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.\"
.\" ipvsadm(8) manual page
.\"
.\" $Id$
.\"
.\" Authors: Mike Wangsmo <wanger@redhat.com>
.\" Wensong Zhang <wensong@linux-vs.org>
.\"
.\" Changes:
.\" Horms : Updated to reflect recent change of ipvsadm
.\" : Style guidance taken from ipchains(8)
.\" where appropriate.
.\" Wensong Zhang : Added a short note about the defense strategies
.\" Horms : Tidy up some of the description and the
.\" grammar in the -f and sysctl sections
.\" Wensong Zhang : --set option description taken from ipchains(8)
.\"
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.TH IPVSADM 8 "5th July 2003" "LVS Administration" "Linux Administrator's Guide"
.UC 4
.SH NAME
ipvsadm \- Linux Virtual Server administration
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B ipvsadm -A|E \fIvirtual-service\fP [-s \fIscheduler\fP]
.ti 15
.B [-p [\fItimeout\fP]] [-M \fInetmask\fP] [-b \fIsched-flags\fP]
.br
.B ipvsadm -D \fIvirtual-service\fP
.br
.B ipvsadm -C
.br
.B ipvsadm -R
.br
.B ipvsadm -S [-n]
.br
.B ipvsadm -a|e \fIvirtual-service\fP -r \fIserver-address\fP
.ti 15
.B [-g|i|m] [-w \fIweight\fP] [-x \fIupper\fP] [-y \fIlower\fP]
.br
.B ipvsadm -d \fIvirtual-service\fP -r \fIserver-address\fP
.br
.B ipvsadm -L|l [\fIvirtual-service\fP] [options]
.br
.B ipvsadm -Z [\fIvirtual-service\fP]
.br
.B ipvsadm --set \fItcp\fP \fItcpfin\fP \fIudp\fP
.br
.B ipvsadm --start-daemon \fIstate\fP [daemon-options]
.ti 15
.B [--syncid \fIsyncid\fP]
.br
.B ipvsadm --stop-daemon \fIstate\fP
.br
.B ipvsadm -h
.SH DESCRIPTION
\fBIpvsadm\fR(8) is used to set up, maintain or inspect the virtual
server table in the Linux kernel. The Linux Virtual Server can be used
to build scalable network services based on a cluster of two or more
nodes. The active node of the cluster redirects service requests to a
collection of server hosts that will actually perform the
services. Supported features include three protocols (TCP, UDP and SCTP),
three packet-forwarding methods (NAT, tunneling, and direct routing),
and eight load balancing algorithms (round robin, weighted round
robin, least-connection, weighted least-connection, locality-based
least-connection, locality-based least-connection with replication,
destination-hashing, and source-hashing).
.PP
The command has two basic formats for execution:
.TP
.B ipvsadm \fICOMMAND\fP \fIvirtual-service\fP
.ti 15
.B [\fIscheduling-method\fP] [\fIpersistence options\fP]
.TP
.B ipvsadm \fIcommand\fP \fIvirtual-service\fP
.ti 15
.B \fIserver-address\fP [\fIpacket-forwarding-method\fP]
.ti 15
.B [\fIweight options\fP]
.PP
The first format manipulates a virtual service and the algorithm for
assigning service requests to real servers. Optionally, a persistent
timeout and network mask for the granularity of a persistent service
may be specified. The second format manipulates a real server that is
associated with an existing virtual service. When specifying a real
server, the packet-forwarding method and the weight of the real
server, relative to other real servers for the virtual service, may be
specified, otherwise defaults will be used.
.SS COMMANDS
\fBipvsadm\fR(8) recognises the commands described below. Upper-case
commands maintain virtual services. Lower-case commands maintain real
servers that are associated with a virtual service.
.TP
.B -A, --add-service
Add a virtual service. A service address is uniquely defined by a
triplet: IP address, port number, and protocol. Alternatively, a
virtual service may be defined by a firewall-mark.
.TP
.B -E, --edit-service
Edit a virtual service.
.TP
.B -D, --delete-service
Delete a virtual service, along with any associated real servers.
