1 << order;
}
return pages_moved;
}
int move_freepages_block(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
int migratetype)
{
unsigned long start_pfn, end_pfn;
struct page *start_page, *end_page;
start_pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
start_pfn = start_pfn & ~(pageblock_nr_pages-1);
start_page = pfn_to_page(start_pfn);
end_page = start_page + pageblock_nr_pages - 1;
end_pfn = start_pfn + pageblock_nr_pages - 1;
/* Do not cross zone boundaries */
if (!zone_spans_pfn(zone, start_pfn))
start_page = page;
if (!zone_spans_pfn(zone, end_pfn))
return 0;
return move_freepages(zone, start_page, end_page, migratetype);
}
static void change_pageblock_range(struct page *pageblock_page,
int start_order, int migratetype)
{
int nr_pageblocks = 1 << (start_order - pageblock_order);
while (nr_pageblocks--) {
set_pageblock_migratetype(pageblock_page, migratetype);
pageblock_page += pageblock_nr_pages;
}
}
/*
* When we are falling back to another migratetype during allocation, try to
* steal extra free pages from the same pageblocks to satisfy further
* allocations, instead of polluting multiple pageblocks.
*
* If we are stealing a relatively large buddy page, it is likely there will
* be more free pages in the pageblock, so try to steal them all. For
* reclaimable and unmovable allocations, we steal regardless of page size,
* as fragmentation caused by those allocations polluting movable pageblocks
* is worse than movable allocations stealing from unmovable and reclaimable
* pageblocks.
*
* If we claim more than half of the pageblock, change pageblock's migratetype
* as well.
*/
static void try_to_steal_freepages(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
int start_type, int fallback_type)
{
int current_order = page_order(page);
/* Take ownership for orders >= pageblock_order */
if (current_order >= pageblock_order) {
change_pageblock_range(page, current_order, start_type);
return;
}
if (current_order >= pageblock_order / 2 ||
start_type == MIGRATE_RECLAIMABLE ||
start_type == MIGRATE_UNMOVABLE ||
page_group_by_mobility_disabled) {
int pages;
pages = move_freepages_block(zone, page, start_type);
/* Claim the whole block if over half of it is free */
if (pages >= (1 << (pageblock_order-1)) ||
page_group_by_mobility_disabled)
set_pageblock_migratetype(page, start_type);
}
}
/* Remove an element from the buddy allocator from the fallback list */
static inline struct page *
__rmqueue_fallback(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order, int start_migratetype)
{
struct free_area *area;
unsigned int current_order;
struct page *page;
/* Find the largest possible block of pages in the other list */
for (current_order = MAX_ORDER-1;
current_order >= order && current_order <= MAX_ORDER-1;
--current_order) {
int i;
for (i = 0;; i++) {
int migratetype = fallbacks[start_migratetype][i];
int buddy_type = start_migratetype;
/* MIGRATE_RESERVE handled later if necessary */
if (migratetype == MIGRATE_RESERVE)
break;
area = &(zone->free_area[current_order]);
if (list_empty(&area->free_list[migratetype]))
continue;
page = list_entry(area->free_list[migratetype].next,
struct page, lru);
area->nr_free--;
if (!is_migrate_cma(migratetype)) {
try_to_steal_freepages(zone, page,
start_migratetype,
migratetype);
} else {
/*
* When borrowing from MIGRATE_CMA, we need to
* release the excess buddy pages to CMA
* itself, and we do not try to steal extra
* free pages.
*/
buddy_type = migratetype;
}
/* Remove the page from the freelists */
list_del(&page->lru);
rmv_page_order(page);
expand(zone, page, order, current_order, area,
buddy_type);
/*
* The freepage_migratetype may differ from pageblock's
* migratetype depending on the decisions in
* try_to_steal_freepages(). This is OK as long as it
* does not differ for MIGRATE_CMA pageblocks. For CMA
* we need to make sure unallocated pages flushed from
* pcp lists are returned to the correct freelist.
*/
set_freepage_migratetype(page, buddy_type);
trace_mm_page_alloc_extfrag(page, order, current_order,
start_migratetype, migratetype);
return page;
}
}
return NULL;
}
/*
* Do the hard work of removing an element from the buddy allocator.
* Call me with the zone->lock already held.
*/
static struct page *__rmqueue(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
int migratetype)
{
struct page *page;
retry_reserve:
page = __rmqueue_smallest(zone, order, migratetype);
if (unlikely(!page) && migratetype != MIGRATE_RESERVE) {
page = __rmqueue_fallback(zone, order, migratetype);
/*
* Use MIGRATE_RESERVE rather than fail an allocation. goto
* is used because __rmqueue_smallest is an inline function
* and we want just one call site
*/
if (!page) {
migratetype = MIGRATE_RESERVE;
goto retry_reserve;
}
}
trace_mm_page_alloc_zone_locked(page, order, migratetype);
return page;
}
/*
* Obtain a specified number of elements from the buddy allocator, all under
* a single hold of the lock, for efficiency. Add them to the supplied list.
* Returns the number of new pages which were placed at *list.
*/
static int rmqueue_bulk(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
unsigned long count, struct list_head *list,
int migratetype, bool cold)
{
int i;
spin_lock(&zone->lock);
for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
struct page *page = __rmqueue(zone, order, migratetype);
if (unlikely(page == NULL))
break;
/*
* Split buddy pages returned by expand() are received here
* in physical page order. The page is added to the callers and
* list and the list head then moves forward. From the callers
* perspective, the linked list is ordered by page number in
* some conditions. This is useful for IO devices that can
* merge IO requests if the physical pages are ordered
* properly.
*/
if (likely(!cold))
list_add(&page->lru, list);
else
list_add_tail(&page->lru, list);
list = &page->lru;
if (is_migrate_cma(get_freepage_migratetype(page)))
__mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_CMA_PAGES,
-(1 << order));
}
__mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_PAGES, -(i << order));
spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
return i;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
/*
* Called from the vmstat counter updater to drain pagesets of this
* currently executing processor on remote nodes after they have
* expired.
*
* Note that this function must be called with the thread pinned to
* a single processor.
*/
void drain_zone_pages(struct zone *zone, struct per_cpu_pages *pcp)
{
unsigned long flags;
int to_drain, batch;
local_irq_save(flags);
batch = ACCESS_ONCE(pcp->batch);
to_drain = min(pcp->count, batch);
if (to_drain > 0) {
free_pcppages_bulk(zone, to_drain, pcp);
pcp->count -= to_drain;
}
local_irq_restore(flags);
}
#endif
/*
* Drain pcplists of the indicated processor and zone.
*
* The processor must either be the current processor and the
* thread pinned to the current processor or a processor that
* is not online.
