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* linux/include/linux/mtd/nand.h
* Copyright © 2000-2010 David Woodhouse <>
* Steven J. Hill <>
* Thomas Gleixner <>
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
* published by the Free Software Foundation.
* Info:
* Contains standard defines and IDs for NAND flash devices
* Changelog:
* See git changelog.
#ifndef __LINUX_MTD_NAND_H
#define __LINUX_MTD_NAND_H
#include <linux/wait.h>
#include <linux/spinlock.h>
#include <linux/mtd/mtd.h>
#include <linux/mtd/flashchip.h>
#include <linux/mtd/bbm.h>
struct mtd_info;
struct nand_flash_dev;
struct device_node;
/* Scan and identify a NAND device */
int nand_scan(struct mtd_info *mtd, int max_chips);
* Separate phases of nand_scan(), allowing board driver to intervene
* and override command or ECC setup according to flash type.
int nand_scan_ident(struct mtd_info *mtd, int max_chips,
struct nand_flash_dev *table);
int nand_scan_tail(struct mtd_info *mtd);
/* Unregister the MTD device and free resources held by the NAND device */
void nand_release(struct mtd_info *mtd);
/* Internal helper for board drivers which need to override command function */
void nand_wait_ready(struct mtd_info *mtd);
/* locks all blocks present in the device */
int nand_lock(struct mtd_info *mtd, loff_t ofs, uint64_t len);
/* unlocks specified locked blocks */
int nand_unlock(struct mtd_info *mtd, loff_t ofs, uint64_t len);
/* The maximum number of NAND chips in an array */
#define NAND_MAX_CHIPS 8
* Constants for hardware specific CLE/ALE/NCE function
* These are bits which can be or'ed to set/clear multiple
* bits in one go.
/* Select the chip by setting nCE to low */
#define NAND_NCE 0x01
/* Select the command latch by setting CLE to high */
#define NAND_CLE 0x02
/* Select the address latch by setting ALE to high */
#define NAND_ALE 0x04
#define NAND_CTRL_CHANGE 0x80
* Standard NAND flash commands
#define NAND_CMD_READ0 0
#define NAND_CMD_READ1 1
#define NAND_CMD_PAGEPROG 0x10
#define NAND_CMD_READOOB 0x50
#define NAND_CMD_ERASE1 0x60
#define NAND_CMD_STATUS 0x70
#define NAND_CMD_SEQIN 0x80
#define NAND_CMD_RNDIN 0x85
#define NAND_CMD_READID 0x90
#define NAND_CMD_ERASE2 0xd0
#define NAND_CMD_PARAM 0xec
#define NAND_CMD_RESET 0xff
#define NAND_CMD_LOCK 0x2a
#define NAND_CMD_UNLOCK1 0x23
#define NAND_CMD_UNLOCK2 0x24
/* Extended commands for large page devices */
#define NAND_CMD_NONE -1
/* Status bits */
#define NAND_STATUS_FAIL 0x01
#define NAND_STATUS_FAIL_N1 0x02
#define NAND_STATUS_READY 0x40
#define NAND_STATUS_WP 0x80
* Constants for ECC_MODES
typedef enum {
} nand_ecc_modes_t;
enum nand_ecc_algo {
* Constants for Hardware ECC
/* Reset Hardware ECC for read */
#define NAND_ECC_READ 0
/* Reset Hardware ECC for write */
#define NAND_ECC_WRITE 1
/* Enable Hardware ECC before syndrome is read back from flash */
* Enable generic NAND 'page erased' check. This check is only done when
* ecc.correct() returns -EBADMSG.
* Set this flag if your implementation does not fix bitflips in erased
* pages and you want to rely on the default implementation.
* If your controller already sends the required NAND commands when
* reading or writing a page, then the framework is not supposed to
* send READ0 and SEQIN/PAGEPROG respectively.
/* Bit mask for flags passed to do_nand_read_ecc */
#define NAND_GET_DEVICE 0x80
* Option constants for bizarre disfunctionality and real
* features.
/* Buswidth is 16 bit */
#define NAND_BUSWIDTH_16 0x00000002
/* Chip has cache program function */
#define NAND_CACHEPRG 0x00000008
* Chip requires ready check on read (for auto-incremented sequential read).
* True only for small page devices; large page devices do not support
* autoincrement.
#define NAND_NEED_READRDY 0x00000100
/* Chip does not allow subpage writes */
#define NAND_NO_SUBPAGE_WRITE 0x00000200
/* Device is one of 'new' xD cards that expose fake nand command set */
#define NAND_BROKEN_XD 0x00000400
/* Device behaves just like nand, but is readonly */
#define NAND_ROM 0x00000800
/* Device supports subpage reads */
#define NAND_SUBPAGE_READ 0x00001000
* Some MLC NANDs need data scrambling to limit bitflips caused by repeated
* patterns.