.TP
.B -C, --clear
Clear the virtual server table.
.TP
.B -R, --restore
Restore Linux Virtual Server rules from stdin. Each line read from
stdin will be treated as the command line options to a separate
invocation of \fIipvsadm\fP. Lines read from stdin can optionally
begin with "ipvsadm". This option is useful to avoid executing a
large number or \fIipvsadm\fP commands when constructing an extensive
routing table.
.TP
.B -S, --save
Dump the Linux Virtual Server rules to stdout in a format that can be
read by -R|--restore.
.TP
.B -a, --add-server
Add a real server to a virtual service.
.TP
.B -e, --edit-server
Edit a real server in a virtual service.
.TP
.B -d, --delete-server
Remove a real server from a virtual service.
.TP
.B -L, -l, --list
List the virtual server table if no argument is specified. If a
\fIservice-address\fP is selected, list this service only. If the
\fI-c\fP option is selected, then display the connection table. The
exact output is affected by the other arguments given.
.TP
.B -Z, --zero
Zero the packet, byte and rate counters in a service or all services.
.TP
.B --set \fItcp\fP \fItcpfin\fP \fIudp\fP
Change the timeout values used for IPVS connections. This command
always takes 3 parameters, representing the timeout values (in
seconds) for TCP sessions, TCP sessions after receiving a FIN
packet, and UDP packets, respectively. A timeout value 0 means that
the current timeout value of the corresponding entry is preserved.
.TP
.B --start-daemon \fIstate\fP
Start the connection synchronization daemon. The \fIstate\fP is to
indicate that the daemon is started as \fImaster\fP or \fIbackup\fP. The
connection synchronization daemon is implemented inside the Linux
kernel. The master daemon running at the primary load balancer
multicasts changes of connections periodically, and the backup daemon
running at the backup load balancers receives multicast message and
creates corresponding connections. Then, in case the primary load
balancer fails, a backup load balancer will takeover, and it has state
of almost all connections, so that almost all established connections
can continue to access the service.
.PP
The sync daemon supports IPv4 and IPv6 connections.
.TP
.B --stop-daemon
Stop the connection synchronization daemon.
.TP
\fB-h, --help\fR
Display a description of the command syntax.
.SS virtual-service
Specifies the virtual service based on protocol/addr/port or firewall mark.
.TP
.B -t, --tcp-service \fIservice-address\fP
Use TCP service. The \fIservice-address\fP is of the form
\fIhost[:port]\fP. \fIHost\fP may be one of a plain IP address or a
hostname. \fIPort\fP may be either a plain port number or the service
name of port. The \fIPort\fP may be omitted, in which case zero will
be used. A \fIPort\fP of zero is only valid if the service is
persistent as the -p|--persistent option, in which case it is a
wild-card port, that is connections will be accepted to any port.
.TP
.B -u, --udp-service \fIservice-address\fP
Use UDP service. See the -t|--tcp-service for the description of the
\fIservice-address\fP.
.TP
.B --sctp-service \fIservice-address\fP
Use SCTP service. See the -t|--tcp-service for the description of the
\fIservice-address\fP.
.TP
.B -f, --fwmark-service \fIinteger\fP
Use a firewall-mark, an integer value greater than zero, to denote a
virtual service instead of an address, port and protocol (UDP or
TCP). The marking of packets with a firewall-mark is configured using
the -m|--mark option to \fBiptables\fR(8). It can be used to build a
virtual service associated with the same real servers, covering
multiple IP address, port and protocol triplets. If IPv6 addresses
are used, the -6 option must be used.
.sp
Using firewall-mark virtual services provides a convenient method of
grouping together different IP addresses, ports and protocols into a
single virtual service. This is useful for both simplifying
configuration if a large number of virtual services are required and
grouping persistence across what would otherwise be multiple virtual
services.
.SS PARAMETERS
The commands above accept or require zero or more of the following
parameters.
.TP
.B -s, --scheduler \fIscheduling-method\fP
\fIscheduling-method\fP Algorithm for allocating TCP connections and
UDP datagrams to real servers. Scheduling algorithms are implemented
as kernel modules. Ten are shipped with the Linux Virtual Server:
.sp
\fBrr\fR - Round Robin: distributes jobs equally amongst the available
real servers.
