workqueue: fix deadlock in worker_maybe_bind_and_lock()

If a rescuer and stop_machine() bringing down a CPU race with each
other, they may deadlock on non-preemptive kernel.  The CPU won't
accept a new task, so the rescuer can't migrate to the target CPU,
while stop_machine() can't proceed because the rescuer is holding one
of the CPU retrying migration.  GCWQ_DISASSOCIATED is never cleared
and worker_maybe_bind_and_lock() retries indefinitely.

This problem can be reproduced semi reliably while the system is
entering suspend.

A lot of kudos to Thilo-Alexander for reporting this tricky issue and
painstaking testing.

stable: This affects all kernels with cmwq, so all kernels since and
        including v2.6.36 need this fix.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <>
Reported-by: Thilo-Alexander Ginkel <>
Tested-by: Thilo-Alexander Ginkel <>
diff --git a/kernel/workqueue.c b/kernel/workqueue.c
index 04ef830..e3378e8 100644
--- a/kernel/workqueue.c
+++ b/kernel/workqueue.c
@@ -1291,8 +1291,14 @@
 			return true;
-		/* CPU has come up inbetween, retry migration */
+		/*
+		 * We've raced with CPU hot[un]plug.  Give it a breather
+		 * and retry migration.  cond_resched() is required here;
+		 * otherwise, we might deadlock against cpu_stop trying to
+		 * bring down the CPU on non-preemptive kernel.
+		 */
+		cond_resched();