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Copyright (C) 1998-2004 Miquel van Smoorenburg.
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= last(1)
:doctype: manpage
:man manual: User Commands
:man source: util-linux {release-version}
:page-layout: base
:command: last
== NAME
last, lastb - show a listing of last logged in users
== SYNOPSIS
*last* [options] [_username_...] [_tty_...]
*lastb* [options] [_username_...] [_tty_...]
== DESCRIPTION
*last* searches back through the _/var/log/wtmp_ file (or the file designated by the *-f* option) and displays a list of all users logged in (and out) since that file was created. One or more _usernames_ and/or _ttys_ can be given, in which case *last* will show only the entries matching those arguments. Names of _ttys_ can be abbreviated, thus *last 0* is the same as *last tty0*.
When catching a *SIGINT* signal (generated by the interrupt key, usually control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal, *last* will show how far it has searched through the file; in the case of the *SIGINT* signal *last* will then terminate.
The pseudo user *reboot* logs in each time the system is rebooted. Thus *last reboot* will show a log of all the reboots since the log file was created.
*lastb* is the same as *last*, except that by default it shows a log of the _/var/log/btmp_ file, which contains all the bad login attempts.
== OPTIONS
*-a*, *--hostlast*::
Display the hostname in the last column. Useful in combination with the *--dns* option.
*-d*, *--dns*::
For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the remote host, but its IP number as well. This option translates the IP number back into a hostname.
*-f*, *--file* _file_::
Tell *last* to use a specific _file_ instead of _/var/log/wtmp_. The *--file* option can be given multiple times, and all of the specified files will be processed.
*-F*, *--fulltimes*::
Print full login and logout times and dates.
*-i*, *--ip*::
Like *--dns ,* but displays the host's IP number instead of the name.
**-**__number__; *-n*, *--limit* _number_::
Tell *last* how many lines to show.
*-p*, *--present* _time_::
Display the users who were present at the specified time. This is like using the options *--since* and *--until* together with the same _time_.
*-R*, *--nohostname*::
Suppresses the display of the hostname field.
*-s*, *--since* _time_::
Display the state of logins since the specified _time_. This is useful, e.g., to easily determine who was logged in at a particular time. The option is often combined with *--until*.
*-t*, *--until* _time_::
Display the state of logins until the specified _time_.
*--time-format* _format_::
Define the output timestamp _format_ to be one of _notime_, _short_, _full_, or _iso_. The _notime_ variant will not print any timestamps at all, _short_ is the default, and _full_ is the same as the *--fulltimes* option. The _iso_ variant will display the timestamp in ISO-8601 format. The ISO format contains timezone information, making it preferable when printouts are investigated outside of the system.
*-w*, *--fullnames*::
Display full user names and domain names in the output.
*-x*, *--system*::
Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.
== TIME FORMATS
The options that take the _time_ argument understand the following formats:
[cols=",",]
|===
|YYYYMMDDhhmmss |
|YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss |
|YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm |(seconds will be set to 00)
|YYYY-MM-DD |(time will be set to 00:00:00)
|hh:mm:ss |(date will be set to today)
|hh:mm |(date will be set to today, seconds to 00)
|now |
|yesterday |(time is set to 00:00:00)
|today |(time is set to 00:00:00)
|tomorrow |(time is set to 00:00:00)
|+5min |
|-5days |
|===
== FILES
_/var/log/wtmp_,
_/var/log/btmp_
== NOTES
The files _wtmp_ and _btmp_ might not be found. The system only logs information in these files if they are present. This is a local configuration issue. If you want the files to be used, they can be created with a simple *touch*(1) command (for example, *touch /var/log/wtmp*).
== AUTHORS
mailto:miquels@cistron.nl[Miquel van Smoorenburg]
== SEE ALSO
*login*(1),
*wtmp*(5),
*init*(8),
*shutdown*(8)
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