.sp
\fBwrr\fR - Weighted Round Robin: assigns jobs to real servers
proportionally to there real servers' weight. Servers with higher
weights receive new jobs first and get more jobs than servers with
lower weights. Servers with equal weights get an equal distribution of
new jobs.
.sp
\fBlc\fR - Least-Connection: assigns more jobs to real servers with
fewer active jobs.
.sp
\fBwlc\fR - Weighted Least-Connection: assigns more jobs to servers
with fewer jobs and relative to the real servers' weight (Ci/Wi). This
is the default.
.sp
\fBlblc\fR - Locality-Based Least-Connection: assigns jobs destined
for the same IP address to the same server if the server is not
overloaded and available; otherwise assign jobs to servers with fewer
jobs, and keep it for future assignment.
.sp
\fBlblcr\fR - Locality-Based Least-Connection with Replication:
assigns jobs destined for the same IP address to the least-connection
node in the server set for the IP address. If all the node in the
server set are over loaded, it picks up a node with fewer jobs in the
cluster and adds it in the sever set for the target. If the server set
has not been modified for the specified time, the most loaded node is
removed from the server set, in order to avoid high degree of
replication.
.sp
\fBdh\fR - Destination Hashing: assigns jobs to servers through
looking up a statically assigned hash table by their destination IP
addresses.
.sp
\fBsh\fR - Source Hashing: assigns jobs to servers through looking up
a statically assigned hash table by their source IP addresses.
This scheduler has two flags: sh-fallback, which enables fallback to a
different server if the selected server was unavailable, and sh-port,
which adds the source port number to the hash computation.
.sp
\fBsed\fR - Shortest Expected Delay: assigns an incoming job to the
server with the shortest expected delay. The expected delay that the
job will experience is (Ci + 1) / Ui if sent to the ith server, in
which Ci is the number of jobs on the the ith server and Ui is the
fixed service rate (weight) of the ith server.
.sp
\fBnq\fR - Never Queue: assigns an incoming job to an idle server if
there is, instead of waiting for a fast one; if all the servers are
busy, it adopts the Shortest Expected Delay policy to assign the job.
.sp
\fBfo\fR - Weighted Failover: assigns an incoming job to the server
with the highest weight that is currently available.
.sp
\fBovf\fR - Weighted Overflow: assigns an incoming job to the server
with the highest weight that is currently available and overflows
to the next when active connections exceed the node's weight. Note
that this scheduler might not be suitable for UDP because it only uses
active connections.
.sp
\fBmh\fR - Maglev Hashing: assigns incoming jobs based on Google's
Maglev hashing algorithm, providing an almost equal share of jobs to
each real server and provides minimal disruption. When the set of real
servers changes, a connection will likely be sent to the same real
server as it was before.
This scheduler has two flags: mh-fallback, which enables fallback to a
different server if the selected server was unavailable, and mh-port,
which adds the source port number to the hash computation.
.TP
.B -p, --persistent [\fItimeout\fP]
Specify that a virtual service is persistent. If this option is
specified, multiple requests from a client are redirected to the same
real server selected for the first request. Optionally, the
\fItimeout\fP of persistent sessions may be specified given in
seconds, otherwise the default of 300 seconds will be used. This
option may be used in conjunction with protocols such as SSL or FTP
where it is important that clients consistently connect with the same
real server.
.sp
\fBNote:\fR If a virtual service is to handle FTP connections then
persistence must be set for the virtual service if Direct Routing or
Tunnelling is used as the forwarding mechanism. If Masquerading is
used in conjunction with an FTP service than persistence is not
necessary, but the ip_vs_ftp kernel module must be used. This module
may be manually inserted into the kernel using insmod(8).
.TP
.B -M, --netmask \fInetmask\fP
Specify the granularity with which clients are grouped for persistent
virtual services. The source address of the request is masked with
this netmask to direct all clients from a network to the same real
server. The default is \fI255.255.255.255\fP, that is, the persistence
granularity is per client host. Less specific netmasks may be used to
resolve problems with non-persistent cache clusters on the client side.