*/
static void drain_pages_zone(unsigned int cpu, struct zone *zone)
{
unsigned long flags;
struct per_cpu_pageset *pset;
struct per_cpu_pages *pcp;
local_irq_save(flags);
pset = per_cpu_ptr(zone->pageset, cpu);
pcp = &pset->pcp;
if (pcp->count) {
free_pcppages_bulk(zone, pcp->count, pcp);
pcp->count = 0;
}
local_irq_restore(flags);
}
/*
* Drain pcplists of all zones on the indicated processor.
*
* The processor must either be the current processor and the
* thread pinned to the current processor or a processor that
* is not online.
*/
static void drain_pages(unsigned int cpu)
{
struct zone *zone;
for_each_populated_zone(zone) {
drain_pages_zone(cpu, zone);
}
}
/*
* Spill all of this CPU's per-cpu pages back into the buddy allocator.
*
* The CPU has to be pinned. When zone parameter is non-NULL, spill just
* the single zone's pages.
*/
void drain_local_pages(struct zone *zone)
{
int cpu = smp_processor_id();
if (zone)
drain_pages_zone(cpu, zone);
else
drain_pages(cpu);
}
/*
* Spill all the per-cpu pages from all CPUs back into the buddy allocator.
*
* When zone parameter is non-NULL, spill just the single zone's pages.
*
* Note that this code is protected against sending an IPI to an offline
* CPU but does not guarantee sending an IPI to newly hotplugged CPUs:
* on_each_cpu_mask() blocks hotplug and won't talk to offlined CPUs but
* nothing keeps CPUs from showing up after we populated the cpumask and
* before the call to on_each_cpu_mask().
*/
void drain_all_pages(struct zone *zone)
{
int cpu;
/*
* Allocate in the BSS so we wont require allocation in
* direct reclaim path for CONFIG_CPUMASK_OFFSTACK=y
*/
static cpumask_t cpus_with_pcps;
/*
* We don't care about racing with CPU hotplug event
* as offline notification will cause the notified
* cpu to drain that CPU pcps and on_each_cpu_mask
* disables preemption as part of its processing
*/
for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
struct per_cpu_pageset *pcp;
struct zone *z;
bool has_pcps = false;
if (zone) {
pcp = per_cpu_ptr(zone->pageset, cpu);
if (pcp->pcp.count)
has_pcps = true;
} else {
for_each_populated_zone(z) {
pcp = per_cpu_ptr(z->pageset, cpu);
if (pcp->pcp.count) {
has_pcps = true;
break;
}
}
}
if (has_pcps)
cpumask_set_cpu(cpu, &cpus_with_pcps);
else
cpumask_clear_cpu(cpu, &cpus_with_pcps);
}
on_each_cpu_mask(&cpus_with_pcps, (smp_call_func_t) drain_local_pages,
zone, 1);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_HIBERNATION
void mark_free_pages(struct zone *zone)
{
unsigned long pfn, max_zone_pfn;
unsigned long flags;
unsigned int order, t;
struct list_head *curr;
if (zone_is_empty(zone))
return;
spin_lock_irqsave(&zone->lock, flags);
max_zone_pfn = zone_end_pfn(zone);
for (pfn = zone->zone_start_pfn; pfn < max_zone_pfn; pfn++)
if (pfn_valid(pfn)) {
struct page *page = pfn_to_page(pfn);
if (!swsusp_page_is_forbidden(page))
swsusp_unset_page_free(page);
}
for_each_migratetype_order(order, t) {
list_for_each(curr, &zone->free_area[order].free_list[t]) {
unsigned long i;
pfn = page_to_pfn(list_entry(curr, struct page, lru));
for (i = 0; i < (1UL << order); i++)
swsusp_set_page_free(pfn_to_page(pfn + i));
}
}
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&zone->lock, flags);
}
#endif /* CONFIG_PM */
/*
* Free a 0-order page
* cold == true ? free a cold page : free a hot page
*/
void free_hot_cold_page(struct page *page, bool cold)
{
struct zone *zone = page_zone(page);
struct per_cpu_pages *pcp;
unsigned long flags;
unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
int migratetype;
if (!free_pages_prepare(page, 0))
return;
migratetype = get_pfnblock_migratetype(page, pfn);
set_freepage_migratetype(page, migratetype);
local_irq_save(flags);
__count_vm_event(PGFREE);
/*
* We only track unmovable, reclaimable and movable on pcp lists.
* Free ISOLATE pages back to the allocator because they are being
* offlined but treat RESERVE as movable pages so we can get those
* areas back if necessary. Otherwise, we may have to free
* excessively into the page allocator
*/
if (migratetype >= MIGRATE_PCPTYPES) {
if (unlikely(is_migrate_isolate(migratetype))) {
free_one_page(zone, page, pfn, 0, migratetype);
goto out;
}
migratetype = MIGRATE_MOVABLE;
}
pcp = &this_cpu_ptr(zone->pageset)->pcp;
if (!cold)
list_add(&page->lru, &pcp->lists[migratetype]);
else
list_add_tail(&page->lru, &pcp->lists[migratetype]);
pcp->count++;
if (pcp->count >= pcp->high) {
unsigned long batch = ACCESS_ONCE(pcp->batch);
free_pcppages_bulk(zone, batch, pcp);
pcp->count -= batch;
}
out:
local_irq_restore(flags);
}
/*
* Free a list of 0-order pages
*/
void free_hot_cold_page_list(struct list_head *list, bool cold)
{
struct page *page, *next;
list_for_each_entry_safe(page, next, list, lru) {
trace_mm_page_free_batched(page, cold);
free_hot_cold_page(page, cold);
}
}
/*
* split_page takes a non-compound higher-order page, and splits it into
* n (1<<order) sub-pages: page[0..n]
* Each sub-page must be freed individually.
*
* Note: this is probably too low level an operation for use in drivers.
* Please consult with lkml before using this in your driver.
*/
void split_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
int i;
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageCompound(page), page);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!page_count(page), page);
#ifdef CONFIG_KMEMCHECK
/*
* Split shadow pages too, because free(page[0]) would
* otherwise free the whole shadow.