#define NAND_NEED_SCRAMBLING 0x00002000
/* Options valid for Samsung large page devices */
/* Macros to identify the above */
#define NAND_HAS_CACHEPROG(chip) ((chip->options & NAND_CACHEPRG))
#define NAND_HAS_SUBPAGE_READ(chip) ((chip->options & NAND_SUBPAGE_READ))
#define NAND_HAS_SUBPAGE_WRITE(chip) !((chip)->options & NAND_NO_SUBPAGE_WRITE)
/* Non chip related options */
/* This option skips the bbt scan during initialization. */
#define NAND_SKIP_BBTSCAN 0x00010000
* This option is defined if the board driver allocates its own buffers
* (e.g. because it needs them DMA-coherent).
#define NAND_OWN_BUFFERS 0x00020000
/* Chip may not exist, so silence any errors in scan */
#define NAND_SCAN_SILENT_NODEV 0x00040000
* Autodetect nand buswidth with readid/onfi.
* This suppose the driver will configure the hardware in 8 bits mode
* when calling nand_scan_ident, and update its configuration
* before calling nand_scan_tail.
#define NAND_BUSWIDTH_AUTO 0x00080000
* This option could be defined by controller drivers to protect against
* kmap'ed, vmalloc'ed highmem buffers being passed from upper layers
#define NAND_USE_BOUNCE_BUFFER 0x00100000
* In case your controller is implementing ->cmd_ctrl() and is relying on the
* default ->cmdfunc() implementation, you may want to let the core handle the
* tCCS delay which is required when a column change (RNDIN or RNDOUT) is
* requested.
* If your controller already takes care of this delay, you don't need to set
* this flag.
#define NAND_WAIT_TCCS 0x00200000
/* Options set by nand scan */
/* Nand scan has allocated controller struct */
#define NAND_CONTROLLER_ALLOC 0x80000000
/* Cell info constants */
#define NAND_CI_CHIPNR_MSK 0x03
/* Keep gcc happy */
struct nand_chip;
/* ONFI features */
#define ONFI_FEATURE_16_BIT_BUS (1 << 0)
/* ONFI timing mode, used in both asynchronous and synchronous mode */
#define ONFI_TIMING_MODE_0 (1 << 0)
#define ONFI_TIMING_MODE_1 (1 << 1)
#define ONFI_TIMING_MODE_2 (1 << 2)
#define ONFI_TIMING_MODE_3 (1 << 3)
#define ONFI_TIMING_MODE_4 (1 << 4)
#define ONFI_TIMING_MODE_5 (1 << 5)
/* ONFI feature address */
/* Vendor-specific feature address (Micron) */
/* ONFI subfeature parameters length */
/* ONFI optional commands SET/GET FEATURES supported? */
struct nand_onfi_params {
/* rev info and features block */
/* 'O' 'N' 'F' 'I' */
u8 sig[4];
__le16 revision;
__le16 features;
__le16 opt_cmd;
u8 reserved0[2];
__le16 ext_param_page_length; /* since ONFI 2.1 */
u8 num_of_param_pages; /* since ONFI 2.1 */
u8 reserved1[17];
/* manufacturer information block */
char manufacturer[12];
char model[20];
u8 jedec_id;
__le16 date_code;
u8 reserved2[13];
/* memory organization block */
__le32 byte_per_page;
__le16 spare_bytes_per_page;
__le32 data_bytes_per_ppage;
__le16 spare_bytes_per_ppage;
__le32 pages_per_block;
__le32 blocks_per_lun;
u8 lun_count;
u8 addr_cycles;
u8 bits_per_cell;
__le16 bb_per_lun;
__le16 block_endurance;
u8 guaranteed_good_blocks;
__le16 guaranteed_block_endurance;
u8 programs_per_page;
u8 ppage_attr;
u8 ecc_bits;
u8 interleaved_bits;
u8 interleaved_ops;
u8 reserved3[13];
/* electrical parameter block */
u8 io_pin_capacitance_max;
__le16 async_timing_mode;
__le16 program_cache_timing_mode;
__le16 t_prog;
__le16 t_bers;
__le16 t_r;
__le16 t_ccs;
__le16 src_sync_timing_mode;
u8 src_ssync_features;
__le16 clk_pin_capacitance_typ;
__le16 io_pin_capacitance_typ;
__le16 input_pin_capacitance_typ;
u8 input_pin_capacitance_max;
u8 driver_strength_support;
__le16 t_int_r;
__le16 t_adl;
u8 reserved4[8];
/* vendor */
__le16 vendor_revision;
u8 vendor[88];
__le16 crc;
} __packed;
#define ONFI_CRC_BASE 0x4F4E
/* Extended ECC information Block Definition (since ONFI 2.1) */
struct onfi_ext_ecc_info {
u8 ecc_bits;
u8 codeword_size;
__le16 bb_per_lun;
__le16 block_endurance;
u8 reserved[2];
} __packed;
#define ONFI_SECTION_TYPE_0 0 /* Unused section. */
#define ONFI_SECTION_TYPE_1 1 /* for additional sections. */
#define ONFI_SECTION_TYPE_2 2 /* for ECC information. */
struct onfi_ext_section {
u8 type;
u8 length;
} __packed;
/* Extended Parameter Page Definition (since ONFI 2.1) */
struct onfi_ext_param_page {
__le16 crc;
u8 sig[4]; /* 'E' 'P' 'P' 'S' */
u8 reserved0[10];
struct onfi_ext_section sections[ONFI_EXT_SECTION_MAX];
* The actual size of the Extended Parameter Page is in
* @ext_param_page_length of nand_onfi_params{}.