IPv6 netmasks should be specified as a prefix length between 1 and 128.
The default prefix length is 128.
.TP
.B -b, --sched-flags \fIsched-flags\fP
Set scheduler flags for this virtual server. \fIsched-flags\fP is a
comma-separated list of flags. See the scheduler descriptions for
valid scheduler flags.
.TP
.B -r, --real-server \fIserver-address\fP
Real server that an associated request for service may be assigned to.
The \fIserver-address\fP is the \fIhost\fP address of a real server,
and may plus \fIport\fP. \fIHost\fP can be either a plain IP address
or a hostname. \fIPort\fP can be either a plain port number or the
service name of port. In the case of the masquerading method, the
host address is usually an RFC 1918 private IP address, and the port
can be different from that of the associated service. With the
tunneling and direct routing methods, \fIport\fP must be equal to that
of the service address. For normal services, the port specified in
the service address will be used if \fIport\fP is not specified. For
fwmark services, \fIport\fP may be omitted, in which case the
destination port on the real server will be the destination port of
the request sent to the virtual service.
.TP
.B [packet-forwarding-method]
.sp
\fB-g, --gatewaying\fR Use gatewaying (direct routing). This is the default.
.sp
\fB-i, --ipip\fR Use ipip encapsulation (tunneling).
.sp
\fB-m, --masquerading\fR Use masquerading (network access translation, or NAT).
.sp
\fBNote:\fR Regardless of the packet-forwarding mechanism specified,
real servers for addresses for which there are interfaces on the local
node will be use the local forwarding method, then packets for the
servers will be passed to upper layer on the local node. This cannot
be specified by \fIipvsadm\fP, rather it set by the kernel as real
servers are added or modified.
.TP
.B -w, --weight \fIweight\fP
\fIWeight\fP is an integer specifying the capacity of a server
relative to the others in the pool. The valid values of \fIweight\fP
are 0 through to 65535. The default is 1. Quiescent servers are
specified with a weight of zero. A quiescent server will receive no
new jobs but still serve the existing jobs, for all scheduling
algorithms distributed with the Linux Virtual Server. Setting a
quiescent server may be useful if the server is overloaded or needs to
be taken out of service for maintenance.
.TP
.B -x, --u-threshold \fIuthreshold\fP
\fIuthreshold\fP is an integer specifying the upper connection
threshold of a server. The valid values of \fIuthreshold\fP are 0
through to 65535. The default is 0, which means the upper connection
threshold is not set. If \fIuthreshold\fP is set with other values, no
new connections will be sent to the server when the number of its
connections exceeds its upper connection threshold.
.TP
.B -y, --l-threshold \fIlthreshold\fP
\fIlthreshold\fP is an integer specifying the lower connection
threshold of a server. The valid values of \fIlthreshold\fP are 0
through to 65535. The default is 0, which means the lower connection
threshold is not set. If \fIlthreshold\fP is set with other values,
the server will receive new connections when the number of its
connections drops below its lower connection threshold. If
\fIlthreshold\fP is not set but \fIuthreshold\fP is set, the server
will receive new connections when the number of its connections drops
below three forth of its upper connection threshold.
.TP
.B -c, --connection
Connection output. The \fIlist\fP command with this option will list
current IPVS connections.
.TP
.B --timeout
Timeout output. The \fIlist\fP command with this option will display
the timeout values (in seconds) for TCP sessions, TCP sessions after
receiving a FIN packet, and UDP packets.
.TP
.B --daemon
Daemon information output. The \fIlist\fP command with this option
will display the daemon status and its multicast interface.
.TP
.B --stats
Output of statistics information. The \fIlist\fP command with this
option will display the statistics information of services and their
servers.
.TP
.B --rate
Output of rate information. The \fIlist\fP command with this option
will display the rate information (such as connections/second,
bytes/second and packets/second) of services and their servers.
.TP
.B --thresholds
Output of thresholds information. The \fIlist\fP command with this
option will display the upper/lower connection threshold information
of each server in service listing.