*/
if (kmemcheck_page_is_tracked(page))
split_page(virt_to_page(page[0].shadow), order);
#endif
set_page_owner(page, 0, 0);
for (i = 1; i < (1 << order); i++) {
set_page_refcounted(page + i);
set_page_owner(page + i, 0, 0);
}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(split_page);
int __isolate_free_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
{
unsigned long watermark;
struct zone *zone;
int mt;
BUG_ON(!PageBuddy(page));
zone = page_zone(page);
mt = get_pageblock_migratetype(page);
if (!is_migrate_isolate(mt)) {
/* Obey watermarks as if the page was being allocated */
watermark = low_wmark_pages(zone) + (1 << order);
if (!zone_watermark_ok(zone, 0, watermark, 0, 0))
return 0;
__mod_zone_freepage_state(zone, -(1UL << order), mt);
}
/* Remove page from free list */
list_del(&page->lru);
zone->free_area[order].nr_free--;
rmv_page_order(page);
/* Set the pageblock if the isolated page is at least a pageblock */
if (order >= pageblock_order - 1) {
struct page *endpage = page + (1 << order) - 1;
for (; page < endpage; page += pageblock_nr_pages) {
int mt = get_pageblock_migratetype(page);
if (!is_migrate_isolate(mt) && !is_migrate_cma(mt))
set_pageblock_migratetype(page,
MIGRATE_MOVABLE);
}
}
set_page_owner(page, order, 0);
return 1UL << order;
}
/*
* Similar to split_page except the page is already free. As this is only
* being used for migration, the migratetype of the block also changes.
* As this is called with interrupts disabled, the caller is responsible
* for calling arch_alloc_page() and kernel_map_page() after interrupts
* are enabled.
*
* Note: this is probably too low level an operation for use in drivers.
* Please consult with lkml before using this in your driver.
*/
int split_free_page(struct page *page)
{
unsigned int order;
int nr_pages;
order = page_order(page);
nr_pages = __isolate_free_page(page, order);
if (!nr_pages)
return 0;
/* Split into individual pages */
set_page_refcounted(page);
split_page(page, order);
return nr_pages;
}
/*
* Allocate a page from the given zone. Use pcplists for order-0 allocations.
*/
static inline
struct page *buffered_rmqueue(struct zone *preferred_zone,
struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
gfp_t gfp_flags, int migratetype)
{
unsigned long flags;
struct page *page;
bool cold = ((gfp_flags & __GFP_COLD) != 0);
if (likely(order == 0)) {
struct per_cpu_pages *pcp;
struct list_head *list;
local_irq_save(flags);
pcp = &this_cpu_ptr(zone->pageset)->pcp;
list = &pcp->lists[migratetype];
if (list_empty(list)) {
pcp->count += rmqueue_bulk(zone, 0,
pcp->batch, list,
migratetype, cold);
if (unlikely(list_empty(list)))
goto failed;
}
if (cold)
page = list_entry(list->prev, struct page, lru);
else
page = list_entry(list->next, struct page, lru);
list_del(&page->lru);
pcp->count--;
} else {
if (unlikely(gfp_flags & __GFP_NOFAIL)) {
/*
* __GFP_NOFAIL is not to be used in new code.
*
* All __GFP_NOFAIL callers should be fixed so that they
* properly detect and handle allocation failures.
*
* We most definitely don't want callers attempting to
* allocate greater than order-1 page units with
* __GFP_NOFAIL.
*/
WARN_ON_ONCE(order > 1);
}
spin_lock_irqsave(&zone->lock, flags);
page = __rmqueue(zone, order, migratetype);
spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
if (!page)
goto failed;
__mod_zone_freepage_state(zone, -(1 << order),
get_freepage_migratetype(page));
}
__mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_ALLOC_BATCH, -(1 << order));
if (atomic_long_read(&zone->vm_stat[NR_ALLOC_BATCH]) <= 0 &&
!test_bit(ZONE_FAIR_DEPLETED, &zone->flags))
set_bit(ZONE_FAIR_DEPLETED, &zone->flags);
__count_zone_vm_events(PGALLOC, zone, 1 << order);
zone_statistics(preferred_zone, zone, gfp_flags);
local_irq_restore(flags);
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(bad_range(zone, page), page);
return page;
failed:
local_irq_restore(flags);
return NULL;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_FAIL_PAGE_ALLOC
static struct {
struct fault_attr attr;
u32 ignore_gfp_highmem;
u32 ignore_gfp_wait;
u32 min_order;
} fail_page_alloc = {
.attr = FAULT_ATTR_INITIALIZER,
.ignore_gfp_wait = 1,
.ignore_gfp_highmem = 1,
.min_order = 1,
};
static int __init setup_fail_page_alloc(char *str)
{
return setup_fault_attr(&fail_page_alloc.attr, str);
}
__setup("fail_page_alloc=", setup_fail_page_alloc);
static bool should_fail_alloc_page(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order)
{
if (order < fail_page_alloc.min_order)
return false;
if (gfp_mask & __GFP_NOFAIL)
return false;
if (fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_highmem && (gfp_mask & __GFP_HIGHMEM))
return false;
if (fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_wait && (gfp_mask & __GFP_WAIT))
return false;
return should_fail(&fail_page_alloc.attr, 1 << order);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_DEBUG_FS
static int __init fail_page_alloc_debugfs(void)
{
umode_t mode = S_IFREG | S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR;
struct dentry *dir;
dir = fault_create_debugfs_attr("fail_page_alloc", NULL,
&fail_page_alloc.attr);
if (IS_ERR(dir))
return PTR_ERR(dir);
if (!debugfs_create_bool("ignore-gfp-wait", mode, dir,
&fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_wait))
goto fail;
if (!debugfs_create_bool("ignore-gfp-highmem", mode, dir,
&fail_page_alloc.ignore_gfp_highmem))
goto fail;
if (!debugfs_create_u32("min-order", mode, dir,
&fail_page_alloc.min_order))
goto fail;
return 0;
fail:
debugfs_remove_recursive(dir);
return -ENOMEM;
}
late_initcall(fail_page_alloc_debugfs);
#endif /* CONFIG_FAULT_INJECTION_DEBUG_FS */
#else /* CONFIG_FAIL_PAGE_ALLOC */
static inline bool should_fail_alloc_page(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order)
{
return false;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_FAIL_PAGE_ALLOC */
/*
* Return true if free pages are above 'mark'. This takes into account the order
* of the allocation.