* The following are the variable length sections.
* So we do not add any fields below. Please see the ONFI spec.
} __packed;
struct nand_onfi_vendor_micron {
u8 two_plane_read;
u8 read_cache;
u8 read_unique_id;
u8 dq_imped;
u8 dq_imped_num_settings;
u8 dq_imped_feat_addr;
u8 rb_pulldown_strength;
u8 rb_pulldown_strength_feat_addr;
u8 rb_pulldown_strength_num_settings;
u8 otp_mode;
u8 otp_page_start;
u8 otp_data_prot_addr;
u8 otp_num_pages;
u8 otp_feat_addr;
u8 read_retry_options;
u8 reserved[72];
u8 param_revision;
} __packed;
struct jedec_ecc_info {
u8 ecc_bits;
u8 codeword_size;
__le16 bb_per_lun;
__le16 block_endurance;
u8 reserved[2];
} __packed;
/* JEDEC features */
#define JEDEC_FEATURE_16_BIT_BUS (1 << 0)
struct nand_jedec_params {
/* rev info and features block */
/* 'J' 'E' 'S' 'D' */
u8 sig[4];
__le16 revision;
__le16 features;
u8 opt_cmd[3];
__le16 sec_cmd;
u8 num_of_param_pages;
u8 reserved0[18];
/* manufacturer information block */
char manufacturer[12];
char model[20];
u8 jedec_id[6];
u8 reserved1[10];
/* memory organization block */
__le32 byte_per_page;
__le16 spare_bytes_per_page;
u8 reserved2[6];
__le32 pages_per_block;
__le32 blocks_per_lun;
u8 lun_count;
u8 addr_cycles;
u8 bits_per_cell;
u8 programs_per_page;
u8 multi_plane_addr;
u8 multi_plane_op_attr;
u8 reserved3[38];
/* electrical parameter block */
__le16 async_sdr_speed_grade;
__le16 toggle_ddr_speed_grade;
__le16 sync_ddr_speed_grade;
u8 async_sdr_features;
u8 toggle_ddr_features;
u8 sync_ddr_features;
__le16 t_prog;
__le16 t_bers;
__le16 t_r;
__le16 t_r_multi_plane;
__le16 t_ccs;
__le16 io_pin_capacitance_typ;
__le16 input_pin_capacitance_typ;
__le16 clk_pin_capacitance_typ;
u8 driver_strength_support;
__le16 t_adl;
u8 reserved4[36];
/* ECC and endurance block */
u8 guaranteed_good_blocks;
__le16 guaranteed_block_endurance;
struct jedec_ecc_info ecc_info[4];
u8 reserved5[29];
/* reserved */
u8 reserved6[148];
/* vendor */
__le16 vendor_rev_num;
u8 reserved7[88];
/* CRC for Parameter Page */
__le16 crc;
} __packed;
* struct nand_hw_control - Control structure for hardware controller (e.g ECC generator) shared among independent devices
* @lock: protection lock
* @active: the mtd device which holds the controller currently
* @wq: wait queue to sleep on if a NAND operation is in
* progress used instead of the per chip wait queue
* when a hw controller is available.
struct nand_hw_control {
spinlock_t lock;
struct nand_chip *active;
wait_queue_head_t wq;
static inline void nand_hw_control_init(struct nand_hw_control *nfc)
nfc->active = NULL;
* struct nand_ecc_ctrl - Control structure for ECC
* @mode: ECC mode
* @algo: ECC algorithm
* @steps: number of ECC steps per page
* @size: data bytes per ECC step
* @bytes: ECC bytes per step
* @strength: max number of correctible bits per ECC step
* @total: total number of ECC bytes per page
* @prepad: padding information for syndrome based ECC generators
* @postpad: padding information for syndrome based ECC generators
* @options: ECC specific options (see NAND_ECC_XXX flags defined above)
* @priv: pointer to private ECC control data
* @hwctl: function to control hardware ECC generator. Must only
* be provided if an hardware ECC is available
* @calculate: function for ECC calculation or readback from ECC hardware
* @correct: function for ECC correction, matching to ECC generator (sw/hw).
* Should return a positive number representing the number of
* corrected bitflips, -EBADMSG if the number of bitflips exceed
* ECC strength, or any other error code if the error is not
* directly related to correction.
* If -EBADMSG is returned the input buffers should be left
* untouched.
* @read_page_raw: function to read a raw page without ECC. This function
* should hide the specific layout used by the ECC
* controller and always return contiguous in-band and
* out-of-band data even if they're not stored
* contiguously on the NAND chip (e.g.
* NAND_ECC_HW_SYNDROME interleaves in-band and
* out-of-band data).
