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.TH GETOPT 1 "May 31, 1997" Linux ""
.SH NAME
getopt \- parse command options (enhanced)
.SH SYNOPSIS
.BR getopt " optstring parameters"
.BR getopt " [options] [" \-\- "] optstring parameters"
.BR getopt " [options] " \-o | \-\-options " optstring [options] [" \-\- "] parameters"
.SH DESCRIPTION
.B getopt
is used to break up
.RI ( parse )
options in command lines for easy parsing by
shell procedures, and to check for legal options.
It uses the
.SM GNU
.BR getopt (3)
routines to do this.
The parameters
.B getopt
is called with can be divided into two parts: options
which modify the way getopt will parse
.RI ( options
and
.I \-o|\-\-options optstring
in the
.BR SYNOPSIS),
and the parameters which are to be
parsed
.RI ( parameters
in the
.BR SYNOPSIS).
The second part will start at the first non\-option parameter
that is not an option argument, or after the first occurrence of
.RB ` \-\- '.
If no
.RB ` \-o '
or
.RB ` \-\-options '
option is found in the first part, the first
parameter of the second part is used as the short options string.
If the environment variable
.B GETOPT_COMPATIBLE
is set, or if its first parameter
is not an option (does not start with a
.RB ` \- ',
this is the first format in the
.BR SYNOPSIS),
.B getopt
will generate output that is compatible with that of other versions of
.BR getopt (1).
It will still do parameter shuffling and recognize optional
arguments (see section
.B COMPATIBILITY
for more information).
Traditional implementations of
.BR getopt (1)
are unable to cope with whitespace and other (shell\-specific) special characters
in arguments and non\-option parameters. To solve this problem, this
implementation can generate
quoted output which must once again be interpreted by the shell (usually
by using the
.B eval
command). This has the effect of preserving those characters, but
you must call
.B getopt
in a way that is no longer compatible with other versions (the second
or third format in the
.BR SYNOPSIS).
To determine whether this enhanced version of
.BR getopt (1)
is installed, a special test option
.RB ( \-T )
can be used.
.SH OPTIONS
.IP "\-a, \-\-alternative"
Allow long options to start with a single
.RB ` \- '.
.IP "\-h, \-\-help"
Output a small usage guide and exit successfully. No other output is generated.
.IP "\-l, \-\-longoptions longopts"
The long (multi\-character) options to be recognized.
More than one option name
may be specified at once, by separating the names with commas. This option
may be given more than once, the
.I longopts
are cumulative.
Each long option name
in
.I longopts
may be followed by one colon to indicate it has a required argument, and by two colons to indicate it has an optional argument.
.IP "\-n, \-\-name progname"
The name that will be used by the
.BR getopt (3)
routines when it reports errors. Note that errors of
.BR getopt (1)
are still reported as coming from getopt.
.IP "\-o, \-\-options shortopts"
The short (one\-character) options to be recognized. If this option is not
found, the first parameter of
.B getopt
that does not start with
a
.RB ` \- '
(and is not an option argument) is used as the short options string.
Each short option character
in
.I shortopts
may be followed by one colon to indicate it has a required argument,
and by two colons to indicate it has an optional argument.
The first character of shortopts may be
.RB ` + '
or
.RB ` \- '
to influence the way
options are parsed and output is generated (see section
.B SCANNING MODES
for details).
.IP "\-q, \-\-quiet"
Disable error reporting by getopt(3).
.IP "\-Q, \-\-quiet\-output"
Do not generate normal output. Errors are still reported by
.BR getopt (3),
unless you also use
.IR \-q .
.IP "\-s, \-\-shell shell"
Set quoting conventions to those of shell. If no \-s argument is found,
the
.SM BASH
conventions are used. Valid arguments are currently
.RB ` sh '
.RB ` bash ',
.RB ` csh ',
and
.RB ` tcsh '.
.IP "\-u, \-\-unquoted"
Do not quote the output. Note that whitespace and special (shell\-dependent)
characters can cause havoc in this mode (like they do with other
.BR getopt (1)
implementations).