*/
static bool __zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, unsigned int order,
unsigned long mark, int classzone_idx, int alloc_flags,
long free_pages)
{
/* free_pages may go negative - that's OK */
long min = mark;
int o;
long free_cma = 0;
free_pages -= (1 << order) - 1;
if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_HIGH)
min -= min / 2;
if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_HARDER)
min -= min / 4;
#ifdef CONFIG_CMA
/* If allocation can't use CMA areas don't use free CMA pages */
if (!(alloc_flags & ALLOC_CMA))
free_cma = zone_page_state(z, NR_FREE_CMA_PAGES);
#endif
if (free_pages - free_cma <= min + z->lowmem_reserve[classzone_idx])
return false;
for (o = 0; o < order; o++) {
/* At the next order, this order's pages become unavailable */
free_pages -= z->free_area[o].nr_free << o;
/* Require fewer higher order pages to be free */
min >>= 1;
if (free_pages <= min)
return false;
}
return true;
}
bool zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, unsigned int order, unsigned long mark,
int classzone_idx, int alloc_flags)
{
return __zone_watermark_ok(z, order, mark, classzone_idx, alloc_flags,
zone_page_state(z, NR_FREE_PAGES));
}
bool zone_watermark_ok_safe(struct zone *z, unsigned int order,
unsigned long mark, int classzone_idx, int alloc_flags)
{
long free_pages = zone_page_state(z, NR_FREE_PAGES);
if (z->percpu_drift_mark && free_pages < z->percpu_drift_mark)
free_pages = zone_page_state_snapshot(z, NR_FREE_PAGES);
return __zone_watermark_ok(z, order, mark, classzone_idx, alloc_flags,
free_pages);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
/*
* zlc_setup - Setup for "zonelist cache". Uses cached zone data to
* skip over zones that are not allowed by the cpuset, or that have
* been recently (in last second) found to be nearly full. See further
* comments in mmzone.h. Reduces cache footprint of zonelist scans
* that have to skip over a lot of full or unallowed zones.
*
* If the zonelist cache is present in the passed zonelist, then
* returns a pointer to the allowed node mask (either the current
* tasks mems_allowed, or node_states[N_MEMORY].)
*
* If the zonelist cache is not available for this zonelist, does
* nothing and returns NULL.
*
* If the fullzones BITMAP in the zonelist cache is stale (more than
* a second since last zap'd) then we zap it out (clear its bits.)
*
* We hold off even calling zlc_setup, until after we've checked the
* first zone in the zonelist, on the theory that most allocations will
* be satisfied from that first zone, so best to examine that zone as
* quickly as we can.
*/
static nodemask_t *zlc_setup(struct zonelist *zonelist, int alloc_flags)
{
struct zonelist_cache *zlc; /* cached zonelist speedup info */
nodemask_t *allowednodes; /* zonelist_cache approximation */
zlc = zonelist->zlcache_ptr;
if (!zlc)
return NULL;
if (time_after(jiffies, zlc->last_full_zap + HZ)) {
bitmap_zero(zlc->fullzones, MAX_ZONES_PER_ZONELIST);
zlc->last_full_zap = jiffies;
}
allowednodes = !in_interrupt() && (alloc_flags & ALLOC_CPUSET) ?
&cpuset_current_mems_allowed :
&node_states[N_MEMORY];
return allowednodes;
}
/*
* Given 'z' scanning a zonelist, run a couple of quick checks to see
* if it is worth looking at further for free memory:
* 1) Check that the zone isn't thought to be full (doesn't have its
* bit set in the zonelist_cache fullzones BITMAP).
* 2) Check that the zones node (obtained from the zonelist_cache
* z_to_n[] mapping) is allowed in the passed in allowednodes mask.
* Return true (non-zero) if zone is worth looking at further, or
* else return false (zero) if it is not.
*
* This check -ignores- the distinction between various watermarks,
* such as GFP_HIGH, GFP_ATOMIC, PF_MEMALLOC, ... If a zone is
* found to be full for any variation of these watermarks, it will
* be considered full for up to one second by all requests, unless
* we are so low on memory on all allowed nodes that we are forced
* into the second scan of the zonelist.
*
* In the second scan we ignore this zonelist cache and exactly
* apply the watermarks to all zones, even it is slower to do so.
* We are low on memory in the second scan, and should leave no stone
* unturned looking for a free page.
*/
static int zlc_zone_worth_trying(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct zoneref *z,
nodemask_t *allowednodes)
{
struct zonelist_cache *zlc; /* cached zonelist speedup info */
int i; /* index of *z in zonelist zones */
int n; /* node that zone *z is on */
zlc = zonelist->zlcache_ptr;
if (!zlc)
return 1;
i = z - zonelist->_zonerefs;
n = zlc->z_to_n[i];
/* This zone is worth trying if it is allowed but not full */
return node_isset(n, *allowednodes) && !test_bit(i, zlc->fullzones);
}
/*
* Given 'z' scanning a zonelist, set the corresponding bit in
* zlc->fullzones, so that subsequent attempts to allocate a page
* from that zone don't waste time re-examining it.
*/
static void zlc_mark_zone_full(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct zoneref *z)
{
struct zonelist_cache *zlc; /* cached zonelist speedup info */
int i; /* index of *z in zonelist zones */
zlc = zonelist->zlcache_ptr;
if (!zlc)
return;
i = z - zonelist->_zonerefs;
set_bit(i, zlc->fullzones);
}
/*
* clear all zones full, called after direct reclaim makes progress so that
* a zone that was recently full is not skipped over for up to a second
*/
static void zlc_clear_zones_full(struct zonelist *zonelist)
{
struct zonelist_cache *zlc; /* cached zonelist speedup info */
zlc = zonelist->zlcache_ptr;
if (!zlc)
return;
bitmap_zero(zlc->fullzones, MAX_ZONES_PER_ZONELIST);
}
static bool zone_local(struct zone *local_zone, struct zone *zone)
{
return local_zone->node == zone->node;
}
static bool zone_allows_reclaim(struct zone *local_zone, struct zone *zone)
{
return node_distance(zone_to_nid(local_zone), zone_to_nid(zone)) <
RECLAIM_DISTANCE;
}
#else /* CONFIG_NUMA */
static nodemask_t *zlc_setup(struct zonelist *zonelist, int alloc_flags)
{
return NULL;
}
static int zlc_zone_worth_trying(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct zoneref *z,
nodemask_t *allowednodes)
{
return 1;
}
static void zlc_mark_zone_full(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct zoneref *z)
{
}
static void zlc_clear_zones_full(struct zonelist *zonelist)
{
}
static bool zone_local(struct zone *local_zone, struct zone *zone)
{
return true;
}
static bool zone_allows_reclaim(struct zone *local_zone, struct zone *zone)
{
return true;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_NUMA */
static void reset_alloc_batches(struct zone *preferred_zone)
{
struct zone *zone = preferred_zone->zone_pgdat->node_zones;
do {
mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_ALLOC_BATCH,
high_wmark_pages(zone) - low_wmark_pages(zone) -
atomic_long_read(&zone->vm_stat[NR_ALLOC_BATCH]));
clear_bit(ZONE_FAIR_DEPLETED, &zone->flags);
} while (zone++ != preferred_zone);
}
/*
* get_page_from_freelist goes through the zonelist trying to allocate
* a page.