* @write_page_raw: function to write a raw page without ECC. This function
* should hide the specific layout used by the ECC
* controller and consider the passed data as contiguous
* in-band and out-of-band data. ECC controller is
* responsible for doing the appropriate transformations
* to adapt to its specific layout (e.g.
* NAND_ECC_HW_SYNDROME interleaves in-band and
* out-of-band data).
* @read_page: function to read a page according to the ECC generator
* requirements; returns maximum number of bitflips corrected in
* any single ECC step, 0 if bitflips uncorrectable, -EIO hw error
* @read_subpage: function to read parts of the page covered by ECC;
* returns same as read_page()
* @write_subpage: function to write parts of the page covered by ECC.
* @write_page: function to write a page according to the ECC generator
* requirements.
* @write_oob_raw: function to write chip OOB data without ECC
* @read_oob_raw: function to read chip OOB data without ECC
* @read_oob: function to read chip OOB data
* @write_oob: function to write chip OOB data
struct nand_ecc_ctrl {
nand_ecc_modes_t mode;
enum nand_ecc_algo algo;
int steps;
int size;
int bytes;
int total;
int strength;
int prepad;
int postpad;
unsigned int options;
void *priv;
void (*hwctl)(struct mtd_info *mtd, int mode);
int (*calculate)(struct mtd_info *mtd, const uint8_t *dat,
uint8_t *ecc_code);
int (*correct)(struct mtd_info *mtd, uint8_t *dat, uint8_t *read_ecc,
uint8_t *calc_ecc);
int (*read_page_raw)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
uint8_t *buf, int oob_required, int page);
int (*write_page_raw)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
const uint8_t *buf, int oob_required, int page);
int (*read_page)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
uint8_t *buf, int oob_required, int page);
int (*read_subpage)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
uint32_t offs, uint32_t len, uint8_t *buf, int page);
int (*write_subpage)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
uint32_t offset, uint32_t data_len,
const uint8_t *data_buf, int oob_required, int page);
int (*write_page)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
const uint8_t *buf, int oob_required, int page);
int (*write_oob_raw)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
int page);
int (*read_oob_raw)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
int page);
int (*read_oob)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip, int page);
int (*write_oob)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
int page);
static inline int nand_standard_page_accessors(struct nand_ecc_ctrl *ecc)
return !(ecc->options & NAND_ECC_CUSTOM_PAGE_ACCESS);
* struct nand_buffers - buffer structure for read/write
* @ecccalc: buffer pointer for calculated ECC, size is oobsize.
* @ecccode: buffer pointer for ECC read from flash, size is oobsize.
* @databuf: buffer pointer for data, size is (page size + oobsize).
* Do not change the order of buffers. databuf and oobrbuf must be in
* consecutive order.
struct nand_buffers {
uint8_t *ecccalc;
uint8_t *ecccode;
uint8_t *databuf;
* struct nand_sdr_timings - SDR NAND chip timings
* This struct defines the timing requirements of a SDR NAND chip.
* These information can be found in every NAND datasheets and the timings
* meaning are described in the ONFI specifications:
* (chapter 4.15 Timing
* Parameters)
* All these timings are expressed in picoseconds.
* @tBERS_max: Block erase time
* @tCCS_min: Change column setup time
* @tPROG_max: Page program time
* @tR_max: Page read time
* @tALH_min: ALE hold time
* @tADL_min: ALE to data loading time
* @tALS_min: ALE setup time
* @tAR_min: ALE to RE# delay
* @tCEA_max: CE# access time
* @tCEH_min:
* @tCH_min: CE# hold time
* @tCHZ_max: CE# high to output hi-Z
* @tCLH_min: CLE hold time
* @tCLR_min: CLE to RE# delay
* @tCLS_min: CLE setup time
* @tCOH_min: CE# high to output hold
* @tCS_min: CE# setup time
* @tDH_min: Data hold time
* @tDS_min: Data setup time
* @tFEAT_max: Busy time for Set Features and Get Features
* @tIR_min: Output hi-Z to RE# low
* @tITC_max: Interface and Timing Mode Change time
* @tRC_min: RE# cycle time
* @tREA_max: RE# access time
* @tREH_min: RE# high hold time
* @tRHOH_min: RE# high to output hold
* @tRHW_min: RE# high to WE# low
* @tRHZ_max: RE# high to output hi-Z
* @tRLOH_min: RE# low to output hold
* @tRP_min: RE# pulse width
* @tRR_min: Ready to RE# low (data only)
* @tRST_max: Device reset time, measured from the falling edge of R/B# to the
* rising edge of R/B#.