.IP "\-T \-\-test"
Test if your
.BR getopt (1)
is this enhanced version or an old version. This generates no output,
and sets the error status to 4. Other implementations of
.BR getopt (1),
and this version if the environment variable
.B GETOPT_COMPATIBLE
is set,
will return
.RB ` \-\- '
and error status 0.
.IP "\-V, \-\-version"
Output version information and exit successfully. No other output is generated.
.SH PARSING
This section specifies the format of the second part of the parameters of
.B getopt
(the
.I parameters
in the
.BR SYNOPSIS ).
The next section
.RB ( OUTPUT )
describes the output that is
generated. These parameters were typically the parameters a shell function
was called with.
Care must be taken that each parameter the shell function was
called with corresponds to exactly one parameter in the parameter list of
.B getopt
(see the
.BR EXAMPLES ).
All parsing is done by the GNU
.BR getopt (3)
routines.
The parameters are parsed from left to right. Each parameter is classified as a
short option, a long option, an argument to an option,
or a non\-option parameter.
A simple short option is a
.RB ` \- '
followed by a short option character. If
the option has a required argument, it may be written directly after the option
character or as the next parameter (ie. separated by whitespace on the
command line). If the
option has an optional argument, it must be written directly after the
option character if present.
It is possible to specify several short options after one
.RB ` \- ',
as long as all (except possibly the last) do not have required or optional
arguments.
A long option normally begins with
.RB ` \-\- '
followed by the long option name.
If the option has a required argument, it may be written directly after
the long option name, separated by
.RB ` = ',
or as the next argument (ie. separated by whitespace on the command line).
If the option has an optional argument, it must
be written directly after the long option name, separated by
.RB ` = ',
if present (if you add the
.RB ` = '
but nothing behind it, it is interpreted
as if no argument was present; this is a slight bug, see the
.BR BUGS ).
Long options may be abbreviated, as long as the abbreviation is not
ambiguous.
Each parameter not starting with a
.RB ` \- ',
and not a required argument of
a previous option, is a non\-option parameter. Each parameter after
a
.RB ` \-\- '
parameter is always interpreted as a non\-option parameter.
If the environment variable
.B POSIXLY_CORRECT
is set, or if the short
option string started with a
.RB ` + ',
all remaining parameters are interpreted
as non\-option parameters as soon as the first non\-option parameter is
found.
.SH OUTPUT
Output is generated for each element described in the previous section.
Output is done
in the same order as the elements are specified in the input, except
for non\-option parameters. Output can be done in
.I compatible
.RI ( unquoted )
mode, or in such way that whitespace and other special characters within
arguments and non\-option parameters are preserved (see
.BR QUOTING ).
When the output is processed in the shell script, it will seem to be
composed of distinct elements that can be processed one by one (by using the
shift command in most shell languages). This is imperfect in unquoted mode,
as elements can be split at unexpected places if they contain whitespace
or special characters.
If there are problems parsing the parameters, for example because a
required argument is not found or an option is not recognized, an error
will be reported on stderr, there will be no output for the offending
element, and a non\-zero error status is returned.
For a short option, a single
.RB ` \- '
and the option character are generated
as one parameter. If the option has an argument, the next
parameter will be the argument. If the option takes an optional argument,
but none was found, the next parameter will be generated but be empty in
quoting mode,
but no second parameter will be generated in unquoted (compatible) mode.
Note that many other
.BR getopt (1)
implementations do not support optional arguments.
If several short options were specified after a single
.RB ` \- ',
each will be present in the output as a separate parameter.
For a long option,
.RB ` \-\- '
and the full option name are generated as one
parameter. This is done regardless whether the option was abbreviated or
specified with a single
.RB ` \- '
in the input. Arguments are handled as with short options.
Normally, no non\-option parameters output is generated until all options
and their arguments have been generated. Then
.RB ` \-\- '
is generated as a
single parameter, and after it the non\-option parameters in the order
they were found, each as a separate parameter.
Only if the first character of the short options string was a
.RB ` \- ',
non\-option parameter output is generated at the place they are found in the
input (this is not supported if the first format of the
.B SYNOPSIS
is used; in that case all preceding occurrences of
.RB ` \- '
and
.RB ` + '
are ignored).