*/
static struct page *
get_page_from_freelist(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order, int alloc_flags,
const struct alloc_context *ac)
{
struct zonelist *zonelist = ac->zonelist;
struct zoneref *z;
struct page *page = NULL;
struct zone *zone;
nodemask_t *allowednodes = NULL;/* zonelist_cache approximation */
int zlc_active = 0; /* set if using zonelist_cache */
int did_zlc_setup = 0; /* just call zlc_setup() one time */
bool consider_zone_dirty = (alloc_flags & ALLOC_WMARK_LOW) &&
(gfp_mask & __GFP_WRITE);
int nr_fair_skipped = 0;
bool zonelist_rescan;
zonelist_scan:
zonelist_rescan = false;
/*
* Scan zonelist, looking for a zone with enough free.
* See also __cpuset_node_allowed() comment in kernel/cpuset.c.
*/
for_each_zone_zonelist_nodemask(zone, z, zonelist, ac->high_zoneidx,
ac->nodemask) {
unsigned long mark;
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_NUMA) && zlc_active &&
!zlc_zone_worth_trying(zonelist, z, allowednodes))
continue;
if (cpusets_enabled() &&
(alloc_flags & ALLOC_CPUSET) &&
!cpuset_zone_allowed(zone, gfp_mask))
continue;
/*
* Distribute pages in proportion to the individual
* zone size to ensure fair page aging. The zone a
* page was allocated in should have no effect on the
* time the page has in memory before being reclaimed.
*/
if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_FAIR) {
if (!zone_local(ac->preferred_zone, zone))
break;
if (test_bit(ZONE_FAIR_DEPLETED, &zone->flags)) {
nr_fair_skipped++;
continue;
}
}
/*
* When allocating a page cache page for writing, we
* want to get it from a zone that is within its dirty
* limit, such that no single zone holds more than its
* proportional share of globally allowed dirty pages.
* The dirty limits take into account the zone's
* lowmem reserves and high watermark so that kswapd
* should be able to balance it without having to
* write pages from its LRU list.
*
* This may look like it could increase pressure on
* lower zones by failing allocations in higher zones
* before they are full. But the pages that do spill
* over are limited as the lower zones are protected
* by this very same mechanism. It should not become
* a practical burden to them.
*
* XXX: For now, allow allocations to potentially
* exceed the per-zone dirty limit in the slowpath
* (ALLOC_WMARK_LOW unset) before going into reclaim,
* which is important when on a NUMA setup the allowed
* zones are together not big enough to reach the
* global limit. The proper fix for these situations
* will require awareness of zones in the
* dirty-throttling and the flusher threads.
*/
if (consider_zone_dirty && !zone_dirty_ok(zone))
continue;
mark = zone->watermark[alloc_flags & ALLOC_WMARK_MASK];
if (!zone_watermark_ok(zone, order, mark,
ac->classzone_idx, alloc_flags)) {
int ret;
/* Checked here to keep the fast path fast */
BUILD_BUG_ON(ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS < NR_WMARK);
if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS)
goto try_this_zone;
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_NUMA) &&
!did_zlc_setup && nr_online_nodes > 1) {
/*
* we do zlc_setup if there are multiple nodes
* and before considering the first zone allowed
* by the cpuset.
*/
allowednodes = zlc_setup(zonelist, alloc_flags);
zlc_active = 1;
did_zlc_setup = 1;
}
if (zone_reclaim_mode == 0 ||
!zone_allows_reclaim(ac->preferred_zone, zone))
goto this_zone_full;
/*
* As we may have just activated ZLC, check if the first
* eligible zone has failed zone_reclaim recently.
*/
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_NUMA) && zlc_active &&
!zlc_zone_worth_trying(zonelist, z, allowednodes))
continue;
ret = zone_reclaim(zone, gfp_mask, order);
switch (ret) {
case ZONE_RECLAIM_NOSCAN:
/* did not scan */
continue;
case ZONE_RECLAIM_FULL:
/* scanned but unreclaimable */
continue;
default:
/* did we reclaim enough */
if (zone_watermark_ok(zone, order, mark,
ac->classzone_idx, alloc_flags))
goto try_this_zone;
/*
* Failed to reclaim enough to meet watermark.
* Only mark the zone full if checking the min
* watermark or if we failed to reclaim just
* 1<<order pages or else the page allocator
* fastpath will prematurely mark zones full
* when the watermark is between the low and
* min watermarks.
*/
if (((alloc_flags & ALLOC_WMARK_MASK) == ALLOC_WMARK_MIN) ||
ret == ZONE_RECLAIM_SOME)
goto this_zone_full;
continue;
}
}
try_this_zone:
page = buffered_rmqueue(ac->preferred_zone, zone, order,
gfp_mask, ac->migratetype);
if (page) {
if (prep_new_page(page, order, gfp_mask, alloc_flags))
goto try_this_zone;
return page;
}
this_zone_full:
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_NUMA) && zlc_active)
zlc_mark_zone_full(zonelist, z);
}
/*
* The first pass makes sure allocations are spread fairly within the
* local node. However, the local node might have free pages left
* after the fairness batches are exhausted, and remote zones haven't
* even been considered yet. Try once more without fairness, and
* include remote zones now, before entering the slowpath and waking
* kswapd: prefer spilling to a remote zone over swapping locally.
*/
if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_FAIR) {
alloc_flags &= ~ALLOC_FAIR;
if (nr_fair_skipped) {
zonelist_rescan = true;
reset_alloc_batches(ac->preferred_zone);
}
if (nr_online_nodes > 1)
zonelist_rescan = true;
}
if (unlikely(IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_NUMA) && zlc_active)) {
/* Disable zlc cache for second zonelist scan */
zlc_active = 0;
zonelist_rescan = true;
}
if (zonelist_rescan)
goto zonelist_scan;
return NULL;
}
/*
* Large machines with many possible nodes should not always dump per-node
* meminfo in irq context.
*/
static inline bool should_suppress_show_mem(void)
{
bool ret = false;
#if NODES_SHIFT > 8
ret = in_interrupt();
#endif
return ret;
}
static DEFINE_RATELIMIT_STATE(nopage_rs,
DEFAULT_RATELIMIT_INTERVAL,
DEFAULT_RATELIMIT_BURST);
void warn_alloc_failed(gfp_t gfp_mask, int order, const char *fmt, ...)
{
unsigned int filter = SHOW_MEM_FILTER_NODES;
if ((gfp_mask & __GFP_NOWARN) || !__ratelimit(&nopage_rs) ||
debug_guardpage_minorder() > 0)
return;
/*
* This documents exceptions given to allocations in certain
* contexts that are allowed to allocate outside current's set
* of allowed nodes.