* @tWB_max: WE# high to SR[6] low
* @tWC_min: WE# cycle time
* @tWH_min: WE# high hold time
* @tWHR_min: WE# high to RE# low
* @tWP_min: WE# pulse width
* @tWW_min: WP# transition to WE# low
struct nand_sdr_timings {
u32 tBERS_max;
u32 tCCS_min;
u32 tPROG_max;
u32 tR_max;
u32 tALH_min;
u32 tADL_min;
u32 tALS_min;
u32 tAR_min;
u32 tCEA_max;
u32 tCEH_min;
u32 tCH_min;
u32 tCHZ_max;
u32 tCLH_min;
u32 tCLR_min;
u32 tCLS_min;
u32 tCOH_min;
u32 tCS_min;
u32 tDH_min;
u32 tDS_min;
u32 tFEAT_max;
u32 tIR_min;
u32 tITC_max;
u32 tRC_min;
u32 tREA_max;
u32 tREH_min;
u32 tRHOH_min;
u32 tRHW_min;
u32 tRHZ_max;
u32 tRLOH_min;
u32 tRP_min;
u32 tRR_min;
u64 tRST_max;
u32 tWB_max;
u32 tWC_min;
u32 tWH_min;
u32 tWHR_min;
u32 tWP_min;
u32 tWW_min;
* enum nand_data_interface_type - NAND interface timing type
* @NAND_SDR_IFACE: Single Data Rate interface
enum nand_data_interface_type {
* struct nand_data_interface - NAND interface timing
* @type: type of the timing
* @timings: The timing, type according to @type
struct nand_data_interface {
enum nand_data_interface_type type;
union {
struct nand_sdr_timings sdr;
} timings;
* nand_get_sdr_timings - get SDR timing from data interface
* @conf: The data interface
static inline const struct nand_sdr_timings *
nand_get_sdr_timings(const struct nand_data_interface *conf)
if (conf->type != NAND_SDR_IFACE)
return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
return &conf->timings.sdr;
* struct nand_chip - NAND Private Flash Chip Data
* @mtd: MTD device registered to the MTD framework
* @IO_ADDR_R: [BOARDSPECIFIC] address to read the 8 I/O lines of the
* flash device
* @IO_ADDR_W: [BOARDSPECIFIC] address to write the 8 I/O lines of the
* flash device.
* @read_byte: [REPLACEABLE] read one byte from the chip
* @read_word: [REPLACEABLE] read one word from the chip
* @write_byte: [REPLACEABLE] write a single byte to the chip on the
* low 8 I/O lines
* @write_buf: [REPLACEABLE] write data from the buffer to the chip
* @read_buf: [REPLACEABLE] read data from the chip into the buffer
* @select_chip: [REPLACEABLE] select chip nr
* @block_bad: [REPLACEABLE] check if a block is bad, using OOB markers
* @block_markbad: [REPLACEABLE] mark a block bad
* @cmd_ctrl: [BOARDSPECIFIC] hardwarespecific function for controlling
* ALE/CLE/nCE. Also used to write command and address
* @dev_ready: [BOARDSPECIFIC] hardwarespecific function for accessing
* device ready/busy line. If set to NULL no access to
* ready/busy is available and the ready/busy information
* is read from the chip status register.
* @cmdfunc: [REPLACEABLE] hardwarespecific function for writing
* commands to the chip.
* @waitfunc: [REPLACEABLE] hardwarespecific function for wait on
* ready.
* @setup_read_retry: [FLASHSPECIFIC] flash (vendor) specific function for
* setting the read-retry mode. Mostly needed for MLC NAND.
* @ecc: [BOARDSPECIFIC] ECC control structure
* @buffers: buffer structure for read/write
* @hwcontrol: platform-specific hardware control structure
* @erase: [REPLACEABLE] erase function
* @scan_bbt: [REPLACEABLE] function to scan bad block table
* @chip_delay: [BOARDSPECIFIC] chip dependent delay for transferring
* data from array to read regs (tR).
* @state: [INTERN] the current state of the NAND device
* @oob_poi: "poison value buffer," used for laying out OOB data
* before writing
* @page_shift: [INTERN] number of address bits in a page (column
* address bits).
* @phys_erase_shift: [INTERN] number of address bits in a physical eraseblock
* @bbt_erase_shift: [INTERN] number of address bits in a bbt entry
* @chip_shift: [INTERN] number of address bits in one chip
* @options: [BOARDSPECIFIC] various chip options. They can partly
* be set to inform nand_scan about special functionality.
* See the defines for further explanation.
* @bbt_options: [INTERN] bad block specific options. All options used
* here must come from bbm.h. By default, these options
* will be copied to the appropriate nand_bbt_descr's.
* @badblockpos: [INTERN] position of the bad block marker in the oob
* area.
* @badblockbits: [INTERN] minimum number of set bits in a good block's
* bad block marker position; i.e., BBM == 11110111b is
* not bad when badblockbits == 7
* @bits_per_cell: [INTERN] number of bits per cell. i.e., 1 means SLC.
* @ecc_strength_ds: [INTERN] ECC correctability from the datasheet.
* Minimum amount of bit errors per @ecc_step_ds guaranteed
* to be correctable. If unknown, set to zero.
* @ecc_step_ds: [INTERN] ECC step required by the @ecc_strength_ds,
* also from the datasheet. It is the recommended ECC step
* size, if known; if unknown, set to zero.
* @onfi_timing_mode_default: [INTERN] default ONFI timing mode. This field is
* set to the actually used ONFI mode if the chip is
* ONFI compliant or deduced from the datasheet if
* the NAND chip is not ONFI compliant.