.SH QUOTING
In compatible mode, whitespace or 'special' characters in arguments or
non\-option parameters are not handled correctly. As the output is
fed to the shell script, the script does not know how it is supposed to break
the output into separate parameters. To circumvent this
problem, this implementation offers quoting. The idea is that output
is generated with quotes around each parameter. When this output is once
again fed to the shell (usually by a shell
.B eval
command), it is split correctly into separate parameters.
Quoting is not enabled if the environment variable
.B GETOPT_COMPATIBLE
is set, if the first form of the
.B SYNOPSIS
is used, or if the option
.RB ` \-u '
is found.
Different shells use different quoting conventions. You can use the
.RB ` \-s '
option to select the shell you are using. The following shells are
currently supported:
.RB ` sh ',
.RB ` bash ',
.RB ` csh '
and
.RB ` tcsh '.
Actually, only two `flavors' are distinguished: sh\-like quoting conventions
and csh\-like quoting conventions. Chances are that if you use another shell
script language, one of these flavors can still be used.
.SH "SCANNING MODES"
The first character of the short options string may be a
.RB ` \- '
or a
.RB ` + '
to indicate a special scanning mode. If the first calling form
in the
.B SYNOPSIS
is used they are ignored; the environment variable
.B POSIXLY_CORRECT
is still examined, though.
If the first character is
.RB ` + ',
or if the environment variable
.B POSIXLY_CORRECT
is set, parsing stops as soon as the first non\-option parameter
(ie. a parameter that does not start with a
.RB ` \- ')
is found that
is not an option argument. The remaining parameters are all interpreted as
non\-option parameters.
If the first character is a
.RB ` \- ',
non\-option parameters are outputted at the place where they are found; in normal
operation, they are all collected at the end of output after a
.RB ` \-\- '
parameter has been generated. Note that this
.RB ` \-\- '
parameter is still generated, but it will always be the last parameter in
this mode.
.SH COMPATIBILITY
This version of
.BR getopt (1)
is written to be as compatible as possible to
other versions. Usually you can just replace them with this version
without any modifications, and with some advantages.
If the first character of the first parameter of getopt is not a
.RB ` \- ',
getopt goes into compatibility mode. It will interpret its first parameter as
the string of short options, and all other arguments will be parsed. It
will still do parameter shuffling (ie. all non\-option parameters are outputted
at the end), unless the environment variable
.B POSIXLY_CORRECT
is set.
The environment variable
.B GETOPT_COMPATIBLE
forces
.B getopt
into compatibility mode. Setting both this environment variable and
.B POSIXLY_CORRECT
offers 100% compatibility for `difficult' programs. Usually, though,
neither is needed.
In compatibility mode, leading
.RB ` \- '
and
.RB ` + '
characters in the short options string are ignored.
.SH RETURN CODES
.B getopt
returns error code
.B 0
for successful parsing,
.B 1
if
.BR getopt (3)
returns errors,
.B 2
if it does not understand its own parameters,
.B 3
if an internal error occurs like out\-of\-memory, and
.B 4
if it is called with
.BR \-T .
.SH EXAMPLES
Example scripts for (ba)sh and (t)csh are provided with the
.BR getopt (1)
distribution, and are optionally installed in
.B /usr/share/getopt .
.SH ENVIRONMENT
.IP POSIXLY_CORRECT
This environment variable is examined by the
.BR getopt (3)
routines.
If it is set, parsing stops as soon as a parameter
is found that is not an option or an option argument. All remaining
parameters are also interpreted as non\-option parameters, regardless
whether they start with a
.RB ` \- '.
.IP GETOPT_COMPATIBLE
Forces
.B getopt
to use the first calling format as specified in the
.BR SYNOPSIS .
.SH BUGS
.BR getopt (3)
can parse long options with optional arguments that are given an empty optional
argument (but can not do this for short options). This
.BR getopt (1)
treats optional arguments that are empty as if they were not present.
The syntax if you do not want any short option variables at all is
not very intuitive (you have to set them explicitly to the empty
string).
.SH AUTHOR
Frodo Looijaard <frodo@frodo.looijaard.name>
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.BR getopt (3),
.BR bash (1),
.BR tcsh (1).
.SH AVAILABILITY
The getopt command is part of the util-linux-ng package and is available from
ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux-ng/.