*/
if (!(gfp_mask & __GFP_NOMEMALLOC))
if (test_thread_flag(TIF_MEMDIE) ||
(current->flags & (PF_MEMALLOC | PF_EXITING)))
filter &= ~SHOW_MEM_FILTER_NODES;
if (in_interrupt() || !(gfp_mask & __GFP_WAIT))
filter &= ~SHOW_MEM_FILTER_NODES;
if (fmt) {
struct va_format vaf;
va_list args;
va_start(args, fmt);
vaf.fmt = fmt;
vaf.va = &args;
pr_warn("%pV", &vaf);
va_end(args);
}
pr_warn("%s: page allocation failure: order:%d, mode:0x%x\n",
current->comm, order, gfp_mask);
dump_stack();
if (!should_suppress_show_mem())
show_mem(filter);
}
static inline int
should_alloc_retry(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
unsigned long did_some_progress,
unsigned long pages_reclaimed)
{
/* Do not loop if specifically requested */
if (gfp_mask & __GFP_NORETRY)
return 0;
/* Always retry if specifically requested */
if (gfp_mask & __GFP_NOFAIL)
return 1;
/*
* Suspend converts GFP_KERNEL to __GFP_WAIT which can prevent reclaim
* making forward progress without invoking OOM. Suspend also disables
* storage devices so kswapd will not help. Bail if we are suspending.
*/
if (!did_some_progress && pm_suspended_storage())
return 0;
/*
* In this implementation, order <= PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER
* means __GFP_NOFAIL, but that may not be true in other
* implementations.
*/
if (order <= PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER)
return 1;
/*
* For order > PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER, if __GFP_REPEAT is
* specified, then we retry until we no longer reclaim any pages
* (above), or we've reclaimed an order of pages at least as
* large as the allocation's order. In both cases, if the
* allocation still fails, we stop retrying.
*/
if (gfp_mask & __GFP_REPEAT && pages_reclaimed < (1 << order))
return 1;
return 0;
}
static inline struct page *
__alloc_pages_may_oom(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
const struct alloc_context *ac, unsigned long *did_some_progress)
{
struct page *page;
*did_some_progress = 0;
/*
* Acquire the per-zone oom lock for each zone. If that
* fails, somebody else is making progress for us.
*/
if (!oom_zonelist_trylock(ac->zonelist, gfp_mask)) {
*did_some_progress = 1;
schedule_timeout_uninterruptible(1);
return NULL;
}
/*
* Go through the zonelist yet one more time, keep very high watermark
* here, this is only to catch a parallel oom killing, we must fail if
* we're still under heavy pressure.
*/
page = get_page_from_freelist(gfp_mask | __GFP_HARDWALL, order,
ALLOC_WMARK_HIGH|ALLOC_CPUSET, ac);
if (page)
goto out;
if (!(gfp_mask & __GFP_NOFAIL)) {
/* Coredumps can quickly deplete all memory reserves */
if (current->flags & PF_DUMPCORE)
goto out;
/* The OOM killer will not help higher order allocs */
if (order > PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER)
goto out;
/* The OOM killer does not needlessly kill tasks for lowmem */
if (ac->high_zoneidx < ZONE_NORMAL)
goto out;
/* The OOM killer does not compensate for light reclaim */
if (!(gfp_mask & __GFP_FS))
goto out;
/*
* GFP_THISNODE contains __GFP_NORETRY and we never hit this.
* Sanity check for bare calls of __GFP_THISNODE, not real OOM.
* The caller should handle page allocation failure by itself if
* it specifies __GFP_THISNODE.
* Note: Hugepage uses it but will hit PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER.
*/
if (gfp_mask & __GFP_THISNODE)
goto out;
}
/* Exhausted what can be done so it's blamo time */
if (out_of_memory(ac->zonelist, gfp_mask, order, ac->nodemask, false))
*did_some_progress = 1;
out:
oom_zonelist_unlock(ac->zonelist, gfp_mask);
return page;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
/* Try memory compaction for high-order allocations before reclaim */
static struct page *
__alloc_pages_direct_compact(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
int alloc_flags, const struct alloc_context *ac,
enum migrate_mode mode, int *contended_compaction,
bool *deferred_compaction)
{
unsigned long compact_result;
struct page *page;
if (!order)
return NULL;
current->flags |= PF_MEMALLOC;
compact_result = try_to_compact_pages(gfp_mask, order, alloc_flags, ac,
mode, contended_compaction);
current->flags &= ~PF_MEMALLOC;
switch (compact_result) {
case COMPACT_DEFERRED:
*deferred_compaction = true;
/* fall-through */
case COMPACT_SKIPPED:
return NULL;
default:
break;
}
/*
* At least in one zone compaction wasn't deferred or skipped, so let's
* count a compaction stall
*/
count_vm_event(COMPACTSTALL);
page = get_page_from_freelist(gfp_mask, order,
alloc_flags & ~ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS, ac);
if (page) {
struct zone *zone = page_zone(page);
zone->compact_blockskip_flush = false;
compaction_defer_reset(zone, order, true);
count_vm_event(COMPACTSUCCESS);
return page;
}
/*
* It's bad if compaction run occurs and fails. The most likely reason
* is that pages exist, but not enough to satisfy watermarks.