* @numchips: [INTERN] number of physical chips
* @chipsize: [INTERN] the size of one chip for multichip arrays
* @pagemask: [INTERN] page number mask = number of (pages / chip) - 1
* @pagebuf: [INTERN] holds the pagenumber which is currently in
* data_buf.
* @pagebuf_bitflips: [INTERN] holds the bitflip count for the page which is
* currently in data_buf.
* @subpagesize: [INTERN] holds the subpagesize
* @onfi_version: [INTERN] holds the chip ONFI version (BCD encoded),
* non 0 if ONFI supported.
* @jedec_version: [INTERN] holds the chip JEDEC version (BCD encoded),
* non 0 if JEDEC supported.
* @onfi_params: [INTERN] holds the ONFI page parameter when ONFI is
* supported, 0 otherwise.
* @jedec_params: [INTERN] holds the JEDEC parameter page when JEDEC is
* supported, 0 otherwise.
* @read_retries: [INTERN] the number of read retry modes supported
* @onfi_set_features: [REPLACEABLE] set the features for ONFI nand
* @onfi_get_features: [REPLACEABLE] get the features for ONFI nand
* @setup_data_interface: [OPTIONAL] setup the data interface and timing
* @bbt: [INTERN] bad block table pointer
* @bbt_td: [REPLACEABLE] bad block table descriptor for flash
* lookup.
* @bbt_md: [REPLACEABLE] bad block table mirror descriptor
* @badblock_pattern: [REPLACEABLE] bad block scan pattern used for initial
* bad block scan.
* @controller: [REPLACEABLE] a pointer to a hardware controller
* structure which is shared among multiple independent
* devices.
* @priv: [OPTIONAL] pointer to private chip data
* @errstat: [OPTIONAL] hardware specific function to perform
* additional error status checks (determine if errors are
* correctable).
* @write_page: [REPLACEABLE] High-level page write function
struct nand_chip {
struct mtd_info mtd;
void __iomem *IO_ADDR_R;
void __iomem *IO_ADDR_W;
uint8_t (*read_byte)(struct mtd_info *mtd);
u16 (*read_word)(struct mtd_info *mtd);
void (*write_byte)(struct mtd_info *mtd, uint8_t byte);
void (*write_buf)(struct mtd_info *mtd, const uint8_t *buf, int len);
void (*read_buf)(struct mtd_info *mtd, uint8_t *buf, int len);
void (*select_chip)(struct mtd_info *mtd, int chip);
int (*block_bad)(struct mtd_info *mtd, loff_t ofs);
int (*block_markbad)(struct mtd_info *mtd, loff_t ofs);
void (*cmd_ctrl)(struct mtd_info *mtd, int dat, unsigned int ctrl);
int (*dev_ready)(struct mtd_info *mtd);
void (*cmdfunc)(struct mtd_info *mtd, unsigned command, int column,
int page_addr);
int(*waitfunc)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *this);
int (*erase)(struct mtd_info *mtd, int page);
int (*scan_bbt)(struct mtd_info *mtd);
int (*errstat)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *this, int state,
int status, int page);
int (*write_page)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
uint32_t offset, int data_len, const uint8_t *buf,
int oob_required, int page, int cached, int raw);
int (*onfi_set_features)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
int feature_addr, uint8_t *subfeature_para);
int (*onfi_get_features)(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
int feature_addr, uint8_t *subfeature_para);
int (*setup_read_retry)(struct mtd_info *mtd, int retry_mode);
int (*setup_data_interface)(struct mtd_info *mtd,
const struct nand_data_interface *conf,
bool check_only);
int chip_delay;
unsigned int options;
unsigned int bbt_options;
int page_shift;
int phys_erase_shift;
int bbt_erase_shift;
int chip_shift;
int numchips;
uint64_t chipsize;
int pagemask;
int pagebuf;
unsigned int pagebuf_bitflips;
int subpagesize;
uint8_t bits_per_cell;
uint16_t ecc_strength_ds;
uint16_t ecc_step_ds;
int onfi_timing_mode_default;
int badblockpos;
int badblockbits;
int onfi_version;
int jedec_version;
union {
struct nand_onfi_params onfi_params;
struct nand_jedec_params jedec_params;
struct nand_data_interface *data_interface;
int read_retries;
flstate_t state;
uint8_t *oob_poi;
struct nand_hw_control *controller;
struct nand_ecc_ctrl ecc;
struct nand_buffers *buffers;
struct nand_hw_control hwcontrol;
uint8_t *bbt;
struct nand_bbt_descr *bbt_td;
struct nand_bbt_descr *bbt_md;
struct nand_bbt_descr *badblock_pattern;
void *priv;
extern const struct mtd_ooblayout_ops nand_ooblayout_sp_ops;