.TP
.B --persistent-conn
Output of persistent connection information. The \fIlist\fP command
with this option will display the persistent connection counter
information of each server in service listing. The persistent
connection is used to forward the actual connections from the same
client/network to the same server.
.sp
The \fIlist\fP command with the -c, --connection option and this option
will include persistence engine data, if any is present, when listing
connections.
.TP
.B --sort
Sort the list of virtual services and real servers. The virtual
service entries are sorted in ascending order by <protocol, address,
port>. The real server entries are sorted in ascending order by
<address, port>. (default)
.TP
.B --nosort
Do not sort the list of virtual services and real servers.
.TP
.B -n, --numeric
Numeric output. IP addresses and port numbers will be printed in
numeric format rather than as as host names and services respectively,
which is the default.
.TP
.B --exact
Expand numbers. Display the exact value of the packet and byte
counters, instead of only the rounded number in K's (multiples of
1000) M's (multiples of 1000K) or G's (multiples of 1000M). This
option is only relevant for the -L command.
.TP
.B -6, --ipv6
Use with -f to signify fwmark rule uses IPv6 addresses.
.TP
.B -o, --ops
One-packet scheduling.
Used in conjunction with a UDP virtual service or
a fwmark virtual service that handles only UDP packets.
All connections are created such that they only schedule one packet.
.SS PARAMETERS FOR SYNCHRONIZATION DAEMON
The --start-daemon requires zero or more of the following
parameters.
.TP
.B --syncid \fIsyncid\fP
Specify the \fIsyncid\fP that the sync master daemon fills in the
SyncID header while sending multicast messages, or the sync backup
daemon uses to filter out multicast messages not matched with the
SyncID value. The valid values of \fIsyncid\fP are 0 through to
255. The default is 0, which means no filtering at all.
.TP
.B --sync-maxlen \fIlength\fP
Specify the desired length of sync messages (UDP payload size).
It is expected that backup server will use value not less than
the used value in master server.
The valid values of \fIlength\fP are in the 1 .. (65535 - 20 - 8)
range but the kernel ensures a space for at least one sync message.
If value is lower than MTU the sync messages will be fragmented by
IP layer.
The default value is derived from the MTU value when daemon is started
but master daemon will not default to value above 1500 for compatibility
reasons.
.TP
.B --mcast-interface \fIinterface\fP
Specify the multicast interface that the sync master daemon sends
outgoing multicasts through, or the sync backup daemon listens to for
multicasts.
.TP
.B --mcast-group \fIaddress\fP
Specify IPv4 or IPv6 multicast address for the sync messages.
The default value is 224.0.0.81.
.TP
.B --mcast-port \fIport\fP
Specify the UDP port for sync messages.
The default value is 8848.
.TP
.B --mcast-ttl \fIttl\fP
Specify the TTL value for sync messages (1 .. 255).
The default value is 1.
.SH EXAMPLE 1 - Simple Virtual Service
The following commands configure a Linux Director to distribute
incoming requests addressed to port 80 on 207.175.44.110 equally to
port 80 on five real servers. The forwarding method used in this
example is NAT, with each of the real servers being masqueraded by the
Linux Director.
.PP
.nf
ipvsadm -A -t 207.175.44.110:80 -s rr
ipvsadm -a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.1:80 -m
ipvsadm -a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.2:80 -m
ipvsadm -a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.3:80 -m
ipvsadm -a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.4:80 -m
ipvsadm -a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.5:80 -m
.fi
.PP
Alternatively, this could be achieved in a single ipvsadm command.
.PP
.nf
echo "
-A -t 207.175.44.110:80 -s rr
-a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.1:80 -m
-a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.2:80 -m
-a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.3:80 -m
-a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.4:80 -m
-a -t 207.175.44.110:80 -r 192.168.10.5:80 -m
" | ipvsadm -R
.fi
.PP
As masquerading is used as the forwarding mechanism in this example,
the default route of the real servers must be set to the linux
director, which will need to be configured to forward and masquerade
packets. This can be achieved using the following commands:
.PP
.nf
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
.fi
.SH EXAMPLE 2 - Firewall-Mark Virtual Service
The following commands configure a Linux Director to distribute
incoming requests addressed to any port on 207.175.44.110 or
207.175.44.111 equally to the corresponding port on five real
servers. As per the previous example, the forwarding method used in
this example is NAT, with each of the real servers being masqueraded
by the Linux Director.