*/
count_vm_event(COMPACTFAIL);
cond_resched();
return NULL;
}
#else
static inline struct page *
__alloc_pages_direct_compact(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
int alloc_flags, const struct alloc_context *ac,
enum migrate_mode mode, int *contended_compaction,
bool *deferred_compaction)
{
return NULL;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_COMPACTION */
/* Perform direct synchronous page reclaim */
static int
__perform_reclaim(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
const struct alloc_context *ac)
{
struct reclaim_state reclaim_state;
int progress;
cond_resched();
/* We now go into synchronous reclaim */
cpuset_memory_pressure_bump();
current->flags |= PF_MEMALLOC;
lockdep_set_current_reclaim_state(gfp_mask);
reclaim_state.reclaimed_slab = 0;
current->reclaim_state = &reclaim_state;
progress = try_to_free_pages(ac->zonelist, order, gfp_mask,
ac->nodemask);
current->reclaim_state = NULL;
lockdep_clear_current_reclaim_state();
current->flags &= ~PF_MEMALLOC;
cond_resched();
return progress;
}
/* The really slow allocator path where we enter direct reclaim */
static inline struct page *
__alloc_pages_direct_reclaim(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
int alloc_flags, const struct alloc_context *ac,
unsigned long *did_some_progress)
{
struct page *page = NULL;
bool drained = false;
*did_some_progress = __perform_reclaim(gfp_mask, order, ac);
if (unlikely(!(*did_some_progress)))
return NULL;
/* After successful reclaim, reconsider all zones for allocation */
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_NUMA))
zlc_clear_zones_full(ac->zonelist);
retry:
page = get_page_from_freelist(gfp_mask, order,
alloc_flags & ~ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS, ac);
/*
* If an allocation failed after direct reclaim, it could be because
* pages are pinned on the per-cpu lists. Drain them and try again
*/
if (!page && !drained) {
drain_all_pages(NULL);
drained = true;
goto retry;
}
return page;
}
/*
* This is called in the allocator slow-path if the allocation request is of
* sufficient urgency to ignore watermarks and take other desperate measures
*/
static inline struct page *
__alloc_pages_high_priority(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
const struct alloc_context *ac)
{
struct page *page;
do {
page = get_page_from_freelist(gfp_mask, order,
ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS, ac);
if (!page && gfp_mask & __GFP_NOFAIL)
wait_iff_congested(ac->preferred_zone, BLK_RW_ASYNC,
HZ/50);
} while (!page && (gfp_mask & __GFP_NOFAIL));
return page;
}
static void wake_all_kswapds(unsigned int order, const struct alloc_context *ac)
{
struct zoneref *z;
struct zone *zone;
for_each_zone_zonelist_nodemask(zone, z, ac->zonelist,
ac->high_zoneidx, ac->nodemask)
wakeup_kswapd(zone, order, zone_idx(ac->preferred_zone));
}
static inline int
gfp_to_alloc_flags(gfp_t gfp_mask)
{
int alloc_flags = ALLOC_WMARK_MIN | ALLOC_CPUSET;
const bool atomic = !(gfp_mask & (__GFP_WAIT | __GFP_NO_KSWAPD));
/* __GFP_HIGH is assumed to be the same as ALLOC_HIGH to save a branch. */
BUILD_BUG_ON(__GFP_HIGH != (__force gfp_t) ALLOC_HIGH);
/*
* The caller may dip into page reserves a bit more if the caller
* cannot run direct reclaim, or if the caller has realtime scheduling
* policy or is asking for __GFP_HIGH memory. GFP_ATOMIC requests will
* set both ALLOC_HARDER (atomic == true) and ALLOC_HIGH (__GFP_HIGH).
*/
alloc_flags |= (__force int) (gfp_mask & __GFP_HIGH);
if (atomic) {
/*
* Not worth trying to allocate harder for __GFP_NOMEMALLOC even
* if it can't schedule.
*/
if (!(gfp_mask & __GFP_NOMEMALLOC))
alloc_flags |= ALLOC_HARDER;
/*
* Ignore cpuset mems for GFP_ATOMIC rather than fail, see the
* comment for __cpuset_node_allowed().
*/
alloc_flags &= ~ALLOC_CPUSET;
} else if (unlikely(rt_task(current)) && !in_interrupt())
alloc_flags |= ALLOC_HARDER;
if (likely(!(gfp_mask & __GFP_NOMEMALLOC))) {
if (gfp_mask & __GFP_MEMALLOC)
alloc_flags |= ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS;
else if (in_serving_softirq() && (current->flags & PF_MEMALLOC))
alloc_flags |= ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS;
else if (!in_interrupt() &&
((current->flags & PF_MEMALLOC) ||
unlikely(test_thread_flag(TIF_MEMDIE))))
alloc_flags |= ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_CMA
if (gfpflags_to_migratetype(gfp_mask) == MIGRATE_MOVABLE)
alloc_flags |= ALLOC_CMA;
#endif
return alloc_flags;
}
bool gfp_pfmemalloc_allowed(gfp_t gfp_mask)
{
return !!(gfp_to_alloc_flags(gfp_mask) & ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS);
}
static inline struct page *
__alloc_pages_slowpath(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
struct alloc_context *ac)
{
const gfp_t wait = gfp_mask & __GFP_WAIT;
struct page *page = NULL;
int alloc_flags;
unsigned long pages_reclaimed = 0;
unsigned long did_some_progress;
enum migrate_mode migration_mode = MIGRATE_ASYNC;
bool deferred_compaction = false;
int contended_compaction = COMPACT_CONTENDED_NONE;
/*
* In the slowpath, we sanity check order to avoid ever trying to
* reclaim >= MAX_ORDER areas which will never succeed. Callers may
* be using allocators in order of preference for an area that is
* too large.
*/
if (order >= MAX_ORDER) {
WARN_ON_ONCE(!(gfp_mask & __GFP_NOWARN));
return NULL;
}
/*
* GFP_THISNODE (meaning __GFP_THISNODE, __GFP_NORETRY and
* __GFP_NOWARN set) should not cause reclaim since the subsystem
* (f.e. slab) using GFP_THISNODE may choose to trigger reclaim
* using a larger set of nodes after it has established that the
* allowed per node queues are empty and that nodes are
* over allocated.
*/
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_NUMA) &&
(gfp_mask & GFP_THISNODE) == GFP_THISNODE)
goto nopage;
retry:
if (!(gfp_mask & __GFP_NO_KSWAPD))
wake_all_kswapds(order, ac);
/*
* OK, we're below the kswapd watermark and have kicked background
* reclaim. Now things get more complex, so set up alloc_flags according
* to how we want to proceed.
*/
alloc_flags = gfp_to_alloc_flags(gfp_mask);
/*
* Find the true preferred zone if the allocation is unconstrained by
* cpusets.
*/
if (!(alloc_flags & ALLOC_CPUSET) && !ac->nodemask) {
struct zoneref *preferred_zoneref;
preferred_zoneref = first_zones_zonelist(ac->zonelist,
ac->high_zoneidx, NULL, &ac->preferred_zone);
ac->classzone_idx = zonelist_zone_idx(preferred_zoneref);
}
/* This is the last chance, in general, before the goto nopage. */
page = get_page_from_freelist(gfp_mask, order,
alloc_flags & ~ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS, ac);
if (page)
goto got_pg;
/* Allocate without watermarks if the context allows */
if (alloc_flags & ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS) {
/*
* Ignore mempolicies if ALLOC_NO_WATERMARKS on the grounds
* the allocation is high priority and these type of
* allocations are system rather than user orientated
*/
ac->zonelist = node_zonelist(numa_node_id(), gfp_mask);
page = __alloc_pages_high_priority(gfp_mask, order, ac);
if (page) {
goto got_pg;
}
}
/* Atomic allocations - we can't balance anything */
if (!wait) {
/*
* All existing users of the deprecated __GFP_NOFAIL are
* blockable, so warn of any new users that actually allow this
* type of allocation to fail.