extern const struct mtd_ooblayout_ops nand_ooblayout_lp_ops;
static inline void nand_set_flash_node(struct nand_chip *chip,
struct device_node *np)
mtd_set_of_node(&chip->mtd, np);
static inline struct device_node *nand_get_flash_node(struct nand_chip *chip)
return mtd_get_of_node(&chip->mtd);
static inline struct nand_chip *mtd_to_nand(struct mtd_info *mtd)
return container_of(mtd, struct nand_chip, mtd);
static inline struct mtd_info *nand_to_mtd(struct nand_chip *chip)
return &chip->mtd;
static inline void *nand_get_controller_data(struct nand_chip *chip)
return chip->priv;
static inline void nand_set_controller_data(struct nand_chip *chip, void *priv)
chip->priv = priv;
* NAND Flash Manufacturer ID Codes
#define NAND_MFR_TOSHIBA 0x98
#define NAND_MFR_ESMT 0xc8
#define NAND_MFR_SAMSUNG 0xec
#define NAND_MFR_FUJITSU 0x04
#define NAND_MFR_NATIONAL 0x8f
#define NAND_MFR_RENESAS 0x07
#define NAND_MFR_STMICRO 0x20
#define NAND_MFR_HYNIX 0xad
#define NAND_MFR_MICRON 0x2c
#define NAND_MFR_AMD 0x01
#define NAND_MFR_MACRONIX 0xc2
#define NAND_MFR_EON 0x92
#define NAND_MFR_SANDISK 0x45
#define NAND_MFR_INTEL 0x89
#define NAND_MFR_ATO 0x9b
/* The maximum expected count of bytes in the NAND ID sequence */
#define NAND_MAX_ID_LEN 8
* A helper for defining older NAND chips where the second ID byte fully
* defined the chip, including the geometry (chip size, eraseblock size, page
* size). All these chips have 512 bytes NAND page size.
#define LEGACY_ID_NAND(nm, devid, chipsz, erasesz, opts) \
{ .name = (nm), {{ .dev_id = (devid) }}, .pagesize = 512, \
.chipsize = (chipsz), .erasesize = (erasesz), .options = (opts) }
* A helper for defining newer chips which report their page size and
* eraseblock size via the extended ID bytes.
* The real difference between LEGACY_ID_NAND and EXTENDED_ID_NAND is that with
* EXTENDED_ID_NAND, manufacturers overloaded the same device ID so that the
* device ID now only represented a particular total chip size (and voltage,
* buswidth), and the page size, eraseblock size, and OOB size could vary while
* using the same device ID.
#define EXTENDED_ID_NAND(nm, devid, chipsz, opts) \
{ .name = (nm), {{ .dev_id = (devid) }}, .chipsize = (chipsz), \
.options = (opts) }
#define NAND_ECC_INFO(_strength, _step) \
{ .strength_ds = (_strength), .step_ds = (_step) }
#define NAND_ECC_STRENGTH(type) ((type)->ecc.strength_ds)
#define NAND_ECC_STEP(type) ((type)->ecc.step_ds)
* struct nand_flash_dev - NAND Flash Device ID Structure
* @name: a human-readable name of the NAND chip
* @dev_id: the device ID (the second byte of the full chip ID array)
* @mfr_id: manufecturer ID part of the full chip ID array (refers the same
* memory address as @id[0])
* @dev_id: device ID part of the full chip ID array (refers the same memory
* address as @id[1])
* @id: full device ID array
* @pagesize: size of the NAND page in bytes; if 0, then the real page size (as
* well as the eraseblock size) is determined from the extended NAND
* chip ID array)
* @chipsize: total chip size in MiB
* @erasesize: eraseblock size in bytes (determined from the extended ID if 0)
* @options: stores various chip bit options
* @id_len: The valid length of the @id.
* @oobsize: OOB size
* @ecc: ECC correctability and step information from the datasheet.
* @ecc.strength_ds: The ECC correctability from the datasheet, same as the
* @ecc_strength_ds in nand_chip{}.
* @ecc.step_ds: The ECC step required by the @ecc.strength_ds, same as the
* @ecc_step_ds in nand_chip{}, also from the datasheet.
* For example, the "4bit ECC for each 512Byte" can be set with
* NAND_ECC_INFO(4, 512).
* @onfi_timing_mode_default: the default ONFI timing mode entered after a NAND
* reset. Should be deduced from timings described
* in the datasheet.
struct nand_flash_dev {
char *name;
union {
struct {
uint8_t mfr_id;
uint8_t dev_id;
uint8_t id[NAND_MAX_ID_LEN];
unsigned int pagesize;
unsigned int chipsize;
unsigned int erasesize;
unsigned int options;
uint16_t id_len;
uint16_t oobsize;
struct {
uint16_t strength_ds;
uint16_t step_ds;
} ecc;
int onfi_timing_mode_default;
* struct nand_manufacturers - NAND Flash Manufacturer ID Structure
* @name: Manufacturer name
* @id: manufacturer ID code of device.