.PP
.nf
ipvsadm -A -f 1 -s rr
ipvsadm -a -f 1 -r 192.168.10.1:0 -m
ipvsadm -a -f 1 -r 192.168.10.2:0 -m
ipvsadm -a -f 1 -r 192.168.10.3:0 -m
ipvsadm -a -f 1 -r 192.168.10.4:0 -m
ipvsadm -a -f 1 -r 192.168.10.5:0 -m
.fi
.PP
As masquerading is used as the forwarding mechanism in this example,
the default route of the real servers must be set to the linux
director, which will need to be configured to forward and masquerade
packets. The real server should also be configured to mark incoming
packets addressed to any port on 207.175.44.110 and 207.175.44.111
with firewall-mark 1. If FTP traffic is to be handled by this virtual
service, then the ip_vs_ftp kernel module needs to be inserted into
the kernel. These operations can be achieved using the following
commands:
.PP
.nf
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
modprobe ip_tables
iptables -A PREROUTING -t mangle -d 207.175.44.110/31 -j MARK --set-mark 1
modprobe ip_vs_ftp
.fi
.SH IPv6
IPv6 addresses should be surrounded by square brackets ([ and ]).
.PP
.nf
ipvsadm -A -t [2001:db8::80]:80 -s rr
ipvsadm -a -t [2001:db8::80]:80 -r [2001:db8::a0a0]:80 -m
.fi
.PP
fwmark IPv6 services require the -6 option.
.SH NOTES
The Linux Virtual Server implements three defense strategies against
some types of denial of service (DoS) attacks. The Linux Director
creates an entry for each connection in order to keep its state, and
each entry occupies 128 bytes effective memory. LVS's vulnerability to
a DoS attack lies in the potential to increase the number entries as
much as possible until the linux director runs out of memory. The
three defense strategies against the attack are: Randomly drop some
entries in the table. Drop 1/rate packets before forwarding them. And
use secure tcp state transition table and short timeouts. The
strategies are controlled by sysctl variables and corresponding
entries in the /proc filesystem:
.sp
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/drop_entry
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/drop_packet
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/secure_tcp
.PP
Valid values for each variable are 0 through to 3. The default value
is 0, which disables the respective defense strategy. 1 and 2 are
automatic modes - when there is no enough available memory, the
respective strategy will be enabled and the variable is automatically
set to 2, otherwise the strategy is disabled and the variable is set
to 1. A value of 3 denotes that the respective strategy is always
enabled. The available memory threshold and secure TCP timeouts can
be tuned using the sysctl variables and corresponding entries in the
/proc filesystem:
.sp
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/amemthresh
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_*
.SH FILES
.I /proc/net/ip_vs
.br
.I /proc/net/ip_vs_app
.br
.I /proc/net/ip_vs_conn
.br
.I /proc/net/ip_vs_stats
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/am_droprate
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/amemthresh
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/drop_entry
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/drop_packet
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/secure_tcp
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_close
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_closewait
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_established
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_finwait
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_icmp
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_lastack
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_listen
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_synack
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_synrecv
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_synsent
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_timewait
.br
.I /proc/sys/net/ipv4/vs/timeout_udp
.SH SEE ALSO
The LVS web site (http://www.linuxvirtualserver.org/) for more
documentation about LVS.
.PP
\fBipvsadm-save\fP(8), \fBipvsadm-restore\fP(8), \fBiptables\fP(8),
.br
\fBinsmod\fP(8), \fBmodprobe\fP(8)
.SH AUTHORS
.nf
ipvsadm - Wensong Zhang <wensong@linuxvirtualserver.org>
Peter Kese <peter.kese@ijs.si>
man page - Mike Wangsmo <wanger@redhat.com>
Wensong Zhang <wensong@linuxvirtualserver.org>
Horms <horms@verge.net.au>
.fi