*/
WARN_ON_ONCE(gfp_mask & __GFP_NOFAIL);
goto nopage;
}
/* Avoid recursion of direct reclaim */
if (current->flags & PF_MEMALLOC)
goto nopage;
/* Avoid allocations with no watermarks from looping endlessly */
if (test_thread_flag(TIF_MEMDIE) && !(gfp_mask & __GFP_NOFAIL))
goto nopage;
/*
* Try direct compaction. The first pass is asynchronous. Subsequent
* attempts after direct reclaim are synchronous
*/
page = __alloc_pages_direct_compact(gfp_mask, order, alloc_flags, ac,
migration_mode,
&contended_compaction,
&deferred_compaction);
if (page)
goto got_pg;
/* Checks for THP-specific high-order allocations */
if ((gfp_mask & GFP_TRANSHUGE) == GFP_TRANSHUGE) {
/*
* If compaction is deferred for high-order allocations, it is
* because sync compaction recently failed. If this is the case
* and the caller requested a THP allocation, we do not want
* to heavily disrupt the system, so we fail the allocation
* instead of entering direct reclaim.
*/
if (deferred_compaction)
goto nopage;
/*
* In all zones where compaction was attempted (and not
* deferred or skipped), lock contention has been detected.
* For THP allocation we do not want to disrupt the others
* so we fallback to base pages instead.
*/
if (contended_compaction == COMPACT_CONTENDED_LOCK)
goto nopage;
/*
* If compaction was aborted due to need_resched(), we do not
* want to further increase allocation latency, unless it is
* khugepaged trying to collapse.
*/
if (contended_compaction == COMPACT_CONTENDED_SCHED
&& !(current->flags & PF_KTHREAD))
goto nopage;
}
/*
* It can become very expensive to allocate transparent hugepages at
* fault, so use asynchronous memory compaction for THP unless it is
* khugepaged trying to collapse.
*/
if ((gfp_mask & GFP_TRANSHUGE) != GFP_TRANSHUGE ||
(current->flags & PF_KTHREAD))
migration_mode = MIGRATE_SYNC_LIGHT;
/* Try direct reclaim and then allocating */
page = __alloc_pages_direct_reclaim(gfp_mask, order, alloc_flags, ac,
&did_some_progress);
if (page)
goto got_pg;
/* Check if we should retry the allocation */
pages_reclaimed += did_some_progress;
if (should_alloc_retry(gfp_mask, order, did_some_progress,
pages_reclaimed)) {
/*
* If we fail to make progress by freeing individual
* pages, but the allocation wants us to keep going,
* start OOM killing tasks.
*/
if (!did_some_progress) {
page = __alloc_pages_may_oom(gfp_mask, order, ac,
&did_some_progress);
if (page)
goto got_pg;
if (!did_some_progress)
goto nopage;
}
/* Wait for some write requests to complete then retry */
wait_iff_congested(ac->preferred_zone, BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/50);
goto retry;
} else {
/*
* High-order allocations do not necessarily loop after
* direct reclaim and reclaim/compaction depends on compaction
* being called after reclaim so call directly if necessary
*/
page = __alloc_pages_direct_compact(gfp_mask, order,
alloc_flags, ac, migration_mode,
&contended_compaction,
&deferred_compaction);
if (page)
goto got_pg;
}
nopage:
warn_alloc_failed(gfp_mask, order, NULL);
got_pg:
return page;
}
/*
* This is the 'heart' of the zoned buddy allocator.
*/
struct page *
__alloc_pages_nodemask(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
struct zonelist *zonelist, nodemask_t *nodemask)
{
struct zoneref *preferred_zoneref;
struct page *page = NULL;
unsigned int cpuset_mems_cookie;
int alloc_flags = ALLOC_WMARK_LOW|ALLOC_CPUSET|ALLOC_FAIR;
gfp_t alloc_mask; /* The gfp_t that was actually used for allocation */
struct alloc_context ac = {
.high_zoneidx = gfp_zone(gfp_mask),
.nodemask = nodemask,
.migratetype = gfpflags_to_migratetype(gfp_mask),
};
gfp_mask &= gfp_allowed_mask;
lockdep_trace_alloc(gfp_mask);
might_sleep_if(gfp_mask & __GFP_WAIT);
if (should_fail_alloc_page(gfp_mask, order))
return NULL;
/*
* Check the zones suitable for the gfp_mask contain at least one
* valid zone. It's possible to have an empty zonelist as a result
* of GFP_THISNODE and a memoryless node
*/
if (unlikely(!zonelist->_zonerefs->zone))
return NULL;
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_CMA) && ac.migratetype == MIGRATE_MOVABLE)
alloc_flags |= ALLOC_CMA;
retry_cpuset:
cpuset_mems_cookie = read_mems_allowed_begin();
/* We set it here, as __alloc_pages_slowpath might have changed it */
ac.zonelist = zonelist;
/* The preferred zone is used for statistics later */
preferred_zoneref = first_zones_zonelist(ac.zonelist, ac.high_zoneidx,
ac.nodemask ? : &cpuset_current_mems_allowed,
&ac.preferred_zone);
if (!ac.preferred_zone)
goto out;
ac.classzone_idx = zonelist_zone_idx(preferred_zoneref);
/* First allocation attempt */
alloc_mask = gfp_mask|__GFP_HARDWALL;
page = get_page_from_freelist(alloc_mask, order, alloc_flags, &ac);
if (unlikely(!page)) {
/*
* Runtime PM, block IO and its error handling path
* can deadlock because I/O on the device might not
* complete.
*/
alloc_mask = memalloc_noio_flags(gfp_mask);
page = __alloc_pages_slowpath(alloc_mask, order, &ac);
}
if (kmemcheck_enabled && page)
kmemcheck_pagealloc_alloc(page, order, gfp_mask);
trace_mm_page_alloc(page, order, alloc_mask, ac.migratetype);
out:
/*
* When updating a task's mems_allowed, it is possible to race with
* parallel threads in such a way that an allocation can fail while
* the mask is being updated. If a page allocation is about to fail,
* check if the cpuset changed during allocation and if so, retry.
*/
if (unlikely(!page && read_mems_allowed_retry(cpuset_mems_cookie)))
goto retry_cpuset;
return page;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__alloc_pages_nodemask);
/*
* Common helper functions.
*/
unsigned long __get_free_pages(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order)
{
struct page *page;
/*
* __get_free_pages() returns a 32-bit address, which cannot represent
* a highmem page
*/
VM_BUG_ON((gfp_mask & __GFP_HIGHMEM) != 0);
page = alloc_pages(gfp_mask, order);
if (!page)
return 0;
return (unsigned long) page_address(page);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__get_free_pages);
unsigned long get_zeroed_page(gfp_t gfp_mask)
{
return __get_free_pages(gfp_mask | __GFP_ZERO, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_zeroed_page);
void __free_pages