struct nand_manufacturers {
int id;
char *name;
extern struct nand_flash_dev nand_flash_ids[];
extern struct nand_manufacturers nand_manuf_ids[];
int nand_default_bbt(struct mtd_info *mtd);
int nand_markbad_bbt(struct mtd_info *mtd, loff_t offs);
int nand_isreserved_bbt(struct mtd_info *mtd, loff_t offs);
int nand_isbad_bbt(struct mtd_info *mtd, loff_t offs, int allowbbt);
int nand_erase_nand(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct erase_info *instr,
int allowbbt);
int nand_do_read(struct mtd_info *mtd, loff_t from, size_t len,
size_t *retlen, uint8_t *buf);
* struct platform_nand_chip - chip level device structure
* @nr_chips: max. number of chips to scan for
* @chip_offset: chip number offset
* @nr_partitions: number of partitions pointed to by partitions (or zero)
* @partitions: mtd partition list
* @chip_delay: R/B delay value in us
* @options: Option flags, e.g. 16bit buswidth
* @bbt_options: BBT option flags, e.g. NAND_BBT_USE_FLASH
* @part_probe_types: NULL-terminated array of probe types
struct platform_nand_chip {
int nr_chips;
int chip_offset;
int nr_partitions;
struct mtd_partition *partitions;
int chip_delay;
unsigned int options;
unsigned int bbt_options;
const char **part_probe_types;
/* Keep gcc happy */
struct platform_device;
* struct platform_nand_ctrl - controller level device structure
* @probe: platform specific function to probe/setup hardware
* @remove: platform specific function to remove/teardown hardware
* @hwcontrol: platform specific hardware control structure
* @dev_ready: platform specific function to read ready/busy pin
* @select_chip: platform specific chip select function
* @cmd_ctrl: platform specific function for controlling
* ALE/CLE/nCE. Also used to write command and address
* @write_buf: platform specific function for write buffer
* @read_buf: platform specific function for read buffer
* @read_byte: platform specific function to read one byte from chip
* @priv: private data to transport driver specific settings
* All fields are optional and depend on the hardware driver requirements
struct platform_nand_ctrl {
int (*probe)(struct platform_device *pdev);
void (*remove)(struct platform_device *pdev);
void (*hwcontrol)(struct mtd_info *mtd, int cmd);
int (*dev_ready)(struct mtd_info *mtd);
void (*select_chip)(struct mtd_info *mtd, int chip);
void (*cmd_ctrl)(struct mtd_info *mtd, int dat, unsigned int ctrl);
void (*write_buf)(struct mtd_info *mtd, const uint8_t *buf, int len);
void (*read_buf)(struct mtd_info *mtd, uint8_t *buf, int len);
unsigned char (*read_byte)(struct mtd_info *mtd);
void *priv;
* struct platform_nand_data - container structure for platform-specific data
* @chip: chip level chip structure
* @ctrl: controller level device structure
struct platform_nand_data {
struct platform_nand_chip chip;
struct platform_nand_ctrl ctrl;
/* return the supported features. */
static inline int onfi_feature(struct nand_chip *chip)
return chip->onfi_version ? le16_to_cpu(chip->onfi_params.features) : 0;
/* return the supported asynchronous timing mode. */
static inline int onfi_get_async_timing_mode(struct nand_chip *chip)
if (!chip->onfi_version)
return le16_to_cpu(chip->onfi_params.async_timing_mode);
/* return the supported synchronous timing mode. */
static inline int onfi_get_sync_timing_mode(struct nand_chip *chip)
if (!chip->onfi_version)
return le16_to_cpu(chip->onfi_params.src_sync_timing_mode);
int onfi_init_data_interface(struct nand_chip *chip,
struct nand_data_interface *iface,
enum nand_data_interface_type type,
int timing_mode);
* Check if it is a SLC nand.
* The !nand_is_slc() can be used to check the MLC/TLC nand chips.
* We do not distinguish the MLC and TLC now.
static inline bool nand_is_slc(struct nand_chip *chip)
return chip->bits_per_cell == 1;
* Check if the opcode's address should be sent only on the lower 8 bits
* @command: opcode to check
static inline int nand_opcode_8bits(unsigned int command)
switch (command) {
return 1;
return 0;
/* return the supported JEDEC features. */
static inline int jedec_feature(struct nand_chip *chip)
return chip->jedec_version ? le16_to_cpu(chip->jedec_params.features)
: 0;
/* get timing characteristics from ONFI timing mode. */
const struct nand_sdr_timings *onfi_async_timing_mode_to_sdr_timings(int mode);
/* get data interface from ONFI timing mode 0, used after reset. */
const struct nand_data_interface *nand_get_default_data_interface(void);
int nand_check_erased_ecc_chunk(void *data, int datalen,
void *ecc, int ecclen,
void *extraoob, int extraooblen,
int threshold);
/* Default write_oob implementation */
int nand_write_oob_std(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip, int page);
/* Default write_oob syndrome implementation */
int nand_write_oob_syndrome(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
int page);
/* Default read_oob implementation */
int nand_read_oob_std(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip, int page);
/* Default read_oob syndrome implementation */
int nand_read_oob_syndrome(struct mtd_info *mtd, struct nand_chip *chip,
int page);
/* Reset and initialize a NAND device */
int nand_reset(struct nand_chip *chip, int chipnr);
/* Free resources held by the NAND device */
void nand_cleanup(struct nand_chip *chip);
#endif /* __LINUX_MTD_NAND_H */